Page 13: Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality: Guideline Technical Document – Arsenic

12.0 References

Alberta Department of Environment (2003) Personal communication with K. Pongar.

Aposhian, H.V., Gurzau, E.S., Le, X.C., Gurzau, A., Healy, S.M., Lu, X., Ma, M., Yip, L., Zakharyan, R.A., Maiorino, R.M., Dart, R.C., Tircus, M.G., Gonzalez-Ramirez, D., Morgan, D.L., Avram, D., and Aposhian, M.M. (2000) Occurrence of monomethylarsonous acid in urine of humans exposed to inorganic arsenic. Chem. Res. Toxicol., 13(8): 693-697.

Aschengrau, A., Zierler, S., and Cohen, A. (1989) Quality of community drinking water and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. Arch. Environ. Health, 44: 283.

ATSDR (2000) Toxicological profile for arsenic. Update, September 2000. PB/2000/108021, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA.

Axelson, O. (1980) Arsenic compounds and cancer. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, 6: 1229.

Ball, A.L., Rom, W.N., and Glenne, B. (1983) Arsenic distribution in soils surrounding the Utah copper smelter. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J., 44: 341.

Bertolero, F., Pozzi, G., Sabbioni, E., and Saffiotti, U. (1987) Cellular uptake and metabolic reduction of pentavalent to trivalent arsenic as determinants of cytotoxicity and morphological transformation. Carcinogenesis, 8: 803.

Borgono, J.M. and Greiber, R. (1971) Epidemiological study of arsenicism in the city of Antofagasta. In: Trace substances in environmental health. V. D.D. Hemphill (ed.). University of Missouri, Columbia, MO. p. 13.

Boyle, D.R., Turner, R.J.W., and Hall, G.E.M. (1998) Anomalous arsenic concentrations in groundwaters of an island community, British Columbia. Environ. Geochem. Health, 20: 199-212.

Breslow, N.E. and Day, N.E. (1987) Statistical methods in cancer research. Vol. II. The design and analysis of cohort studies. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer.

Buchet, J.P. and Lauwerys, R.R. (1982) Evaluation of exposure to inorganic arsenic. Cah. Med. Trav., 19: 15.

Buchet, J.P. and Lauwerys, R. (1985) Study of inorganic arsenic methylation by rat liver in vitro: relevance for the interpretation of observations in man. Arch. Toxicol., 57: 125.

Buchet, J.P., Lauwerys, R., and Roels, H. (1981a) Urinary excretion of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites after repeated ingestion of sodium metaarsenite by volunteers. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 48: 111.

Buchet, J.P., Lauwerys, R., and Roels, H. (1981b) Comparison of the urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites after a single oral dose of sodium arsenite, monomethylarsonate, or dimethylarsinate in man. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 48: 71.

Carmignani, M., Boscolo, P., and Castellino, N. (1985) Metabolic fate and cardiovascular effects of arsenic in rats and rabbits chronically exposed to trivalent and pentavalent arsenic. Arch. Toxicol., Suppl. 8: 452.

Cebrian, M.E., Albores, A., Aguilar, M., and Blakely, E. (1983) Chronic arsenic poisoning in the north of Mexico. Hum. Toxicol., 2: 121.

CFIA (2001) Inorganic arsenic and hijiki seaweed consumption. Fact Sheet, Canadian Food Inspection Agency.

Chen, C.-J. and Wang, C.J. (1990) Ecological correlation between arsenic level in well water and age-adjusted mortality from malignant neoplasms. Cancer Res., 50: 5470.

Chen, C.J., Chuang, Y.C., Lin, T.M., and Wu, H.Y. (1985) Malignant neoplasms among residents of a blackfoot disease-endemic area in Taiwan: high-arsenic artesian well water and cancers. Cancer Res., 45: 5895.

Chen, C.J., Chuang, Y.C., You, S.L., Lin, T.M., and Wu, H.Y. (1986) A retrospective study on malignant neoplasms of bladder, lung and liver in a blackfoot disease endemic area of Taiwan. Br. J. Cancer, 53: 399.

Chen, C.-J., Chen, C.W., Wu, M.M., and Kuo, T.L. (1992) Cancer potential in liver, lung, bladder and kidney due to ingested inorganic arsenic in drinking water. Br. J. Cancer, 66: 888-892.

Chiou, H.-Y., Chiou, S.-T., Hsu, Y.-H., Chou, Y.-L., Tseng, C.-H., Wei, M.-L., and Chen, C.-J. (2001) Incidence of transition cell carcinoma and arsenic in drinking water: A follow-up study of 8,102 residents in an arsenic-endemic area in northeastern Taiwan. Am. J. Epidemiol., 153(5): 411-418.

Clifford, D.A., Ghurye, G., and Tripp, A.R. (1999) Development of anion exchange process for arsenic removal from drinking water. In: Arsenic exposure and health effects. W.R. Chappell, C.O. Abernathy, and R.L. Calderon (eds.). Elsevier, New York, NY. pp. 379-388.

Crossen, P.E. (1983) Arsenic and SCE in human lymphocytes. Mutat. Res., 119: 415.

Cui, C.G. and Liu, Z.H. (1988) Chemical speciation and distribution of arsenic in water, suspended solids and sediment of Xiangjiang River, China. Sci. Total Environ., 77: 69.

Dabeka, R.W., McKenzie, A.D., Lacroix, G.M.A., Cleroux, C., Bowe, S., Graham, R.A., Conacher, H.B.S., and Verdier, P. (1993) Survey of arsenic in total diet food composites and estimation of the dietary intake of arsenic by Canadian adults and children. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. Int., 76: 14-25.

Dann, T. (1990) Unpublished data. Pollution Measurement Division, Conservation and Protection, Environment Canada [cited in Environment Canada and Health and Welfare Canada, 1993].

Department of National Health and Welfare (1983) Food/field monitoring project FM-35. Bureau of Chemical Safety, Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa.

Driehaus, W., Jekel, M., and Hildebrandt, U. (1998) Granular ferric hydroxide -- a new adsorbent for the removal of arsenic from natural water. J. Water Supply Res. Technol. - Aqua, 47: 30-35.

Environment Canada and Health and Welfare Canada (1993) Arsenic and its compounds. Priority Substances List assessment report. Government of Canada, Ottawa.

Feinglass, E.J. (1973) Arsenic intoxication from well water in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med., 288: 828.

Fennell, J.S. and Stacy, W.K. (1981) Electrocardiographic changes in acute arsenic poisoning. Ir. J. Med. Sci., 150: 338.

Ferm, V.H. and Hanlon, D.P. (1985) Constant rate exposure of pregnant hamsters to arsenate during early gestation. Environ. Res., 37: 425.

Ferreccio, C., Gonzalez, C., Milosavjlevic, V., Marshall, G., Sancha, A.M. and Smith, A.H. (2000) Lung cancer and arsenic concentrations in drinking water in Chile. Epidemiology, 11(6): 673-679.

Fowler, B.A., Ishinishi, N., Tsuchiya, K., and Vahter, M. (1979) Arsenic. In: Handbook on the toxicology of metals. L. Friberg, G.F. Nordberg, and V.B. Vouk (eds.). Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam. p. 293.

Fuller, C.C., Davis, J.A., and Waychunas, G.A. (1993) Surface chemistry of ferrihydrite: Part 2. Kinetics of arsenate adsorption and coprecipitation. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 57: 2271-2282.

Gartrell, M.J., Craun, J.C., Podrebarac, D.S., and Gunderson, E.L. (1986) Pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals in adult total diet samples, October 1980 - March 1982. J. Assoc. Anal. Chem., 69: 146.

Gibson, R.S. and Gage, L.A. (1982) Changes in hair arsenic levels in breast and bottle fed infants during the first year of infancy. Sci. Total Environ., 26: 33.

Government of the Northwest Territories (1998) Yellowknife area air quality monitoring: 1997 data. Wildlife & Economic Development, Environmental Protection Service.

Grinspan, D. and Biagini, R. (1985) [Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism. The manifestations of arsenic poisoning caused by drinking water.] Med. Cutan. Ibero-Latino-Am., 13: 85 (in Spanish).

Hanlon, D.P. and Ferm, V.H. (1986a) Concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the blood of pregnant hamsters during critical embryogenesis. 1. Subchronic exposure to arsenate utilizing constant rate administration. Environ. Res., 40: 372.

Hanlon, D.P. and Ferm, V.H. (1986b) Concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the blood of pregnant hamsters during critical embryogenesis. 2. Acute exposure. Environ. Res., 40: 380.

Hazell, T. (1985) Minerals in foods: dietary sources, chemical forms, interactions, bioavailability. World Rev. Nutr. Diet., 46: 1.

Health Canada (1994) Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Human health risk assessment for priority substances. Catalogue No. En40-215/41E, Minister of Supply and Services Canada, Ottawa.

Health Canada (1998) Exposure factors for assessing total daily intake of priority substances by the general population of Canada. Priority Substances Section, Bureau of Chemical Hazards, Health Canada, Ottawa.

Health Canada (2005) Quantitative risk assessment for arsenic in drinking water. Unpublished report, Biostatistics Unit, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, March.

Hindmarsh, J.T. and McCurdy, R.F. (1986) Clinical and environmental aspects of arsenic toxicity. CRC Crit. Rev. Clin. Lab. Sci., 23: 315.

Hindmarsh, J.T., McLetchie, O.R., Hefferman, L.P.M., Hayne, O.A., Ellenberger, H.A., McCurdy, R.F., and Thiebaux, H.J. (1977) Electromyographic abnormalities in chronic environmental arsenicalism. J. Anal. Toxicol., 1: 270.

Hood, R.D. and Bishop, S.L. (1972) Teratogenic effects of sodium arsenate in mice. Arch. Environ. Health, 24: 62.

Hood, R.D., Vedel-Macrander, G.C., Zaworotko, M.J., Tatum, F.M., and Meeks, R.G. (1987) Distribution, metabolism, and fetal uptake of pentavalent arsenic in pregnant mice following oral or intraperitoneal administration. Teratology, 35: 19.

Hsia, T.H., Lo, S.L., Lin, C.F., and Lee, D.Y. (1994) Characterization of arsenate adsorption on hydrous iron oxide using chemical and physical methods. Colloid Surface A, 85: 1-7.

Hutton, M. and Symon, C. (1986) The quantities of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic entering the U.K. environment from human activities. Sci. Total Environ., 57: 129.

ICRP (1975) Report of the Task Group on Reference Man. ICRP Publication 23, International Commission on Radiological Protection, Pergamon Press, Oxford.

IPCS (2001) Arsenic and arsenic compounds. Environmental Health Criteria 224, International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, Geneva.

Irgolic, K.J. (1982) Speciation of arsenic compounds in water supplies. Report No. EPA-600/S1-82-010, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.

Jacobson-Kram, D. and Montalbano, D. (1985) The Reproductive Effects Assessment Group's report on the mutagenicity of inorganic arsenic. Environ. Mutagen., 7: 787.

JECFA (1988) Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants -- arsenic. Report prepared by the 33rd meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Food Additives Series 24, World Health Organization, Geneva. p. 155.

Kabata-Pendias, A. and Pendias, H. (1984) Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp. 171-177 [cited in Environment Canada and Health and Welfare Canada, 1993].

Kitchin, K.T. (2001) Recent advances in arsenic carcinogenesis: Modes of action, animal model systems, and methylated arsenic metabolites. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 172: 249-261.

Kurttio, P., Pukkala, E., Kahelin, H., Auvinen, A., and Pekkanen, J. (1999) Arsenic concentrations in well water and risk of bladder and kidney cancer in Finland. Environ. Health Perspect., 107: 705-710.

Lamm, S., Engel, A., Kruse, M., Feinleib, M., Byrd, D., Lai, S., and Wilson, R. (2004) Arsenic in drinking water and bladder cancer mortality in the United States: an analysis based on 133 US counties and 30 years of observation. J. Occup. Environ. Med., 46(3): 298-306.

Landsberger, S. and Wu, D. (1995) The impact of heavy metals from environmental tobacco smoke on indoor air quality as determined by Compton suppression neutron activation analysis. Sci. Total Environ., 173-174(1-6): 323-337 [cited in ATSDR, 2000].

Lemmo, N.V., Faust, S.O., Belton, T., and Tucker, R. (1983) Assessment of the chemical and biological significance of arsenical compounds in a heavily contaminated watershed. Part 1. The fate and speciation of arsenical compounds in aquatic environments -- A literature review. J. Environ. Sci. Health, A18: 335.

Lewis, D.R., Southwick, J.W., Ouellet-Hellstrom, R., Rench, J., and Calderon, R.L. (1999) Drinking water arsenic in Utah: A cohort mortality study. Environ. Health Perspect., 107(5): 359-365.

Lovell, M.A. and Farmer, J.G. (1985) Arsenic speciation in urine from humans intoxicated by inorganic arsenic compounds. Hum. Toxicol., 4: 203.

Luten, J.B., Riekwel-Booy, G., and Rauchbaar, A. (1982) Occurrence of arsenic in plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), nature of organo-arsenic compound present and its excretion by man. Environ. Health Perspect., 45: 165.

Mandal, B.K., Chowdhury, T.R., Samanta, G., Mukherjee, D.P., Chanda, C.R., Saha, K.C., and Chakraborti, D. (1998) Impact of safe water for drinking and cooking on five arsenic-affected families for 2 years in West Bengal, India. Sci. Total Environ., 218: 185-201.

Mass, M.J., Tennant, A., Roop, B.C., Cullen, W.R., Styblo, M., Thomas, D.J., and Kligerman, A.D. (2001) Methylated trivalent arsenic species are genotoxic. Chem. Res. Toxicol., 14(4): 355-361.

Mead, M.N. (2005) Arsenic: In search of an antidote to a global poison. Environ. Health Perspect., 113(6): A378-A388.

Méranger, J.C., Subramanian, K.S., and McCurdy, R.F. (1984) Arsenic in Nova Scotian groundwater. Sci. Total Environ., 39: 49.

Ministère de l'Environnement du Québec (2003) Personal communication with I. Parent and H. Tremblay.

Mohri, T., Hisanaga, A., and Ishinishi, N. (1990) Arsenic intake and excretion by Japanese adults: a 7 day duplicate diet study. Food Chem. Toxicol., 28: 521-529 [cited in U.K. MAFF, 1999].

Morales, K.H., Ryan, L., Kuo, T.L., Wu, M.M., and Chen, C.J. (2000) Risk of internal cancers from arsenic in drinking water. Environ. Health Perspect., 108: 655-661.

Murphy, M.J., Lyon, L.W., and Taylor, J.W. (1981) Subacute arsenic neuropathy: clinical and electrophysiological observations. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 44: 89.

NDWAC (2001) Final report of the Arsenic Cost Working Group to the National Drinking Water Advisory Council, August 14.

Nemec, M.D., Holson, J.F., Farr, C.H., and Hood, R.D. (1998) Developmental toxicity assessment of arsenic acid in mice and rabbits. Reprod. Toxicol., 12: 647-658 [cited in WHO, 2003].

Newfoundland Department of Environment and Labour (2003) Personal communication with M. Goebel.

Nova Scotia Department of the Environment (1998) The state of the Nova Scotia environment 1998. p. 18.

Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy (2003) Personal communication with A. Socha; Drinking Water Surveillance Program, Sewage and Water Inspection Program, and Drinking Water website data.

Pellerin, E. (2003) Personal communications. Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa.

Petres, J., Baron, D., and Hagedorn, M. (1977) Effects of arsenic cell metabolism and cell proliferation: cytogenetic and biochemical studies. Environ. Health Perspect., 19: 223.

Petrick, J.S., Ayala-Fierro, F., Cullen, W.R., Carter, D.E., and Aposhian, H.V. (2000) Monomethylarsonous acid (MMA III) is more toxic than arsenite in Chang human hepatocytes. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 163(2): 203-207.

Pierce, L.M. and Moore, B.C. (1980) Adsorption of arsenite on amorphous iron hydroxide from dilute aqueous solution. Environ. Sci. Technol, 14(2): 214-216.

Pierce, L.M. and Moore, B.C. (1982) Adsorption of arsenite and arsenate on amorphous iron hydroxide. Water Res., 16: 1247-1253.

PMRA (2003) Personal communication with PMRA Information Officer. Pest Management Regulatory Agency, Ottawa.

Pomroy, C., Charbonneau, S.M., McCullough, S., and Tam, G.K.H. (1980) Human retention studies with 74As. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 53: 550.

Prince Edward Island Department of Fisheries, Aquaculture and Environment (2003) Personal communication with G. Somers.

Ramaswami, A., Tawachsupa, S., and Isleyen, M. (2001) Batch-mixed iron treatment of high arsenic waters. Water Res., 18: 4474-4479.

Raven, K.P., Jain, A., and Loeppert, R.H. (1998) Arsenite and arsenate adsorption on ferrihydrite: kinetics, equilibrium, and adsorption envelopes. Environ. Sci. Technol., 32: 344-349.

Sabbioni, E., Fischbach, M., Pozzi, G., Pietra, R., Gallorini, M., and Piette, J.L. (1991) Cellular retention, toxicity and carcinogenic potential of seafood arsenic. I. Lack of cytotoxicity and transforming activity of arsenobetaine in the BALB/3T3 cell line. Carcinogenesis, 12(7): 1287-1291.

Saskatchewan Department of Environment and Resource Management (2003) Personal communication with T. Phommavong.

Simms, J. and Azizian, F. (1997) Pilot-plant trials on the removal of arsenic from potable water using activated alumina. Proceedings of the American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Denver, CO.

Smith, A.H., Lingas, E.O., and Rahman, M. (2000) Contamination of drinking-water by arsenic in Bangladesh: a public health emergency. Bull. WHO, 78: 1093-1103.

Steinmaus, C., Yuan, Y., Bates, M.N., and Smith, A.H. (2003) Case-control study of bladder cancer and drinking water arsenic in the western United States. Am. J. Epidemiol., 158(12): 1193-1201.

Styblo, M., Del Razo, L.M., Vega, L., Germolec, D.R., LeCluyse, E.L., Hamilton, G.A., Reed, W., Wang, C., Cullen, W.R., and Thomas, D.J. (2000) Comparative toxicity of trivalent and pentavalent inorganic and methylated arsenicals in rat and human cells. Arch. Toxicol., 74(6): 289-299.

Subramanian, K.S. (1988) Arsenic. In: Quantitative trace analysis of biological materials: principles and methods for determination of trace elements and trace amounts of some macro elements. H.A. McKenzie and L.E. Smythe (eds.). Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam.

Tam, G.K.H., Charbonneau, S.M., Bryce, F., and Sandi, E. (1982) Excretion of a single oral dose of fish-arsenic in man. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 28: 669.

Tao, S. and Bolger, M.P. (1998) Dietary arsenic intakes in the United States: FDA Total Diet Study, September 1991 - December 1996. Food Addit. Contam., 16: 465-472.

Thirunavukkarasu, O.S. and Viraraghavan, T. (2003) Arsenic in drinking water: Health effects and removal technologies. In: Aquatic arsenic toxicity and treatment. T. Murphy and J. Guo (eds.). Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands. pp. 129-138.

Thirunavukkarasu, O.S., Viraraghavan, T., and Subramanian, K.S. (2001) Removal of arsenic in drinking water by iron oxide-coated sand and ferrihydrite -- Batch studies. Water Qual. Res. J. Can., 36(1): 55-70.

Thirunavukkarasu, O.S., Viraraghavan, T., and Subramanian, K.S. (2003a) Arsenic removal from drinking water using iron oxide-coated sand. Water Air Soil Pollut., 142(1-4): 95-111.

Thirunavukkarasu, O.S., Viraraghavan, T., and Subramanian, K.S. (2003b) Arsenic removal from drinking water using granular ferric hydroxide. Water SA, 29(2): 161-170.

Tseng, W.P. (1977) Effects of dose-response relationship of skin cancer and blackfoot disease with arsenic. Environ. Health Perspect., 19: 109.

Tseng, W.P., Chu, M.H., Fong, J.M., Lin, C.S., and Yeh, S. (1968) Prevalence of skin cancer in an endemic area of chronic arsenicism in Taiwan. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 40: 453.

U.K. MAFF (1999) 1997 Total Diet Study -- Aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, tin and zinc. Food Surveillance Sheet No. 191, Joint Food Safety and Standards Group, United Kingdom Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, November.

Urieta, I., Jalon, M., and Eguilero, I. (1996) Food surveillance in the Basque Country (Spain), II: Estimation of the dietary intake of organochlorine pesticides, heavy metals, arsenic, aflatoxin M1, iron and zinc through the Total Diet Study, 1990/91. Food Addit. Contam., 13: 29-52.

U.S. EPA (1988) Special report on ingested inorganic arsenic. Skin cancer; nutritional essentiality. Report No. EPA-625/3-87/013, Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

U.S. EPA (1999) Analytical methods support document for arsenic in drinking water. EPA-815-R-00-010, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, December.

U.S. EPA (2000) Technologies and costs for removal of arsenic from drinking water. EPA-815-R-00-028, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

U.S. EPA (2001a) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Arsenic and clarifications to compliance and new source contaminants monitoring -- Final Rule. 40 CFR Parts 9, 141, and 142. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, January 22.

U.S. EPA (2001b) Arsenic rule benefits analysis. Science Advisory EPA-SAB-EC-01-008, Environmental Board, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, August.

U.S. EPA and Awwa Research Foundation (2004) Cancer risks associated with elevated levels of drinking water arsenic exposure. Awwa Research Foundation, Denver, CO.

U.S. NRC (1999) Arsenic in drinking water. Subcommittee on Arsenic in Drinking Water, Committee on Toxicology, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Commission on Life Science, U.S. National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

U.S. NRC (2001) Arsenic in drinking water: 2001 update. U.S. National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, September.

Vahter, M., Marafante, E., and Dencker, L. (1983) Metabolism of arsenobetaine in mice, rats and rabbits. Sci. Total Environ., 30: 197.

Valentine, J.L., Campion, D.S., Schluchter, M.D., and Massey, F.J. (1982) Arsenic effects on human nerve conduction. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Trace Element Metabolism in Man and Animals, held in Perth, Western Australia, May 11-15, 1981. J.M. Gawthorne, J.M. Howell, and C.L. White (eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin. p. 409.

Vannoort, R.W., Hannah, M.L., and Pickston, L. (1995) 1990/1991 New Zealand Total Diet Study. Part 2: Contaminants elements. Institute of Environmental Science and Research Ltd., Ministry of Health, Wellington [cited in U.K. MAFF, 1999].

Wagner, S.L., Maliner, J.S., Morton, W.E., and Braman, R.S. (1979) Skin cancer and arsenical intoxication from well water. Arch. Dermatol., 115: 1205.

Wang, J.P., Qi, L., Moore, M.G., and Ng, J.C. (2002) A review of animal models for the study of arsenic carcinogenesis. Toxicol. Lett., 133(1): 17-31.

Wanibuchi, H., Yamamoto, S., Chen, H., Yoshida, K., Endo, G., Hori, T., and Fukushima, S. (1996) Promoting effects of dimethylarsinic acid on N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced urinary bladder carcinogenesis in rats. Carcinogenesis, 17: 2435-2439.

Wanibuchi, H., Hori, T., Meenakshi, V., Ichihara, T., Yamamoto, S., Yano, Y., Otani, S., Nakae, D., Konishi, Y., and Fukushima, S. (1997) Promotion of rat hepatocarcinogenesis by dimethylarsinic acid: association with elevated ornithine decarboxylase activity and formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in the liver. Jpn. J. Cancer Res., 88(12): 1149-1154.

Welch, A.H., Lico, M.S., and Hughes, J.L. (1988) Arsenic in ground water of the western United States. Ground Water, 26: 333.

Wesbey, G. and Kunis, A. (1981) Arsenical neuropathy. Ill. Med. J., 150: 396.

WHO (2003) Arsenic in drinking-water. Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. World Health Organization, Geneva.

Wickström, G. (1972) Arsenic in the ecosystem of man. Work Environ. Health, 9: 2.

Wilkie, J.A. and Hering, J.G. (1996) Adsorption of arsenic onto hydrous ferric oxide: effects of adsorbate/adsorbent ratios and co-occurring solutes. Colloid Surface A, 107: 97-110.

Wu, M.-M., Kuo, T.-L., Hwang, Y.-H., and Chen, C.-J. (1989) Dose-response relation between arsenic concentration in well water and mortality from cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Am. J. Epidemiol., 130: 1123.

Yamamoto, S., Konishi, Y., Matsuda, T., Murai, T., Shibata, M.A., Matsui-Yuasa, I., Otani, S., Kuroda, K., Endo, G., and Fukushima, S. (1995) Cancer induction by an organic arsenic compound dimethylarsinic acid (cacodylic acid), in F344/DuCrj rats after pretreatment with five carcinogens. Cancer Res., 55(6): 1271-1276.

Yu, H.S., Sheu, H.M., Ko, S.S., Chiang, L.C., Chien, C.H., Lin, S.M., Tserng, B.R., and Chen, C.S. (1984) Studies on blackfoot disease and chronic arsenism in southern Taiwan: with special reference to skin lesions and fluorescent substances. J. Dermatol. (Tokyo), 11: 361.

Zaldívar, R. (1980) A morbid condition involving cardio-vascular, broncho-pulmonary, digestive and neural lesions in children and young adults after dietary arsenic exposure. Zentralbl. Bakteriol., I. Abt. Orig. B, 170: 44.

Zaldívar, R. and Ghai, G.L. (1980) Clinical epidemiological studies on endemic chronic arsenic poisoning in children and adults, including observations on children with high- and low-intake of dietary arsenic. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Hyg., I. Abt. Orig. B, 170: 409.

Zierler, S., Theodore, M., Cohen, A., and Rothman, K.J. (1988) Chemical quality of maternal drinking water and congenital heart disease. Int. J. Epidemiol., 17: 589.

Page details

Date modified: