The Canada Pension Plan enhancement – Businesses, individuals and self-employed: what it means for you
As of January 1, 2019, Canadians contribute more to the Canada Pension Plan (CPP). This change, known as the CPP enhancement, is designed to help increase retirement income for working Canadians and their families.
The CPP is a mandatory pension plan financed by contributions from employees, employers and self-employed individuals. It covers virtually all workers in Canada except Quebec, which administers its own plan called the Quebec Pension Plan (QPP). The CPP replaces a basic level of earnings for contributors upon retirement, disability or death.
Once mature, the CPP enhancement will increase the maximum CPP retirement pension by about 50%. It will also increase the survivor and disability pensions.
Enhancing the CPP will significantly reduce the number of Canadian families at risk of not saving enough for retirement, particularly those who do not have a workplace pension plan.
How will the CPP enhancement affect you?
- Your benefits will gradually increase as you contribute more to the CPP. Starting in 2019, annual CPP contribution rates will rise modestly over seven years. For example, if you earn $54,900 per year, you will contribute about $6 more per month in 2019. By 2023, you will be contributing about $40 more per month.
- How much your CPP benefits increase will depend on how much and for how long you contributed to the enhancement. Canadians just entering the workforce will see the largest increase in CPP benefits. Employees who are near the end of their working life will see a small increase.
- The CPP enhancement will affect you only if you work and contribute in 2019 or later. If you are retired, not working, and not making contributions to the CPP, nothing will change and your CPP benefits will not increase.
- The CPP enhancement will happen in two phases over seven years. Phase 1 takes place from 2019 to 2023 and involves a gradual increase in the contribution rate. Phase 2 will begin in 2024 and will only affect those at higher income levels.
How do Canadians save for retirement and how does the CPP fit into the picture?
Canada’s retirement income system provides a balanced mix of public pensions and voluntary savings opportunities to help Canadians save for retirement. It is based on three pillars:
- The Old Age Security program provides a basic level of retirement income to Canadian residents. It also offers additional support for low-income seniors through the Guaranteed Income Supplement. It is funded by government revenues.
- The CPP and the QPP provide basic income replacement for contributors and their families when the contributor retires or dies or if they become disabled. Those plans are financed by contributions from employees, employers and self-employed individuals as well as the investment income from these contributions.
- Voluntary tax-assisted private savings and employer-sponsored pension plans, such as registered pension plans, pooled registered pension plans, registered retirement savings plans and tax-free savings accounts. Individuals and their employers may contribute to these savings vehicles.
Canadians may also draw upon other assets for their retirement income.
Who participates in the CPP?
With very few exceptions, every person over the age of 18 who works in Canada outside of Quebec and earns more than $3,500 per year must contribute to the CPP. If you earn less than $3,500, you do not pay CPP contributions.
How do you make contributions?
Your employer deducts your share of CPP contribution from your paycheque each pay period and they contribute an equal amount.
If you are self-employed, you contribute the full amount when you file your T1 income tax and benefit return using Schedule 8, CPP Contributions on Self-Employment and Other Earnings. Your contributions are based on your net business income (after expenses). You do not contribute on any other type of income, such as investment earnings.
If, during a year, you contributed too much or earned less than the set minimum amount, your contributions will be refunded when you file your tax return.
How much do you contribute?
You make contributions only on your annual earnings (your net income if you are self-employed) between a minimum and a maximum amount.
The government sets the maximum amount each January, based on increases in the average wage in Canada. This maximum amount is referred to as the Year’s Maximum Pensionable Earnings (YMPE).
The YMPE is announced every November. To keep things simple, we will refer to the YMPE as the earnings ceiling throughout the rest of this page.
What do you need to do?
- You don’t need to do anything until tax time.
- When you do your taxes, your CPP contributions must be separated into two parts: base CPP contributions and enhanced CPP contributions. Base contributions are calculated at a rate of 4.95%. Any amount above that is your enhanced contributions.
- Your T4 slip will not change under Phase 1 of the enhancement. Your total CPP contributions deducted, both base and enhanced, will be reported in box 16 as a combined amount. There will be no distinction between the enhancement and the base CPP on your T4 at this time. Your total pensionable earnings will be reported in box 26 as before.
- You can claim a 15% non-refundable tax credit for your base CPP contributions. You will claim a tax deduction for the enhanced portion.
- Electronic filers – If you file your return electronically using commercial tax software that is certified for NETFILE, or if a tax preparer completes and files your return using EFILE, the tax software will do all the necessary calculations. It will automatically separate and apply the base and enhanced contributions for you.
- Paper filers – If you file a paper income tax and benefit return, the CRA forms will guide you through a calculation of the base and enhanced CPP contributions, so you can claim the non-refundable tax credit and the tax deduction properly. Schedule 8 will break down your base and enhanced amounts. A new line (Line 223) will be added to your T1 return where you will enter the enhanced amount of your contributions from Schedule 8. The CPP base amount will be entered on line 308, as in the past.
- Withhold, remit and report CPP enhancement contributions in the same way you do for the base CPP.
- There are no changes to the T4 slip for reporting at the end of the year under Phase 1 of the enhancement. Enter the base and enhanced CPP contributions as one amount in box 16 on each employee's T4.
- Your employer contributions to the enhanced portion of the CPP and the base portion of CPP are both tax deductible.
- Send your CPP contributions when you file your T1 income tax and benefit return.
- Your contributions are based on net business income.
- When you do your taxes, separate your CPP contributions into two parts: CPP base contributions and CPP enhanced contributions. The base contribution is the amount that is calculated at a rate of 9.9% and the enhanced portion is any amount above that. You can claim a 15% non-refundable tax credit on 4.95% of the base CPP contributions and claim a tax deduction on the other 4.95%. You will also claim a tax deduction on the enhanced portion of your contributions.
- Electronic filers – If you file your return electronically using commercial tax software that is certified for NETFILE, or a tax preparer completes and files your return using EFILE, the tax software will perform all of the necessary calculations. It will automatically separate and apply the base and enhanced contributions for you.
- Paper filers – Schedule 8, CPP Contributions on Self-Employment and Other Earnings, will break down your base and enhanced amounts. A new line (Line 223) will be added to your T1 return where you will enter the enhanced amount of your contributions from Schedule 8. The CPP base amount will be entered on line 308, as in the past.
What is the difference between a non-refundable tax credit and a tax deduction?
- A tax deduction reduces the amount of income that is subject to income tax.
- If your income for the year was $30,000, and you have a $1,000 tax deduction your taxable income is reduced to $29,000.
- The impact on your taxes is dependent on what tax bracket your income is in once the tax deduction has been applied.
- For example, a $1,000 tax deduction in a 30% tax bracket means that you will pay $300 less in taxes
- Tax credits reduce income tax!
- Non-refundable tax credits are calculated by multiplying the tax credit by the lowest federal tax rate, of 15% in 2019.
- For example, if you claim a $1,000 non-refundable tax credit at a rate of %15, this will reduce your tax payable for the year by $150.
- What if the credit is more than what you owe? A non-refundable tax credit reduces your taxes owing, but you won't receive a refund of any amount over that.
Examples – CPP contributions before the CPP enhancement
Let's look at the contributions of Ayesha, Damien and Lena, who are employees at ABC Company, earning different salaries. Pierre is a self-employed consultant.
|Income||CPP earnings ceiling||CPP minimum basic exemption amount ($3,500)||CPP maximum contributory earnings||Total contribution rate||Total contribution amount|
|Ayesha||$150,000||$57,400||$3,500||($57,400 - $3,500) =$53,900||5.1%||$2,749|
|Pierre||$80,000||$57,400||$3,500||($57,400 - $3,500) =$53,900||10.2%||$5,498|
|Damien||$45,000||$57,400||$3,500||($45,000 - $3,500) =$41,500||5.1%||$2,117|
Ayesha has an income over the earnings ceiling of $57,400 so her total contribution to the CPP is the maximum of $2,749. Ayesha’s 2019 contributions are 5.1% of her CPP maximum contributory earnings. Her employer contributes the same amount at $2,749. No matter how much more money she makes, she cannot contribute more than the CPP maximum for 2019, even if she wished to do so.
Pierre has a self-employment net income over the earnings ceiling of $57,400 so, like Ayesha, he must contribute the maximum amount. However, since he is self-employed, Pierre must contribute at 10.2% rather than just 5.1%. In essence, Pierre contributes double what Ayesha contributes. Pierre’s CPP contributions for 2019 are $5,498. He cannot contribute more than the maximum, even if he wishes to.
Damien is below the earnings ceiling, so he will contribute less than Pierre and Ayesha at $2,117, matched by his employer.
Lena’s income is below the minimum earnings amount, so she is exempt from CPP contributions and contributes nothing.
For more information on how the Canada Pension Plan works, see The Canada Pension Plan.
Let’s see how the CPP enhancement affects you?
Phase 1: 2019–2023
The CPP contribution rate will increase gradually every year to a total increase of 1% by 2023 for each the employee and the employer, with self-employed individuals contributing 2% more.
|Year||Contribution rate split (employee/ employer)||Contribution rate (self-employed)
||Estimated earnings ceiling||Estimated maximum yearly contribution (employee/employer)||Estimated maximum yearly contribution (Self-Employed)
As of 2023, if you earn less than the earnings ceiling, there will be no further rate increases for you. The CPP contribution rate will stay at 5.95% for employers and employees and at 11.9% for people who are self-employed, unless their earnings rise higher than the earnings ceiling.
Phase 2: 2024–2025
Starting in 2024, a second, higher limit will be introduced, allowing you to invest an additional portion of your earnings to the CPP. This new limit, known as the Year’s Additional Maximum Pensionable Earnings, will not replace the first earnings ceiling. Instead, it will subject your earnings to two earnings limits. To keep things simple, we will refer to the Year’s Additional Maximum Pensionable Earnings as the second earnings ceiling.
The value of the second earnings ceiling is based on the value of the first earnings ceiling. In 2024, the second earnings ceiling will be set at an amount that is 7% higher than the first earnings ceiling. It will rise to 14% above the first earnings ceiling in 2025 and the years after. Like the first earnings ceiling, the second earnings ceiling will increase each year to reflect wage growth.
For example, let’s assume that the estimated first earnings ceiling in 2025 is $69,700 and the second earnings ceiling is $79,400 (approximately 14% higher than the first earnings ceiling). If you earn between $69,700 and $79,400 you will contribute on $9,700, which is the difference between these two limits.
Employees and employers will each contribute at the rate of 4%, and self-employed individuals will contribute at 8%.
Examples - CPP Contributions - Enhancement Phase 1 and Phase 2
Damien (employee) - $45,000 income
Damien's income is lower than the first earnings ceiling. He will therefore not be affected by Phase 2 and the second earnings ceiling. He will contribute to the first earnings ceiling. The total amounts he contributes to the CPP enhancement are as follows:
- Annual contribution rate and amount on income below first earnings ceiling
Year Contribution rate split (employee/ employer) Estimated first earnings ceiling Estimated second earnings ceiling Damien's annual contributions at 5.95% 2024 5.95% $67,700 $72,400 ($45,000 - $3,500) × 5.95% = $2,469 2025 5.95% $69,700 $79,400 ($45,000 - $3,500) × 5.95% = $2,469
Pierre (self-employed) - $75,000 income
Pierre's situation is different since he is self-employed. He will contribute 11.9%. Pierre also has earnings above the first earnings ceiling, so he is subject to Phase 2 of the enhancement.
- Annual contribution rate and amount on income below first earnings ceiling
Year Contribution rate Estimated first earnings ceiling Estimated second earnings ceiling Pierre's annual contribution
for first earnings rate at 11.9%
2023 11.9% $65,700 N/A ($65,700-$3,500) × 11.9% = $7,401 2024 11.9% $67,700 $72,400 (67,700 - $3,500) × 11.9% = $7,639 2025 11.9% $69,700 $79,400 ($69,700 - $3,500) × 11.9% = $7,877
- Annual contribution rate and amount on income above first earnings ceiling and under second earnings ceiling
Year Contribution rate Estimated first earnings ceiling Estimated second earnings limit Contribution rate Pierre's annual contribution for second additional contribution at 8% 2024 8% $67,700 $72,400 8% ($72,400 - $67,700) × 8% = $376 2025 8% $69,700 $79,400 8% ($75,000 - $69,700) × 8% = $424
- Pierre's total contributions will be:
Year First contribution amount (11.9%) + Second contribution amount (8%) = Total annual contribution 2023 $7,401 $0 $7,401 2024 $7,639 $376 $8,015 2025 $7,877 $424 $8,301
Ayesha (employee) - $150,000 income
Since Ayesha's income is higher than the first earnings ceiling, she will invest in the CPP enhancement through both contribution rates (5.95% and 4%).
To calculate how much Ayesha will contribute to the CPP in 2024 and 2025, each contribution amount is calculated separately, then added together.
- Annual contribution rate and amount on income below first earnings ceiling
Year Contribution rate split (employee/ employer) Estimated first earnings ceiling Estimated second earnings ceiling Ayesha's annual contribution at 5.95%
2023 5.95% $65,700 N/A ($65,700 - $3,500) × 5.95% = $3,701 2024 5.95% $67,700 $72,400 ($67,700 - $3,500) × 5.95% = $3,778 2025 5.95% $69,700 $79,400 ($69,700 - $3,500) × 5.95% = $3,939
- Annual contribution rate and amount on income over first earnings ceiling and under second earnings ceiling
Year Contribution rate split (employee/ employer) Estimated first earnings ceiling Estimated second earnings ceiling Ayesha's annual contribution for second additional contribution at 4% 2023 N/A $65,700 N/A N/A 2024 4% $67,700 $72,400 ($72,400 - $67,700) × 4% = $188 2025 4% $69,700 $79,400 ($79,400 - $69,700) × 4% = $388
- Ayesha's total contributions will then be:
Year First contribution amount + Second contribution amount = Total annual contribution 2023 $3,701 $0 $3,701 2024 $3,778 $188 $3,966 2025 $3,939 $388 $4,327
The Canada Pension Plan Enhancement
The Canada Pension Plan*
- The Canada Pension Plan - An Overview
- Contributions to the Canada Pension Plan
- Canada Pension Plan - What could you receive
*Note: Canada Pension Plan pages are currently being updated to reflect the upcoming enhancement.
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