Wild animal and plant trade and protection regulations: 2016 annual report

Official title: Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act 2016 Annual Report

Table of contents


  1. Introduction
  2. Wild animals and plants in trade
  3. Assessing the risk to species from trade
  4. Compliance promotion and enforcement of CITES and WAPPRIITA
  5. International cooperation
  6. Further information


Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act (WAPPRIITA)

  • International: Canada participated at the 17th meeting of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Conference of the Parties, submitting three proposals to amend the list of controlled species. Canada successfully argued for the removal of Wood Bison from CITES controls and the transfer of Eastern Cougar from Appendix I (a list of species that are threatened with extinction) to Appendix II (species that are not currently threatened with extinction, but whose trade is strictly regulated to provide them with additional protection). Canada was not successful in achieving reduced trade controls for the Peregrine Falcon.
  • Exports: In 2016, Canadian jurisdictions issued 5,345 export permits and re-export certificates under WAPPRIITA, the legislative vehicle by which Canada meets its CITES obligations. As with past years, the majority of shipments in 2016 were of cultivated American Ginseng and wild-harvested animals (primarily the American Black Bear), as well as their parts and derivatives.
  • Imports: In 2016, Canada issued 155 import permits, which were mainly for the import of old ivory and hunting trophies from legitimate hunts.
  • Investigations: Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) conducted 95 new investigations of suspected offences under WAPPRIITA in 2016. Section 4.1.3 describes four examples of investigations that led to prosecution and resulted in convictions in 2016 for having violated WAPPRIITA or its regulations.
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