What are they?
The wasps that are known as "yellow jackets" and "hornets" are medium-sized pests, measuring 10 to 25 mm (.39 to 1 inch). They are easily recognized by the bands of black and yellow or white on their stomachs. But many other types of harmless wasps look similar and can be mistaken for pests.
A hollow stinger is found at the rear of the wasp's body that injects venom when it penetrates skin. These stings can be quite painful.
Social wasp species (which live in groups) are the most common and also the most dangerous because of their behaviour. Among them, German yellow jackets are considered the most aggressive. Many of these wasp species have a habit of scavenging in garbage cans.
Social wasps make paper nests in different shapes and sizes, some of them quite visible and others hidden. The paper nest can be fully enclosed with an opening near the base, or have an open structure, depending on wasp species.
Should I be concerned?
Social wasps are common in urban and rural areas throughout North America, and are the most common stinging menace in many Canadian cities.
Outdoor gatherings are often visited by wasps because of their attraction to sweet foods, but also to protein food earlier in the season. Stings can happen when people or animals bother wasps that are hunting for food or when they approach a nest by accident, triggering a defensive reaction from wasps guarding the nest. But wasps may sometimes attack people or animals even when seemingly unprovoked.
Several thousand people are stung by these venomous insects each year. In some rare cases, severe allergic reactions to the venom have caused death. Get medical attention right away if your reaction to a sting includes unusual swelling, itching, dizziness, or shortness of breath.
Unlike bees, wasps can sting more than once. Wasps can also damage ripe fruit by creating holes when they eat the flesh.
Wasps can be beneficial in many ways. Workers catch insects, like flies and caterpillars, and carry them back to the nest to feed the developing larvae. They also act as pollinators when they visit flowers for nectar. And they are a source of food for small mammals, birds, and spiders.
What to do if you are stung by a wasp
If a wasp lands on you, remain calm and wait for it to fly off, or brush it off gently. Otherwise, you run the risk of getting a sting because the wasp will feel threatened by any sudden movement.
Stings can be soothed with ice packs or with a baking soda paste. A wasp's venom is very potent. Some people have allergic reactions and need medical attention. If the effects of a sting are severe, you should see a doctor right away. Effective anti-venom shots can reduce the number of severe reactions in vulnerable people.
How can I get rid of wasps?
Given their beneficial role in nature, try to tolerate small populations of wasps. Use preventive practices to stop them from becoming intolerable. Learn to tell the difference between harmful social wasps and the solitary ones that are mostly harmless and beneficial.
Before wasps become a problem, inspect your yard and home surroundings in early summer, looking for any wasp activity or paper nests taking shape. It is easier to discourage a single queen wasp from establishing too close to your home than handle a full-sized nest later in the season.
- Since wasps hunt for high-protein food like insects for their larvae, make sure you don't leave moist pet food or picnic leftovers in the open.
- Because they are also attracted to sweet food and strong scents, avoid leaving food or drink uncovered when eating outside.
- Don't wear scented products like perfume and hair spray.
- Keep all garbage covered in tightly closed containers until it can be thrown out.
- Avoid walking barefoot on lawns or other grassy areas, especially in late summer when wasps are more abundant and active.
You can find different commercial traps at garden centers and department stores. Food bait can be used with these traps to increase their effectiveness. Try to use protein foods (like dog food) instead of sweet foods so that bees are not trapped.
Be aware that there may be more wasp activity around baited traps, so they should not be placed close to play areas or other places of human activity. These traps can be useful in the short term during outdoor events where wasps can be drawn away from food-serving areas.
If the location of the nest does not present a health hazard, it's best to leave the nest until November or December. Once it has been abandoned, you can remove the nest and dispose of it with little risk.
If the nest must be removed when the wasps are active, it should be done in the evening when wasps are least active. Nest removal can be dangerous and extreme caution must be used because of the risk of attack by a large group of wasps. Although a homeowner (with enough protection) can remove a nest, professional help is recommended.
Depending on the location and structure of the nest, removal can be as simple as enclosing the nest in a plastic bag and detaching the single anchoring stalk from the supporting tree branch or structure. To dispose of the active nest, place in a freezer for at least 48 hours. Remember to always wear protective clothing, including a head net.
If you use a pesticide to control your pest problem, read the label to make sure you are choosing the right product for the right pest. Follow all label directions and warnings carefully. Always look for a Pest Control Products (PCP) number on the label so you know the product has been approved by Health Canada. See Use pesticides safely for more information on using pesticides safely.
Treating the nest with an insecticide is an effective way to control wasps. Spraying after nightfall is recommended because wasps are less active at night. Do not use a light directly on the nest because this will alarm the wasps and increase their activity. Use a red filter over your flashlight to provide visibility without increasing wasp activity. Always wear appropriate protective clothing when using pesticides.
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