2016–2017 Annual Report on Official Languages

Please note that the online version of the 2016–2017 Annual Report on Official Languages has been adapted for the Web, and therefore differs slightly from the print version that was tabled in Parliament in November 2018.

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2018
ISSN: 1702-0670
Catalogue no: CH10E-PDF

On this page

List of infographics

List of tables

List of acronyms and abbreviation

ACOA
Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency
CanNor
Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency
CBC
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
CED
Economic Development Agency of Canada for the Region of Quebec
CEDEC
Community Economic Development and Employability Corporation
CLIC
Cours de langue pour les immigrants au Canada
FedDev Ontario
Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario
FedNor
Federal Economic Development Initiatives for Northern Ontario
FOLS
First official language spoken
FOREVER
Fostering Organizational Renewal through Enriching Volunteer Experience and Recognition
IRCC
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada
km
kilometers
LINC
Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada
M
millions
MIFO
Mouvement d'implication francophone d'Orléans
TV5MONDE
French-language international television network
WED
Western Economic Diversification Canada

Message from the Minister

The Honourable Mélanie Joly

Official languages are part of our identity, and—along with our Charter rights and freedoms and reconciliation with Indigenous Peoples—they constitute one of the 3 pillars of the social contract that unites us. We participate in the life of our community in English and in French. It is through these languages that we express our creativity and encounter the various cultures that make up our society. English and French are the languages of coexistence in our country.

Our Government understands how important it is to promote Canada's 2 official languages and to support the development of official language minority communities. That is why we have taken concrete steps to translate our government's commitment to official languages into action.

In 2016, we held a series of pan-Canadian consultations on official languages to give Canadians an opportunity to tell us about their priorities and challenges in this area. This led to the development of the Action Plan for Official Languages 2018–2023: Investing in Our Future, the largest investment in official languages in our history. The goal of the Plan is to ensure the long-term viability of our communities and modernize our support for official languages. In addition, the President of the Treasury Board and I undertook a review of the Official Languages Regulations governing communications with and services to the public in English and French across the country, in order to ensure that federal services are provided in accordance with the Official Languages Act.

As Minister of Tourism, Official Languages and La Francophonie, I invite you to read the 2016–2017 Annual Report on Official Languages. It presents the achievements of the Government of Canada, particularly those of the Official Languages Support Programs, as well as those of many federal institutions working together to promote English and French in all regions of Canada.

The Honourable Mélanie Joly

Introduction

The 2016–2017 Annual Report on Official Languages gives a portrait of the Government of Canada's many initiatives towards the development of official language minority communities (the communities) and the promotion of English and French in Canadian society. Among other data, it takes into account information received from the federal institutions that submitted an official languages review to the Official Languages Branch in 2016–2017.

For 2016–2017, the report presents 3 main observations:

  • federal institutions play an essential role in community vitality and in the development of linguistic duality throughout the "life cycles" of these communities
  • the importance of collaboration among the many partners across the country, and ongoing communication with the communities
  • the added value of organizational leadership

2016–2017 was notable due to the publication of a number of reports, studies and surveys, as well as the official languages consultations held across Canada. This new data sheds light on the official languages situation in Canada and will guide federal institutions towards a more targeted implementation of their initiatives and programs.

This year also saw the launch of the 150th anniversary of Canadian Confederation. Our linguistic duality was at the heart of these celebrations which have provided Canadians with unforgettable gathering opportunities and have showcased the talent of our communities.

Key accomplishments in official languages

  • Court Challenges Program: The reinstatement and modernization of the Program has for objective to provide support to Canadians seeking access to courts for the litigation of test cases of national significance, including official language rights and human rights in Canada.
  • Foreign Skilled Workers: Mobilité francophone: Launched in 2016, this program is designed for foreign skilled workers who wish to work in Canada in a province or territory outside of Quebec. These candidates are previously recruited during a Francophone immigration promotional event organized by the Government of Canada and community organizations.
  • Appointment of federal judges: In order to ensure that Canadians of both official languages are able to access justice in their first official language, applicants must now complete a more detailed assessment of their level of bilingualism.
  • Royal Military College Saint-Jean: The reinstatement of the university affiliation of the Royal Military College Saint-Jean supports bilingualism of Canadian officers while offering university programs adapted to an increasingly complex security situation.
  • Community educational infrastructure: $80 million over 10 years will be invested to support the construction of community educational infrastructure in official language minority communities. In collaboration with provinces and territories, the Government of Canada could invest in projects like early childhood centres, community centres and cultural centres.
  • Early learning and child care programs: Through bilateral agreements, the Government is providing provinces and territories $1.2 billion over 3 years to support early learning and child care programs from 2017 to 2020. These bilateral agreements recognize the special needs of official language minority communities.
  • Youth employment programs: The renewal of the Youth Employment Strategy is increasing the number of summer student jobs to almost 70,000 in 2016, 2017 and 2018. More youth will now gain work experience in jobs related to activities for community members.
  • The 150th anniversary of Confederation: A Tourism Corridor: The creation of a Francophone heritage, culture and tourism corridor in the context of the 150th anniversary of Confederation highlights the touristic attractions of all provinces and territories in Canada and showcases their Francophone cultural heritage.
  • Language professionals: The Translation Bureau uses additional funding to hire new professionals and increase the use of freelancers to meet the increased demand for interpretation, translation and captioning in Parliament.

2016–2017: A year rich in data

In 2016–2017, we took stock of official languages in Canada through the Cross-Canada Official Languages Consultations, as well as surveys conducted by the Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages, and by the Official Languages Branch. These findings are informed by the Language Projections for Canada – 2011 to 2036, published by Statistics Canada in January 2017.

Improved knowledge through statistics in 2016–2017

  • Statistics Canada's Language Projections for Canada – 2011 to 2036: a single source of information on the plausible future of the linguistic characteristics of Canadians, official language minority communities, the demolinguistic balance between the French- and English-language communities, and the evolution of French-English bilingualism in the country.
  • Statistics Canada: interactive mapping tool highlighting 2016 census data, including data on official languages in Canada.
  • Canadian Heritage, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada, Health Canada and Justice Canada funded a study conducted by Statistics Canada in collaboration with the Réseau pour le développement de l'alphabétisme et des compétences entitled The Literacy Skills of New Brunswick Francophones: Demographic and Socioeconomic Issues. The report seeks to identify the linkages among demographic trends, economic dynamics and literacy skills.
  • The Office of Literacy and Essential Skills at Employment and Social Development Canada: a study of 776 participants from 6 provinces on the impact of enhanced levels of essential skills on the socio-economic integration of Francophone immigrants into communities.
  • Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada: a study conducted by Statistics Canada that presents the socio-economic, linguistic and agricultural profile of Francophone workers in the agriculture and agri-food industries in Canada.
  • Health Canada supported a project by RésoSanté Colombie-Britannique to collect data to establish a health profile for the province and to identify the health needs of British Columbia's Francophone community.
  • The Community Health and Social Services Network in Quebec has published a study on the mental and emotional health of Quebec's English-speaking communities.
  • The Canadian Institutes of Health Research: $100,000 in funding in partnership with the Association des collèges et universités de la francophonie canadienne to support research on the health of Francophone minority populations to better understand the current state of health of communities and stimulate research in priority sectors.
  • The recommendations stemming from the work of official languages parliamentary committees were taken into consideration: the Court Challenges Program, the Translation Bureau, and the new Action Plan for Official Languages.

In favour of bilingualism for all of Canada

(Source: Survey results published in August 2016 by the Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages)

Table 1: Respondents in favour of bilingualism for all of Canada – By region
Region Percentage (%) of respondents in favour of bilingualism
National 84%
British Columbia 82%
Alberta 82%
Prairies 80%
Ontario 80%
Quebec 93%
Atlantic 86%
Table 2: Respondents in favour of bilingualism for all of Canada – By age range
Age range Percentage (%) of respondents in favour of bilingualism
Between 18 and 34 90%
Between 35 and 54 84%
55 and older 79%

Advantages of bilingualism

Respondents said:

  • improved job prospects (95%)
  • provide better service (94%)
  • meet Canadians who speak the other official language (89%)
  • easier to travel in other countries (89%)
  • become familiar with another culture (88%)

8 out of 10 Canadians agree

  • "Having 2 official languages is positive for Canada's international image"
  • "Because English and French are part of our history, it makes sense that they have equal status"
  • "Having 2 official languages is one of the things that really define Canada"
  • "Having 2 official languages has made Canada a more welcoming place for immigrants from different cultures and ethnic backgrounds"

Appreciation and perception of Canada's 2 official languages

(Source: Results of the 2016–2017 survey in the context of the evaluation of the Official Languages Support Programs)

Linguistic duality in Canada is seen as an asset
  • 82% of Canadians believe that linguistic duality facilitates understanding between Canadians
  • 70% of Canadians agree that linguistic duality is part of our Canadian identity
  • 80% of Canadians believe that being bilingual improves the chances of finding a job
  • 65% of Canadians believe that knowledge of Canada's 2 official languages is a source of cultural enrichment
  • 67% of Canadians believe that knowledge of Canada's 2 official languages strengthens national unity
Canadians are open to getting to know members of the other official language communities
  • 62% of Canadians consider relationships between Anglophones and Francophones to be more positive today than they were 10 years ago
  • 78% of Canadians support language exchanges in schools
  • Between 60 and 68% of Canadians would like to know more about Francophone and Anglophone groups, in both majority and minority communities
  • 31% of Canadians consume cultural products in the other language
  • 67% of Canadians have contact with at least one person from the other language group
  • French (52% of Anglophones) and English (83% of Francophones) are by far the languages Canadians most wish to learn

The future of Canada's official languages and diversity

(Source: Language Projections for Canada – 2011 to 2036, Statistics Canada)

Evolution of linguistic groups

Despite the increase in the absolute number of Francophones by 2036, the demographic weight of this group will continue to decline.

Table 3: First official language spoken, French
Year Absolute number, all of Canada Demographic weight
2011 7.8 million people 23%
2036 From 8.6 to 9.2 million people From 20 to 21%

By 2036, the number of people with neither English nor French as their mother tongue could exceed the proportion of Canadians whose mother tongue is French.

Table 4: Mother tongue, all of Canada
Year French English Not English/French
2011 21% 59% 20%
2036 From 17 to 18% From 52 to 56% From 26 to 31%
Evolution of knowledge of official languages in Canada

Despite the increase in the absolute number of people able to speak French by 2036, their percentage may be decreasing.

Table 5: Knowledge of French, all of Canada
Year Number of Canadians able to speak French Percentage (%) of the Canadian population able to speak French
2011 10.2 million people 29.8%
2036 From 11.7 to 12.5 million people From 27.6 to 28.4%

On the cusp of the 50th anniversary of the Official Languages Act

(Source: Opinions gathered during the Official Languages Branch Cross-Canada Consultations on Official Languages in 2016)

Actions on which the Government of Canada should focus the greatest attention

Respondents said:

  • provide better support for the vitality of communities (53%)
  • promote both English and French as languages for integrating Canadians of diverse origins (43%)
  • set more ambitious targets accompanied by more concrete measures to boost the bilingualism rate nationwide (39%)
Best ways to encourage people to learn the second official language

Respondents said:

  • make regular school second-language learning programs more effective (57%)
  • support learning initiatives in schools, from primary to university (44%)
  • improve access to second-language immersion programs (40%)
To promote the vitality of official language minority communities

According to respondents, we must:

  • support access to minority-language education from early childhood to the post-secondary level (63%)
  • ensure access to public services (justice, health care, etc.) in the official language of their choice (55%)
  • ensure access to quality federal services in the official language of their choice
Ways to support and promote learning of the second official language

Respondents said:

  • provide more quality second-language courses from early childhood to high school (53%)
  • support a second-language education program starting in early childhood (48%)
  • better support second-language immersion programs (38%)
  • support language training for adults (37%)
Challenges facing Francophone minority communities

Respondents said:

  • lack of opportunities to live, learn and work in French on a daily basis (60%)
  • lack of professionals with the capacity to offer services in French (46%)
  • little if any visibility of French in public places (44%)
  • absence of recognition of linguistic rights by various levels of government in Canada (38%)
Challenges facing English-speaking communities in Quebec

Respondents said:

  • recognition of the English-speaking community by the various levels of government in Canada (75%)
  • opportunities to live, learn and work in English on a daily basis (66%)
  • presence of English-speaking public institutions (66%)
  • access to quality public education in English from primary school to postsecondary education (45%)

Circle of support for community vitality

Infographic 1: Circle of support for community vitality

Infographic 1: Circle of support for community vitality
Infographic 1: Circle of support for community vitality – Image description

The Circle of support for community vitality is a graphic representation of the support provided by federal institutions to official language minority communities at various stages of life.

The infographic has the shape of a circle and is divided into 3 categories:

  • "Renewal and mobilization", which refers to initiatives related to early childhood, education and youth, and immigration
  • "Achievements and outreach", which refers to initiatives related to social life, cultural life and economic life
  • "Rapprochement", which refers to initiatives related to the promotion of duality, bilingualism and diversity

All around the circle, there are key concepts floating, which refer to various types of initiatives related to each of these categories.

The key concepts related to the first category (Renewal and mobilization) include:

  • physical activity
  • modernization
  • healthy diet
  • knowledge of the needs
  • welcome
  • quality of services
  • skills acquisition
  • intergovernmental cooperation
  • strategies and tools
  • essential work-related skills
  • family literacy
  • language transmission
  • overseas marketing and recruitment
  • sense of belonging

The key concepts related to the second category (Achievements and outreach) include:

  • health
  • cultural infrastructure
  • support for community groups
  • collaboration
  • small and medium-sized enterprises
  • artists and creators
  • technologies
  • museums
  • success and innovation
  • young interns
  • training, mentoring and counselling
  • commitment
  • non-profit Francophone organizations
  • international outreach
  • entrepreneurship
  • participation

The key concepts related to the third category (Rapprochement) include:

  • promoting bilingualism
  • language skills
  • awareness
  • communication
  • quality linguistic resources
  • minority language
  • local forums
  • youth ambassadors

This report addresses each of these 3 categories to present various initiatives that were carried out during the 2016–2017 fiscal year.

Renewal and mobilization

The Government of Canada recognizes the importance of investing in the future of official language minority communities. Contributing to the renewal and preservation of community engagement is a priority. Working with them, ensuring access to a continuum of quality services from a very young age, and implementing strategies that promote the integration of Francophone immigrants into communities will contribute to their full development.

Renewal and mobilization of official language minority communities: [Translation] "The future of Canada's official languages depends on the new generations. Learning a language and wanting to learn a second language, is like a love story in our community. It is a story that touches on cultural, social, and economic aspects. Therefore, any action taken to reinforce the place that young people will take in the development of official languages, in common living spaces, in gathering places, is good."

René Cormier
President, Société nationale de l'Acadie
Cross-Canada Official Languages Consultations, 2016 (New Brunswick)

Early childhood

The Government of Canada, together with the provinces and territories, recognizes that the first years of life are critical to a child's healthy development and learning. In Budget 2016, the Government of Canada proposed to invest $500 million in 2017–2018 to support the establishment of the National Early Learning and Child Care Framework, a pan-Canadian initiative coordinated by Employment and Social Development Canada.

  • Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages: Publication of a report profiling early childhood in the communities to better document the main issues.
  • Ministerial Conference on the Canadian Francophonie: In June 2016, the Provincial and Territorial ministers agreed that programs and policies contribute to transmission of the French language. The creation of a federal/provincial/territorial early childhood discussion forum is being considered.
  • Employment and Social Development Canada:
    • Innoweave, a program established by the J.W. McConnell Family Foundation, has given over 200 bilingual workshops attended by nearly 1,000 organizations, including 600 that provide services directly to families and children.
    • Strategies and tools developed to improve the essential and entrepreneurial skills of workers in the field of early childhood education and ensure quality services and business viability (Réseau de développement économique et d'employabilité du Canada and the Commission nationale des parents francophones).
  • Public Health Agency of Canada:
    • Inventory of grants and contributions earmarked for child assistance and prenatal nutrition to get a better idea of the health status of mothers and children
    • An additional $389,000 granted to Saskatchewan's Réseau santé en français for Healthy Start
    • 36 Francophone preschool education centres in Saskatchewan and New Brunswick offer programs to increase the physical activity and nutrition for children ages 3 to 5 and their families in Francophone communities
  • Official languages support programs: Purchase of books and audiovisual materials, and activities in French offered by the Association régionale de la côte Ouest (Port-au-Port in Newfoundland and Labrador) to facilitate French learning during early childhood and at home.
  • Education agreement with New Brunswick: Family Literacy Program: Increase in the number of Anglophone children enrolling in French kindergarten.

Education and youth

[Translation] "Education […] is the cornerstone of our community's development. Without French schools, the chances of our community surviving are nil. We have 6 schools that are all attached to community and early childhood centres. As such, we have very strong partners and the community has a good chance of growing."

Émile Gallant
President, Commission scolaire de langue française of Prince Edward Island
Cross-Canada Official Languages Consultations, 2016 (Prince Edward Island)

Investing in education

The Official Languages Branch manages 13 agreements relating to minority-language education and second-language instruction. These agreements with the Canadian government help Canadians learn English and French as their first or second official language.

  • Teaching materials
  • Interactive tools
  • Cultural intervention framework
  • Information guide for teachers
  • Mentoring programs
Support to institutions fosters community development

(Source: Statistics Canada, 2015–2016; Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, 2018; Canadian Heritage, 2016–2017)

  • 40 school boards
  • 920 schools
  • 244,500 students
  • 120 community radio stations and newspapers
  • 300 community agencies
Table 6: Implementation expenditures for the "minority-language education" component (Protocol for the Agreement for Minority-Language Education and Second-Language Instruction) (millions of dollars)
2016–2017 Total since 2013
$165.3M $651.7M

Infrastructure support

The Post-Secondary Institutions Strategic Investment Fund of the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada: up to $2 billion over 3 years, starting in 2016–2017, for infrastructure projects at post-secondary institutions that provide services to communities.

  • Modernization, research and marketing facilities
  • Universities, colleges, polytechnic schools
  • 31 projects in 16 institutions for a total financial contribution of over $261 million in 2016–2017

Education programs

Many education programs have contributed to the acquisition of varied knowledge and the social and civic participation of youth:

  • Canadian War Museum Supply Line: a free, travelling educational program offered to all Canadian schools about the Canadian experience abroad during the First World War: 47 Francophone schools from coast to coast have participated.
  • Natural Resources Canada promotes and disseminates science in French at French-language secondary schools and French immersion schools.
  • The Official Languages Support Programs funded a Franco-Ontarian Students' Association project entitled "Le Grand vernissage étudiant de l'Ontario français": 75 Francophone and francophile students from Ottawa, Hearst, Toronto and Sudbury participated in art days led by 3 artists from French Ontario.
  • The Public Health Agency of Canada has funded mental health promotion programs in schools in both official languages and has spent $60,000 over the last 2 years to support the availability of a French-language program for The Fourth R, a consortium of researchers and professionals dedicated to promoting healthy adolescent relationships and reducing at-risk behaviours.

Youth civic participation

  • Prime Minister's Youth Council: The Prime Minister's Youth Council was announced in the fall of 2016 with the appointment of 15 founding members and 11 additional members in January 2017. These youth members were selected from 17,000 online applications. Taken into consideration were their interests and engagement in priority issues such as the environment, mental health and well-being, justice and human rights, employment and women's participation, and reconciliation. These young people reflect Canada's diversity, and some from communities, advocate their engagement in the Canadian and international Francophonie.
  • Many young people in Quebec have participated in the "Fostering Organizational Renewal through Enriching Volunteer Experience and Recognition (FOREVER)" project run by the Quebec Anglophone Heritage Network. The project has contributed to reinforcing a sense of belonging to the minority language community and is aimed at youth in particular.
  • "Youth Take Charge" (Canadian Heritage) provides young Canadians with the opportunity to better understand both linguistic communities.
  • The Road to 2017: Young Quebecers Leading the Way is a project that has given young Francophones and Anglophones the opportunity to share their viewpoints within the forum of A Plan for the Future: Quebec Youth and Canada in 2067.
Table 7: Participation rate in the Odyssey, Explore and Exchanges Canada programs
Program 2016–2017 Total since 2013
Odyssey 301 1,203
Explore 7,057 28,228
Exchanges Canada 12,500 49,600

Vocational training

In justice
  • Justice Canada has supported projects aimed at developing academic curricula for bilingual students who wish to pursue a career in the justice sector.
  • Through a partnership with the University of Saskatchewan's College of Law, bilingual students from Saskatoon can now take one third of their legal training in French, through distance learning provided by the University of Ottawa.
  • The first of its kind in Canada, the Certificate in French Common Law has been offered to law students since the fall of 2016. In addition to the regular academic program, students also take high-level training in French legal terminology and writing and language rights.
In health
  • 860 students have graduated from 100 post-secondary health programs in French, funded by Health Canada, in 11 colleges and universities located outside of Quebec.
  • More than 70% of the French-language students in health programs (outside Quebec) who successfully completed their programs were hired within the communities.
  • McGill University has launched customized online English courses for health care and social service providers, with a target of 1,500 enrolments per year.
  • The Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada has continued its partnership project with Société Santé en français, Consortium national de formation en santé and Médecins francophones du Canada to recruit Francophone medical students from 14 English-language faculties of medicine in 8 provinces of Canada, in order to meet the needs of Francophone minority communities. As a result of this project, 578 Francophone and francophile students were identified in existing undergraduate medical education programs in 2015. Since then, 50 learning and networking activities have been implemented in all these faculties, as well as an English-French online toolbox, containing learning resources.
  • The Mental Health Commission of Canada has produced educational videos on mental health in the workplace for front-line workers. These videos are available in both official languages and have been adapted to reflect cultural realities.
  • In partnership with the Mental Health Commission of Canada, the Société santé en français has coordinated mental health first aid training in French for the communities: 27 instructors and more than 700 rescuers have been trained across the country.

Immigration

8 out of 10 Canadians agree: Having 2 official languages has made Canada a more welcoming place for immigrants from different cultures and ethnic backgrounds.

(Source: Survey results released by the Official Languages Commissioner in 2016)

Infographic 2: Immigration process steps

Infographic: Immigration process steps.  Description follows
Infographic 2: Immigration process steps – Image description

The infographic illustrates the main steps related to the immigration process (which is one of the components of the "Renewal and mobilization" category of the Circle of support for the vitality of official language minority communities).

The word "Immigration" is in a circle in the centre of the infographic. Around this central circle, there are 5 small circles connected to each other. Each circle represents one of the 5 steps of the immigration process:

  • promotion and recruitment abroad
  • settlement and integration
  • partner and stakeholder mobilization
  • identification of needs
  • lessons learned

The following key concepts related to the immigration process are floating all around these 5 circles:

  • skilled workers
  • integration
  • language training
  • welcoming refugees
  • destination Canada
  • mobility
  • entrepreneurship
  • definition of an immigrant
  • intergovernmental collaborations
  • improved retention
  • easier recruitment
  • enhancement of immigrant women
  • express entry
  • consultation and commitment

Some of these key concepts are addressed in this report to present various initiatives that were carried out during the 2016-2017 fiscal year.

Table 8: Population according to first official language spoken (FOLS), Canada, 2016
First official language spoken (FOLS) Percentage (%) of population
English 75.4%
French 22.8%
Neither English nor French (no FOLS) 1.8%

English and French are the languages of integration: 98.2% of Canadians speak English or French.

Important immigration initiatives: Partner and stakeholder engagement

  • Improvements to the Express Entry system now make it easier for both English- and French-speaking foreign nationals to enter the country.
  • The new component of the International Mobility Program was designed to facilitate the selection of foreign skilled workers interested in coming to work in Canada (outside Quebec) and identified during promotional activities of the federal government involving Francophone community stakeholders. Simplifying the entry process to the country for skilled workers contributes to the development of communities with respect for Canadian values.
  • Facilitating the entry of immigrants into Canada with a new definition of immigrant: Adopting a new definition of a French-speaking and English-speaking immigrant helps to establish a more accurate picture of French and English-speaking immigration at the national and regional levels and to better reflect the degree of achievement of various federal targets for French-speaking immigration.

    "French-speaking immigrant" means an immigrant for whom French is the first Canadian official language of usage"
    (Source: Definition of a French-speaking immigrant according to Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada)

  • Identify needs: The Journée de réflexion sur l'immigration francophone brings together stakeholders from various sectors, including research (universities), public policy, governments and communities, and the regional Réseaux en immigration francophone to exchange ideas about the challenges and opportunities facing Francophone immigration. The 11th edition took place in Moncton, with over 200 registered participants.
  • The first Joint Forum on Francophone Immigration between federal, provincial and territorial ministers responsible for immigration and Francophone affairs was organized with the aim of promoting Francophone immigration across the country.
  • Integration: To better understand how enhanced levels of essential skills affect the socioeconomic integration of Francophone immigrants in communities, a study was funded by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada: 776 participants from 6 provinces were recruited, although the study targeted only 300.
  • Promotion and recruitment abroad:
    • The 12th edition of Destination Canada took place in Paris and Brussels. This rich forum provided candidates with tools to understand immigration programs, explore the labour market, and learn about the services available in communities to prepare for their departure and their first steps in their new life in Canada.
    • Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada-Paris office collaborated with several stakeholders (the Fédération des communautés francophones et acadienne, the Economic Development and Employability Network, the Francophone Immigration Networks, provinces and territories, the public employment services abroad) for the purpose of establishing an effective promotion and recruitment strategy regarding Francophone immigration in communities.
  • Immigrant women: Status of Women Canada project that fosters the financial readiness of Francophone immigrant women from Niagara Region, Ontario. Conducted in collaboration with community women and community partners in the financial and academic sectors, the project conducted a review of the limitations of existing financial readiness programs and their impacts on the economic prosperity of women in the region.
  • For entrepreneurs (newcomers): La Cité collégiale's COFFRES.ca project, funded by FedDev Ontario, is an online toolbox in the form of a computer platform for young Francophone and newcomer entrepreneurs. La Cité collégiale has developed a range of online video training clips.
  • Welcoming Syrian refugees: A successful partnership between the Catholic Centre for Immigration, Maison Sophia's House and the Canada Science and Technology Museum: 10 interactive workshops for about 250 children refugees, and scientific knowledge shared in both official languages.
  • Travelling exhibit on Francophone immigration: As part of the Canada 150 celebrations, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada, in partnership with the Fédération des communautés francophones et acadienne, created a travelling exhibit that toured across Canada, stopping at strategic locations to promote the existence of Francophone minority communities. This bilingual exhibit presents important phases in the history of Francophone immigration in Canada as well as statements from Francophone newcomers who have settled in the communities.
  • National Francophone Immigration Week: To mark National Francophone Immigration Week, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada was the host of approximately 40 young French-speaking newcomers in Ottawa. The students learned about the history of immigration in Canada and they developed their own selection criteria for their imaginary country. They also participated in a quiz on citizenship, they discovered the basics of passport security and took part in a motivational session.

Achievements and outreach

Access to quality services and a rich social life for official language minority communities (communities) is crucial to their vitality. Being able to benefit at an early age from educational, cultural and sport infrastructure contributes not only to the acquisition of knowledge and skills in one's own language, but also to individuals' ability to develop a sense of belonging and pride in their community, and be able to demonstrate it in Canada and internationally.

Social life

In February 2017, the Government of Canada reinstated and modernized the Court Challenges Program. Through this program, Canadians can access the courts for the litigation of cases of national significance, regarding certain constitutional and quasi-constitutional official language rights and human rights.

Health care services

  • Three (3) new health care agencies received their designation as official providers of French language health services from the Ontario government.
  • Prince Edward Island Health launched its new bilingual health card, which identifies the preferred language of service of Prince Edward Island's Francophone residents.
  • The Nova Scotia Health Network worked with the Strongest Families Institute to produce the French versions of their telehealth online services for child and youth mental health.
  • A collaboration among federal institutions resulted in the creation of a directory of health care professionals who can provide services to communities across the country in their language of choice.

Professional development

  • The Department of National Defence supported Francophones across the country looking to start a military career by ensuring that university education in French returned to the Royal Military College Saint-Jean.

Justice services

  • The Department of Justice funded the implementation of Legal Information Centres, 4 of which are managed respectively by the Associations of French Speaking Jurists of Nova Scotia, Ontario, Saskatchewan and Alberta. The fifth, Infojustice Manitoba, was opened in May 2016 and is an initiative of the Société franco-manitobaine, of which the Association de juristes d'expression française du Manitoba is a member.
  • Justice Canada has also supported other projects such as workshops for newcomers in the communities.

Technology

  • Improved access to telecommunications services for Canadians in Northern minority language communities provides greater access to a large quantity of information and services in their official language.
  • Several communities in Nunavut, the Northwest Territories and the Yukon, including Francophones communities in Whitehorse, Yellowknife, Hay River and Iqaluit, benefited from an improvement in telecommunications services such as high-speed Internet and advanced wireless services; thanks to the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission intervention with service providers.
  • Western Economic Diversification supported a webinar training project focusing on organizational and professional development skills. More than 100 Francophone agencies in Alberta received this training.

Cultural life

Access to books and music, film and television, or visual and theatre arts in one's own language is essential to community vitality.

[Translation] "We should also be discussing how to ensure that minority official languages are not seen as only a professional asset but also as a cultural and educational asset."

Lucie Taussig
Culture and Communication Officer, Alliance française Halifax
Cross-Canada Official Languages Consultations, 2016 (Nova Scotia)

Support for cultural infrastructure

In official language minority communities, cultural spaces give Canadian artists the platforms and resources they need to succeed. These are gathering places that contribute to identity building. They encourage the participation of youth, provide opportunities for professional training and stimulate the regional economy.

  • In Quebec:
    • La Centaur Theatre Company has completed major renovations to its facilities, both architectural work and improved theatre equipment
    • The Brome Lake Theatre, and Anglophone theatre in Knowlton, Quebec has also updated its sound and lighting equipment, and built a new reception area
  • In Ontario, the Association des professionnels de la chanson et de la musique franco-ontariennes, Centre social et culturel Frontenac, University of Ottawa, and Alliance française Toronto were able to update specialized equipment to enhance the quality of services to Francophone communities.
  • In the museum and heritage sector: 21 projects funded for community organizations, including improving the quality of facilities and collections management.

Support to artists and creators

  • 19 publishers from official language communities received financial assistance and 29 publications were produced by agencies from the communities through Canadian Heritage's Canada Periodical Fund.
  • The Canada Council for the Arts' Market Access Strategy supports touring projects in several Canadian provinces and territories: $750,000 was invested in 2016–2017.
  • The Canada Council for the Arts has also supported the English Language Arts Network to offer workshops to emerging artists and facilitate both domestic and international tours.
  • The National Arts Centre's classroom Visits by Creative Artists Program at the French Theatre gave more than 400 Franco-Ontarian children from kindergarten to grade 12 the chance to meet Francophone artists.
  • Telefilm's Micro-Budget Production Program supports the production and distribution of a first feature length film.
  • This year, Telefilm Canada added a new partner for Francophones outside Quebec: LE LABO.

Promotion of artists

  • The Canadian Heritage Music Showcases supported the group "Les hôtesses d'Hilaire" from New Brunswick during its participation at several events in Quebec, Canada and internationally, including at the Francofolies de Spa in Belgium, the Festival Le Chaînon manquant in France and the Festival international de la Louisiane.
  • Over 700 community festivals, events, and arts and heritage activities were funded by Canadian Heritage Building Communities Through Arts and Heritage program, which encourages the participation of volunteers and local artists. The program earmarks a portion of its budget to finance projects presented by community agencies.
  • Rooted in the communities, CBC-Radio Canada is committed to giving visibility to community charity events: Grand partage de Windsor, l'Arbre de l'espoir in Acadie, the Alberta Francothon, and Mouvement d'implication francophone d'Orléans (MIFO).
  • The National Film Board has signed an agreement with the English Language Arts Network and the Quebec English-language Production Council to strengthen the audiovisual sector and Anglophone culture in Quebec.

Showcasing heritage and tourism

  • French Heritage Day was held at the Motherwell Homestead national historic site, with a theatrical production and historical programs in French related to the 19th century. Francophone and French immersion schools took part in the activities, which were also open to the general public.
  • Parks Canada's Escaouette Festival presents the traces of the first Acadians who settled in Cap Rouge. The event is widely publicized on tourism sites in the province.
  • The Société Promotion Grand-Pré has expanded its tourism offering. Among other things, the Acadian genealogy service has been improved.
  • The Exhibition Circulation Fund has enabled 61 museums to borrow and host many bilingual exhibitions, such as the Canada Agriculture and Food Museum's exhibition "Taste of Science", or « Entre ciel et terre » produced by the Musée du Bas-Saint-Laurent.
  • The Canadian Museum of History celebrated the 100th anniversary of women's suffrage. A partnership was established with the Association de la presse francophone: a press conference and production of an advertising insert distributed in 22 Francophone community newspapers across the country helped to promote the event. The Museum also announced the opening of the Canadian History Room, which includes an area specifically for communities.

Support for international outreach

  • TV5 Québec Canada provides international Francophone content to Canadians: 10.7 million Canadian households have access to TV5 Québec Canada, and 9.8% of TV5MONDE broadcasts are Canadian.
  • The Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations in Geneva (Global Affairs Canada) organized a screening of the film "Zachary Richard: Cajun Heart" and a question and answer session with Acadian director Phil Comeau. The event, co-sponsored by the International Organization of La Francophonie and the American Mission, promoted Acadian history and the French language among Canada's international partners in Geneva.
  • Air Canada participated in Canada Week in Paris, at the Festival Pause Guitare d'Albi and the Festival Interceltique de Lorient as part of a mission organized by the Commission du tourisme acadien du Canada atlantique.

Canada 150

Celebration projects like Canada 150 create wonderful opportunities for Canadians to come together and celebrate our shared values.

The Official Languages Branch and the regional offices, programs and agencies of the Canadian Heritage portfolio, as well as federal institutions mobilized in advance of Canada 150:

  • impact assessments were conducted
  • linguistic clauses were included in contribution agreements
  • information kits and best practices tools were provided to all beneficiaries
  • a monitoring strategy was implemented
  • the awareness of hundreds of organizations was raised
  • major events in the National Capital Region and in 18 major Canadian cities were organized to mark the start of the celebrations, with artists from all regions, promoting linguistic duality

In all, the Canada 150 Fund approved 118 projects that contributed to community vitality and the promotion of linguistic duality. Of those projects, nearly 70 were led by community organizations.

The Canada 150 Fund supported the National Acadian Day. The Fund also supported the Saint-Jean-Baptiste, fête de la francophonie canadienne. The cultural pride of French-speaking Canadians is expressed across the country.

  • The Tourism Corridor is a legacy of the Government of Canada as part of the 150th anniversary of Confederation. The Tourism Corridor is a group of partners, more than 200 tourism-related topics, video clips, photo montages, a mobile app and a website. Created to highlight the Francophone and Acadian heritage and culture of each of Canada's provinces and territories, this project helps, among other things, to promote domestic and international Francophone tourism markets and generate economic spinoffs.
  • Édu EXPO is a national community-based project created by the Fédération nationale des conseils scolaires francophones as part of Canada 150, to develop a travelling bilingual exhibition to highlight La Francophonie in Canada from yesterday to today. Interactive activities promoting coming together, a video montage with testimonials, and a teaching guide have been presented since September 2016 in different Canadian cities (Winnipeg, Vancouver, Whitehorse, Ottawa, Toronto, Sudbury, Halifax, Moncton, St. John's).
  • 1 Nation 4 Lenses: Available for free on the National Film Board of Canada's website, this special program features a selection of films from a vast collection of audiovisual works in French and English. For example:
    • Daniel Léger's Un dimanche à 105 ans (2007)
    • Marc Daigle's Pimp ma botte (2005)
    • Marie-France Guerette's Le choeur d'une culture (2009) about a French-language choir in Alberta
    • Caroline Monnet's 360 degrés (2008) about a young Francophone Cree living in Winnipeg
  • Canada 150 Community Infrastructure Program: In 2016–2017, Western Economic Diversification allocated funding to 23 infrastructure projects that have directly benefited Western Francophone communities. For example:
    • a project by the Association canadienne-française de l'Alberta to improve the Heritage Park Historical Village
    • upgrades to the École Provencher School de Winnipeg playground
    • and the renovation of the Collège Mathieu library in the municipality of Gravelbourg
  • Le Canada c'est moi!: Organized by the Association des parents fransaskois, this project consisted in offering a series of workshops between October 2016 and October 2017 for Fransaskois families across the province under the theme "I am Canada!" Workshops were given to participating families to develop visual arts, video, music and writing projects that reflect their values and pride as members of the Canadian family.
  • With the support of the Canada 150 Fund, Apathy is Boring and Experiences Canada provided youth aged 7 to 30 with opportunities to engage directly in activities across the country, to share ideas about Canada's future, and demonstrate leadership and engagement in their communities.
  • The La Grande Traversée project produced educational and interactive digital video clips adapted to Franco-Manitoban students and French-as-a-second-language students, which helped to educate young people about the importance of the 150th anniversary of Confederation, and the role that the Francophone community played in the founding of the country and the province.

Economic life

"Official language minority communities are drivers of growth, the engines of prosperity, and contributors to this country's wealth. We must continue to invest in this potential."

Grant Myers
Provincial Development Officer, Community Economic Development and Employability Corporation (CEDEC)
Cross-Canada Official Languages Consultations, 2016 (Quebec)

Internship and training

  • The Youth Internship Project, managed by the Assemblée de la Francophonie de l'Ontario and funded by the Federal Economic Development Agency of Southern Ontario, enabled 54 young people to participate in an internship in 2016–2017, 16 of which were in small and medium-sized enterprises and 38 in Francophone not-for-profit organizations. In all, 15 young interns were selected for a full-time position at the end of their internship.
  • Likewise, the Young Canada Works program offered 65 summer jobs and 10 internships in small and medium-sized museums, all of which were held by young people from the communities, notably in the Réseau du patrimoine franco-ontarien, the Société historique de Saint-Boniface and the Village historique acadien of Nova-Scotia.
  • The Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency provides financial support to LearnSphere Canada for its Non-Profit Training Program, which promotes agency viability by providing training, mentoring and counselling tailored to the unique needs of this sector, which represents approximately 40,000 jobs in New Brunswick.

Entrepreneurship

  • The Fonds d'emprunt communautaire féminin, supported by Economic Development Canada in Quebec, is helping to develop entrepreneurship and the financial autonomy of women entrepreneurs and offers personalized pre-startup, start-up and microcredit support services to Anglophone women entrepreneurs, particularly in the Laurentides region.
  • Through the Newfoundland and Labrador Francophone Economic Development Network, more than 500 students from Francophone and immersion secondary schools across the province participated in the 2016 bilingual career and entrepreneurship event. Among other things, this initiative aims to provide youth with information about entrepreneurship, innovation and bilingual career opportunities. Over the past 4 years, 80% of students reported that the activity encouraged them to continue their studies in French and to embark on a bilingual career.
  • The Federal Economic Development Agency of Southern Ontario invested in collaboration. This took the form of meetings between key partners whose goal is to share information on success and innovation.

[Translation] "There is no doubt that from a business standpoint, English is the crucial language. However, a person can be proficient in both languages, and speaking English and French gives individuals a big advantage in an international context. If you look at Europe, French […] is a competitive advantage."

Michel Matifat
President, Société de développement économique de la Colombie-Britannique
Cross-Canada Official Languages Consultations, 2016 (British Columbia)

Tourism

  • With the support of Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada, the Tourism Intelligence Network project contributes to a better understanding of the priorities and needs of official language minority communities. Strong alliances have been created and collaboration agreements have been renewed with Destination Canada.
  • Announced as part of the Canada 150 countdown, Les Escales de l'histoire was conducted by the Paul Gérin-Lajoie Foundation, in partnership with the Ligue Nationale d'Improvisation and Via Rail. More than 300 high schools were identified across Canada to participate in a spelling bee and historical essay contest on diversity or fun expressions in French.
  • Air Canada has been involved in promoting communities internationally through an advertising page in the new edition of the 2016–2017 Alberta Tourism Guide. The publication has been distributed in Quebec, Alberta, France and Belgium primarily. The advertising positioning on the back cover gives great visibility to the Francophone reality in Canada.

Services to business people

  • The 2016–2017 Public Service and Procurement Canada Hotel Card Program allowed participating organizations to receive preferential rates on a total of 931 overnight stays on business trips.

Rapprochement

The connections between the 2 major linguistic groups in our country reflect the open-mindedness that is the pride of Canadians. This section presents a few examples of initiatives that federal institutions have undertaken in 2016–2017 to celebrate our official languages, to help Francophones and Anglophones in Canada get to know each other better, and to support the efforts of Canada's provinces and territories to enable young people of all ages to learn English or French as a second language in a variety of ways.

Duality, bilingualism, diversity

Linguistic duality in Canada is seen as an asset: 82% of Canadians believe that linguistic duality facilitates understanding between Canadians.

(Source: Results from the 2016–2017 Survey for the Evaluation of the Official Languages Support Programs of the Official Languages Branch)

Learning the 2 official languages contributes to a better understanding of diversity and a rapprochement among Canadians.

Significant support for the promotion of bilingualism in Canada comes from the Official Languages Branch. Canadians benefit from education and training opportunities in the other official language of the country, taking advantage of the many resulting economic, cultural and national identity advantages.

Investments in education enable 2.4 million young Canadians to learn French or English as a second official language in majority-language schools, including over 428,619 English-speaking youth who are learning French in immersion programs.

Advantages of bilingualism:

  • job prospects: 95% of respondents
  • meet Canadians who speak the other official language: 89% of respondents

(Source: Survey results released by the Official Languages Commissioner in 2016)

Table 9: Official languages and bilingualism are at the heart of the Canadian identity
Year English-French bilingual Francophones Anglophones
1986 4,067,200 5,985,808 18,744,983
2016 6,216,075 7,914,498 26,216,243

(Source: Research Team, Official Languages Branch)

Table 10: Implementation expenditures for the "second-language instruction" component (Protocol for Agreement for Minority-Language Education and Second-Language Instruction) (millions of dollars)
2016–2017 Total since 2013
$89.7M $356.9M
Table 11: Increase in the number of enrolments in French immersion programs offered outside Quebec since 2003
Year Number of enrolments
2003–2004 222,837
2004–2005 288,970
2005–2006 295,197
2006–2007 300,464
2007–2008 311,115
2008–2009 317,662
2009–2010 328,716
2010–2011 341,694
2011–2012 356,580
2012–2013 372,879
2013–2014 392,430
2014–2015 409,899
2015–2016 428,619

We can notice an increase of 51.5% of the number of enrolments since 2003–2004.

Language proficiency

  • Through Virtual Immersion in French, the Official Languages Support Programs funded the Ontario Trillium Foundation's "Voilà Community Help" project which has helped to develop a virtual platform that will help students improve their oral language skills. At least 11 school boards are involved in the project, and more than 7,000 students enrolled in a French as a second-language program in Ontario are able to use French outside of school.
  • The revamping of the Language Portal of Canada (Public Services and Procurement Canada), now more user-friendly, provides Canadians with fast and easy access to countless high-quality language resources in both English and French.
  • The Official Languages Branch continues to develop a free online service for trusted learning and maintaining English and French as a second language to allow all Canadians to develop their second official language skills.

Youth programs

The Official Languages Support Programs have supported:

  • "French for the Future" which has carried out various activities, including:
    • the National Ambassador Youth Forum, which develops leadership training to help young people become French language ambassadors in their communities
    • the National Essay Contest, which offers scholarships to encourage high school students to pursue post-secondary studies in French
    • about 15 local forums presented in 13 Canadian cities, leading some students to change their minds and continue their studies in French
    • some 60 Franconnexion Sessions organized in about 30 schools help students create links between the French they learn at school and the benefits of bilingualism in everyday life
  • Experiences Canada offered 2,485 bilingual exchanges and proposed 306 exchanges with youth from the communities. Among other initiatives, one Francophone group from Manitoba and one from Quebec were matched for a language exchange in French.

Rapprochement

  • The Société historique de Saint-Boniface received funding for its project entitled "Western Perspective on the creation of the Canadian Confederation" as part of Canada 150. They created a virtual educational exhibit including texts, maps, posters and photos of the period from 1859 to 1867. Promotional activities were organized in Francophone rural communities for this project.
  • The Alliance française de Toronto's French-language learning courses welcome more than 6,000 students annually, and more than 80 events are presented each year at its cultural centre. VIA Rail provided transportation to artists from different francophonies (from Canada and other French-speaking countries) to travel to Toronto so that they could perform in French in the Queen City.
  • The Appartenances et rapprochements culturels par les arts program has enabled the province of Manitoba to support arts projects that reinforce the sense of belonging, rapprochement and promotion of Francophone artistic expression to Manitobans.
  • From April 2016 to March 2018, "History, culture and mixing: a cultural exploration" at the Centre culturel franco-manitobain brought together a dozen artists from Manitoba and Sept-Îles, Quebec, who will work together to design new works evoking their connections with their Métis or Aboriginal heritage.

Enhancing linguistic duality

  • The Office of the Secretary to the Governor General organized awards ceremonies to honour outstanding individuals who have demonstrated extraordinary excellence, courage or dedication, honouring Francophone recipients in Anglophone regions and Anglophone recipients in Francophone regions.
  • Sport Canada worked with the Société franco-manitobaine, the Division scolaire franco-manitobaine, and the Université de Saint-Boniface to secure the participation of communities in the organization of the 2017 Canada Summer Games.
  • With the goal of attracting Canadian and international tourists, the Montréal en Lumière Festival project highlights Canadian and international Anglophone and Francophone communities. This major event benefits the Canadian tourism industry, both for Francophones and Anglophones, and has been financially supported by the Economic Development Agency of Canada for the Regions of Quebec.

Consulting to serve you better

In 2016–2017, in addition to the Official Languages Branch 2016 Cross-Canada Official Languages Consultations, federal institutions organized some 50 days of dialogue with official language minority communities. Federal institutions have implemented innovative consultation methods and have worked in a coordinated manner to consult a greater diversity of community stakeholders.

  • 2016 Cross-Canada Official Languages Consultations: In June 2016, the Honourable Mélanie Joly announced the launch of the 2016 Cross-Canada Official Languages Consultations. These consultations were an important first step in the fulfilment of one of her mandate commitments, namely to develop a new multi-year action plan for official languages. These consultations concluded in December 2016. The consultations, in numbers:
    • 22 round tables across the country, bringing together 370 participants
    • 5,500 people answered an online questionnaire
    • more than 90 written submissions were received from interested organizations and individuals
    • a working day chaired by the Minister and her Parliamentary Secretary, bringing together 117 participants from networks of representative organizations working in a minority situation and promoting linguistic duality
  • Consultations on the Renewal of the Official Languages Health Contribution Program: In September 2016, Health Canada held consultations on the renewal of the Official Languages Health Contribution Program, which reviewed the approach used to improve access to health services for communities. An online consultation was held from September 13 to November 4, 2016. This consultation targeted communities, academic researchers, the federal, provincial and territorial governments and the Canadian public as a whole.
  • Sectoral consultations conducted by Justice Canada: Justice Canada organized:
    • 10 consultation sessions involving 31 community-based organizations, including 20 members of the Réseau national de formation en justice, and 17 representatives from various sectors of the department
    • additional sectoral consultations with the Réseau des centres de jurilinguistique and the Fédération des associations de juristes d'expression française de common law
    • briefs and letters of support from various organizations, such as the Canadian Bar Association, the Conseil de la Magistrature du Québec and the Réseau national de formation en justice
  • Special Consultation with Francophone Minority Communities for the Development of the Next Multi-Year Official Languages Plan: Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada coordinated a special meeting with key community stakeholders to address several issues and thematic priorities related to the Francophone immigration pathway:
    • promotion
    • recruitment
    • selection and measures for the transition to permanent residence
    • the Francophone integration pathway
    • and research
  • Forum on Community Engagement and Anglophone Immigrants Setting in Quebec: Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada supported this initiative by the Quebec Community Groups Network, which worked closely with the Association for Canadian Studies to organize this forum on the sidelines of the 19th National Metropolis Conference (in Montreal, March 16 to 18, 2017). The Forum enabled the sharing of knowledge on issues and priorities related to Quebec's English-speaking community and helped the Department to better understand and consider opportunities for collaboration, within the limits of the Canada-Quebec Agreement and the mandate of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada.
  • Ongoing consultations with partners: Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada has conducted ongoing consultations with academic partners, government officials and community stakeholders to help guide the identification of priorities and future research projects related to Francophone immigration in the communities.
  • Information Day with Quebec's Anglophone Community: Information Day in Ottawa with Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada and the Quebec Community Groups Network and other organizations working with the English-speaking community of Quebec to exchange information on the needs for data and knowledge related to immigration in the communities. The Department hosted a session bringing together representatives of the English-speaking community in Quebec and Francophone minority communities to exchange information about how their networks work and the challenges and opportunities presented. These dialogue and networking sessions helped to strengthen the relationship with Quebec's English-speaking community and provided participants with a better understanding of the Department's activities.
  • Conference "150 Years of Legislative and Judicial Bilingualism: History, Current Reality and Outlook for the Future": This conference organized by Justice Canada was an exceptional opportunity to get an overview of a part of Canada's history and to celebrate the 2 official languages of the bijural system. The conference aimed to foster the full recognition and use of both English and French in Canadian society and in the legal and judicial sector. The conference brought together law students and members of the legal community to discuss the evolution, challenges and future of legislative and judicial bilingualism in Canada.
  • Community Dialogues: Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada maintained an ongoing dialogue with the communities and used a variety of consultation methods to better understand their priorities and needs. In response to feedback from the community about the need for ongoing dialogue, 2 monitoring committees were established (representing both language communities), which meet regularly throughout the year to share information and keep the dialogue going.

Regional spotlight: Vibrant Atlantic

(Source: Research Team, Official Languages Branch, based on the 2016 Census, Statistics Canada)

Table 12: Percentage of bilingual population in Atlantic Region (2016 Census)
Province Bilingual individuals Percentage (%) of bilingual population
New Brunswick 249,955 33.9%
Nova Scotia 95,380 10.5%
Prince Edward Island 17,840 12.7%
Newfoundland and Labrador 25,940 5%
Table 13: Francophone schools and school boards in Atlantic Region
Province Francophone schools Francophone school boards
New Brunswick 90 3
Nova Scotia 22 1
Prince Edward Island 6 1
Newfoundland and Labrador 5 1
Table 14: Number of French-immersion students in 2015–2016
Province Number of French-immersion students
New Brunswick 19,710
Nova Scotia 15,015
Prince Edward Island 4,809
Newfoundland and Labrador 10,185
Atlantic Region total 49,719
Table 15: Population of Atlantic Region by mother tongue
Mother tongue Percentage (%) of population
English 84.2%
French 11.9%
Other 3.9%
Table 16: Population of Atlantic Region by first official language spoken (FOLS)
First official language spoken (FOLS) Percentage (%) of population
English 88%
French 11.7%
Neither English nor French (without a FOLS) 0.3%

Immigration in the Atlantic Region

Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada has finalized the Canada–New Brunswick Immigration Agreement. An annex for French-speaking immigrants is included and provides for bilateral collaboration in terms of promoting, recruiting, selecting and integrating French-speaking immigrants in New Brunswick. The Department has also supported a number of agreements with recipient organizations that provide settlement services to French-speaking newcomers in each of the Atlantic provinces.

Intergovernmental collaboration on immigration

  • 21st Ministerial Conference on the Canadian Francophonie (Newfoundland and Labrador), June 2016: The Ministers discussed French-language services, Francophone immigration, tourism and early childhood as well as their participation in the next Forum on Francophone immigration.
  • Forum on Francophone Immigration (Moncton), March 2017: The Ministers expressed their support for a joint action plan involving the federal, provincial and territorial governments with respect to recruiting, settling and retaining Francophone immigrants. They also agreed to hold a federal-provincial-territorial and community symposium in 2018, with the purpose of laying the foundation for new collaboration.

Language Internship Program

In the spring of 2016, the Atlantic Federal Council launched a language internship pilot program. It provides federal public servants with the opportunity to spend a few months in a Francophone community organization while providing the host group with valuable expertise in a variety of sectors, including management, communications, accounting, etc. Approximately one dozen internships were organized and they proved to be a win-win for both the government institutions and the community organizations.

"Our first experience with a government intern was very positive. Her experience enabled her to share her knowledge in management and help us improve our processes and organize our files more effectively. Her presence was a definite plus. We recommend this program to everyone."

Deb O'Hanley
Assistant Director, Carrefour de l'Isle-Saint-Jean (Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island)

"I completed an internship in 2017 as part of a pilot project of the Official Languages Sub-Committee of the Atlantic Federal Council. I was paired with a host community organization, Le Carrefour de L'Isle-Saint-Jean. The time I spent really helped my ability to be more at ease engaging in French conversation with various people. I am grateful for the opportunity to have participated in this project."

Lynn MacVicar
Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Prince Edward Island

Other results

  • The Réseau de développement économique et d'employabilité in Prince Edward Island completed a project to define and develop the resources, skills and abilities to enable social and community businesses to function more effectively in Francophone communities.
  • The Hello/Bonjour program identifies employees who speak French, offers customer service in French, and produces promotional tools and websites in French. A total of 66 businesses and organizations posted the Hello/Bonjour logo in Newfoundland and Labrador.
  • Health Canada provided support for the Centre d'études sur le vieillissement des populations, led by the University of Moncton and the Association des aînés francophones du Nouveau-Brunswick in order to conduct a study on and demonstrate the economic and social contributions that New Brunswick seniors make to the province.
  • Parks Canada's Historic Acadian Village of Nova Scotia describes the unique culture of the Acadian minority in Nova Scotia and provides a better understanding and appreciation of the rich Acadian culture, history, traditions, language and way of life.
  • Public Services and Procurement Canada participated in the Language Internship Program to allow employees to be matched with organizations that are part of the Fédération acadienne de la Nouvelle-Écosse for internship ranging from 3 to 6 months in a Francophone work environment, in order to help them use their French as a second language and improve their skills. Host organizations benefited from the expertise of the federal government employees and gain a better understanding of how the federal government works.

2016–2017 results and progress: Roadmap for Canada's Official Languages 2013–2018

Table 17: Actual spending of the Roadmap for Canada's Official Languages 2013–2018 (in dollars)
Fiscal year Spending in dollars ($)
2016–2017 $223,032,907
2015–2016 $220,079,744
2014–2015 $217,871,504
2013–2014 $201,075,806
Total allocation over 5 years $1,124,037,385
Table 18: Planned spending and actual spending in 2016–2017 of the Roadmap for Canada's Official Languages 2013–2018 (in dollars)
Pillar Planned spending Actual spending
Education $132,067,580 $131,942,830
Immigration $30,100,000 $30,061,138
Communities $67,134,093 $61,028,939

Education

Canadians can benefit from education and training opportunities in their first official language, learning in the other official language of the country, access to technological tools and can take advantage of the many social, economic, cultural and identity benefits that result.

  • 96.8% of community members, aged 6 to 11 years, live within 25 km of an elementary minority-language school
  • 96.5% of community members, aged 12 to 17 years, live within 25 km of a secondary minority-language school
  • 22.6% of young Canadians, aged 15 to 19 years, reported being bilingual
  • Young participants in the Exchanges Canada program have:
    • enhanced their knowledge and understanding of Canada (87%)
    • created ties with one another (92%)
    • enhanced their understanding of what Canadians have in common (84%) and their appreciation of Canada's diversity (85%)
  • 860 students graduated from French-language academic health programs from post-secondary institutions outside Quebec
  • 75 Quebec health and social services workers completed their language training
  • 14 language training projects for justice professionals: provincially-appointed judges, provincial crown attorneys, probation officers, legal aid lawyers, judicial interpreters and clerks
  • 6 projects to develop language training tools, including the Jurisource.ca portal which provides legal and jurilinguistic resources to justice professionals working with communities
  • 5.1 million pages viewed on the Language Portal of Canada
  • 4 projects to develop academic curriculum for bilingual students interested in pursuing a career in the justice sector were supported
  • Environment Canada has adopted PORTAGE to improve the efficiency of its activities: another example of the uptake of the technology by end users and the increased competitiveness and productivity within the language industry

Immigration

The language skills of new immigrants in one or other of the 2 official languages are strengthened, allowing them to make a greater contribution towards Canada's prosperity in terms of economic, social and cultural development; and so that more Francophone immigrants are drawn to settle in communities.

  • 815 applications received under the Mobilité francophone program including:
    • 684 work permit applications
    • 131 work permit extension applications
    • an approval rate of processed applications of 86%
  • 111,410 immigrants have accessed the Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC) program and the Cours de langue pour les immigrants au Canada (CLIC)
  • 2.8% of French-speaking candidates in the Express Entry pool received an invitation to submit an application for permanent residence which represents an increase since 2015

Communities

The vitality of communities is increased, allowing them to contribute fully to Canadian society, history, national identity, and in the development and prosperity of Canada.

  • 86% of community members live within 25 km of a local or regional community development organization
  • 89.8% of community members live within 25 km of an arts and culture organization
  • 13 agreements on minority-language services to contribute to provincial and territorial governments in order to increase their offer of services in the language of the minority
  • $2.5M to strengthen and promote the cultural, artistic and heritage activities of communities and to increase the access of community members to programs and services offered in their language
  • $6.9M for economic development projects for communities across the country
  • 3 new health organizations earned the designation of accredited providers of French-language health services by the province of Ontario
  • 346 community artists performed in 782 music showcases, including 17 funded music events that presented music showcases in communities
  • $13.4M to enhance the capacity of communities to make economic decisions that contribute to the success of local economies
  • 50% increase in budget for grants under the Market Access Strategy ($500,000 to $750,000)
  • 64 translations of books from Canadian authors from one official language to another
  • 24 public legal education projects for communities, particularly at the 5 legal information centers in Ottawa, Halifax, Regina, Edmonton and Winnipeg
  • 3 projects to strengthen Canada's rural communities, develop literacy and essential skills for Francophone immigrants, and measure the impact of increased literacy and essential skills
  • 20 community organizations contributed to the development of initiatives designed to support employability and the development of essential skills within communities
  • New agreement: a 6-year agreement with the province of Newfoundland and Labrador to implement the Justice Canada contraventions regime in this province

Interdepartmental coordination

Section 42 of the Official Languages Act (the Act) gives the Official Languages Branch responsibility for the horizontal coordination of the official languages file within the federal government, particularly in terms of consultation and support to federal institutions in the implementation of Part VII of the Act.

It is in this context that the Official Languages Branch acts as a centre of expertise for the approximately 200 federal institutions subject to the Act, to help them fulfil their obligations. The deputy heads of these institutions are responsible for implementing positive measures related to Part VII.

The Official Languages Branch manages and facilitates a network of coordinators and individuals responsible for the implementation of section 41 of the Act. These people are an important point of contact for members of minority communities in federal institutions. A network of officers responsible for official languages in Canadian Heritage's regional offices also supports the work of federal institutions in all provinces and territories. Through this network, the Official Languages Branch is able to completely fulfill its coordination mandate, at both the national and the regional levels.

Furthermore, the Official Languages Branch collaborates on a continual basis with the Treasury Board Secretariat and the Council of the Network of Official Languages Champions to increase official languages leadership and facilitate the sharing of best practices.

Conclusion

2016–2017 was a year rich in data: demo-linguistic projections, consultations and surveys. Federal institutions continue to hold discussions with representatives of official language minority communities and consult them regularly or on an ad hoc basis to better identify emerging issues they may face, whether in health, education, or welcoming newcomers.

Collaboration between federal institutions has improved considerably since the strengthening of the Official Languages Act in 2005, as has the obligation for institutions to implement positive measures to foster the development of official language minority communities and contribute to the promotion of linguistic duality in Canadian society. This year, which marked the beginning of the 150th anniversary of Canadian Confederation, was a great opportunity to showcase Canada's bilingual character here and abroad.

The Official Languages Branch will continue to coordinate with federal institutions to build on the leadership of all federal employees and executives at all levels. The results of the studies, data, language projections and perspectives gathered in 2016–2017 will inform the work of federal institutions in the coming years and guide the implementation of the next federal plan on official languages.

Appendixes

Appendix 1: Actual spending on the initiatives of the Roadmap for Canada's Official Languages 2013–2018 for 2016–2017

Table 19: 2016–2017 spending on all pillars of the Roadmap for Canada's Official Languages 2013–2018 – Grand total
Pillar Total allocated 2013–2018 (in dollars) Planned spending 2013–2014 to 2016–2017 (in dollars) Actual spending 2013–2014 to 2016–2017 (in dollars) 2016–2017 planned spending (in dollars) 2016–2017 actual spending (in dollars)
Pilar 1 subtotal: Education[1] $658,007,735 $527,188,163 $523,173,314 $132,067,580 $131,942,830
Pilar 2 subtotal: Immigration[2] $149,398,470 $119,487,468 $119,488,864 $30,100,000 $30,061,138
Pilar 3 subtotal: Communities[3] $316,631,180 $256,506,647 $219,397,783 $67,134,093 $61,028,939
Grand total $1,124,037,385 $903,182,278 $862,059,961 $229,301,673 $223,032,907
  • [1] Refer to table 21 for a detailed breakdown of spending on the initiatives of pillar 1 (Education).
  • [2] Refer to table 22 for a detailed breakdown of spending on the initiatives of pillar 2 (Immigration).
  • [3] Refer to table 23 for a detailed breakdown of spending on the initiatives of pillar 3 (Communities).
Table 20: 2016–2017 spending on the initiatives of pillar 1 (Education) of the Roadmap for Canada's Official Languages 2013–2018
Federal partners Initiatives Total allocated 2013–2018 (in dollars) Planned spending 2013–2014 to 2016–2017 (in dollars) Actual spending 2013–2014 to 2016–2017 (in dollars) 2016–2017 planned spending (in dollars) 2016–2017 actual spending (in dollars)
Canadian Heritage Support for minority language education $265,024,040 $212,019,235 $212,019,233 $53,004,808 $53,004,808
Support for second-language learning $175,024,040 $140,019,235 $140,019,233 $35,004,808 $35,004,808
Summer language bursaries $36,604,830 $29,283,864 $29,283,864 $7,320,966 $7,320,966
Official language monitors $18,604,825 $14,883,863 $14,883,861 $3,720,965 $3,720,965
Exchange Canada $11,250,000 $9,000,000 $9,000,000 $2,250,000 $2,250,000
Health Canada Training, networks and access to health services (education component) $106,500,000 $86,066,666 $83,652,090 $21,733,333 $21,733,333
Justice Canada Training, networks and access to justice services (education component, including internal services) $19,000,000 $15,165,300 $14,012,960 $3,782,700 $3,677,986
Public Services and Procurement Canada Language Portal of Canada $16,000,000 $12,750,000 $12,302,073 $3,250,000 $3,229,964
National Research Council Canada Strengthening the language industry and technologies $10,000,000 $8,000,000 $8,000,000 $2,000,000 $2,000,000
All federal partners Pillar 1 subtotal: Education $658,007,735 $527,188,163 $523,173,314 $132,067,580 $131,942,830
Table 21: 2016–2017 spending on the initiatives of pillar 2 (Immigration) of the Roadmap for Canada's Official Languages 2013–2018
Federal partners Initiatives Total allocated 2013–2018 (in dollars) Planned spending 2013–2014 to 2016–2017 (in dollars) Actual spending 2013–2014 to 2016–2017 (in dollars) 2016–2017 planned spending (in dollars) 2016–2017 actual spending (in dollars)
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada Language training for economic immigrants $120,000,000 $96,000,000 $96,000,000 $24,000,000 $24,000,000
Immigration to official language minority communities (including support for Francophone immigration in New Brunswick)[1] $29,398,470 $23,487,468 $23,488,864 $6,100,000 $6,061,138
All federal partners Pillar 2 subtotal: Immigration $149,398,470 $119,487,468 $119,488,864 $30,100,000 $30,061,138
  • [1] As part of Roadmap 2013–2018, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) will invest $29.4 million for the Immigration to Official Languages Minority Communities initiative. There is a small $100,000 discrepancy between this amount and the IRCC funding publicly announced in March 2013. This change was made pursuant to a budget review and will have no impact on IRCC's ability to deliver services to official language minority communities. The same support will be provided and results achieved.
Table 22: 2016–2017 spending on the initiatives of pillars 3 (Communities) of the Roadmap for Canada's Official Languages 2013–2018
Federal partners Initiatives Total allocated 2013–2018 (in dollars) Planned spending 2013–2014 to 2016–2017 (in dollars) Actual spending 2013–2014 to 2016–2017 (in dollars) 2016–2017 planned spending (in dollars) 2016–2017 actual spending (in dollars)
Canadian Heritage Support for official language minority communities $22,262,275 $17,809,820 $17,809,820 $4,452,455 $4,452,455
Intergovernmental cooperation $22,262,275 $17,809,820 $17,809,820 $4,452,455 $4,452,455
Community Cultural Action Fund $10,000,000 $8,000,000 $7,136,319 $2,500,000 $2,462,593
Music Showcase Program for Artists from Official Language Minority Communities $5,750,000 $4,600,000 $4,600,000 $1,150,000 $1,150,000
National Translation Program for Book Publishing $4,000,000 $3,200,000 $3,200,000 $800,000 $800,000
Canada Council for the Arts Market Access Strategy for Artists from official language minority communities $2,750,000 $2,000,000 $1,998,625 $750,000 $750,000
Health Canada Training, networks and access to health services (community component) $67,800,000 $60,030,834 $52,964,131 $15,916,667 $15,796,262
Justice Canada Contraventions Act Fund (including internal services) $49,611,630 $39,596,572 $19,016,970 $9,875,960 $4,689,624
Training, networks and access to justice services (community component, including internal services) $21,195,000 $16,821,889 $14,463,120 $4,171,944 $4,178,350
Employment and Social Development Canada Enabling Fund for Official Language Minority Communities $69,000,000 $55,260,000 $53,960,155 $14,060,000 $13,356,209
Official Language Minority Communities Literacy and Essential Skills Initiative $7,500,000 $6,000,000 $4,436,297 $1,500,000 $606,697
Social Partnership Initiative in official language minority communities $4,000,000 $2,460,000 $1,212,316 $600,000 $1,212,316
Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada Economic Development Initiative for regional operations $1,600,000 $1,220,000 $1,169,356 $380,000 $366,927
Federal Economic Development Initiatives for Northern Ontario (FedNor) Economic development initiative $4,450,000 $3,360,000 $3,164,281 $1,015,000 $1,238,943
Economic Development Agency of Canada for the Region of Quebec (CED) Economic development initiative $10,200,000 $7,830,000 $7,259,035 $2,370,000 $2,186,476
Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA) Economic development initiative $6,200,000 $4,480,000 $3,632,898 $1,340,000 $1,513,925
Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario (FedDev) Economic development initiative $4,450,000 $3,247,712 $3,351,992 $979,612 $1,101,249
Western Economic Diversification Canada (WED) Economic development initiative $3,200,000 $2,460,000 $1,978,513 $740,000 $634,458
Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency (CanNor) Economic development initiative $400,000 $320,000 $234,135 $80,000 $80,000
All federal partners Pillar 3 subtotal: Communities $316,631,180 $256,506,647 $219,397,783 $67,134,093 $61,028,939

Appendix 2: 2016–2017 expenditures by province and territory (Official Languages Branch)

Table 23: Expenditures of all the Official Languages Support Programs – Grand total
Scope Development of Official Language Communities Program Enhancement of Official Languages Program Total
Provinces and territories $223,588,882 $94,211,556 $317,800,438[1]
National programs $6,484,402 $23,754,365 $30,238,767[2]
Language Right Support $1,201,800[3] $298,200[4] $1,500,000
Grand total $231,275,084 $118,264,121 $349,539,205
  • [1] Refer to table 24 for a detailed breakdown of expenditures by province and territory.
  • [2] Refer to table 29 for a detailed breakdown of expenditures by national program.
  • [3] The Language Right Support initiatives of the Development of Official Language Communities Program are funded by the "Community Life – Cooperation with the Community Sector" sub-component.
  • [4] The Language Right Support initiatives of the Enhancement of Official Languages Program are funded by the "Promotion and Linguistic Duality" component.
Table 24: Expenditures of the Official Languages Support Programs by province and territory
Province or territory Development of Official Language Communities Program Enhancement of Official Languages Program Subtotal by province or territory
Newfoundland and Labrador $2,952,206 $2,776,005 $5,728,211
Prince Edward Island $6,487,551 $1,636,302 $8,123,853
Nova Scotia $8,487,799 $4,324,985 $12,812,784
New Brunswick $22,329,153 $5,839,054 $28,168,207
Quebec $52,889,000 $18,557,573 $71,446,573
Ontario $67,555,445 $24,385,134 $91,940,579
Manitoba $11,978,284 $5,721,031 $17,699,315
Saskatchewan $6,774,092 $4,889,932 $11,674,024
Alberta $9,358,906 $9,462,649 $18,821,555
British Columbia $11,777,438 $10,761,606 $22,539,044
Northwest Territories $7,862,340 $1,401,745 $9,264,085
Yukon $3,817,276 $1,012,100 $4,829,376
Nunavut $3,049,989 $649,746 $3,699,735
National (includes pan-Canadian and inter-regional projects) $8,269,403 $2,783,694 $11,053,097
Subtotal for all provinces and territories $223,588,882[1] $94,211,556[2] $317,800,438
  • [1] Refer to tables 25 and 26 for a detailed breakdown of expenditures of the Development of Official Language Communities Program by province and territory.
  • [2] Refer to table 27 for a detailed breakdown of expenditures of the Enhancement of Official Languages Program by province and territory.
Table 25: Expenditures of the Development of Official Language Communities Program by province and territory
Province or territory "Community Life" component "Minority Education" component Subtotal by province or territory
Newfoundland and Labrador $1,650,655 $1,301,551 $2,952,206
Prince Edward Island $2,587,182 $3,900,369 $6,487,551
Nova Scotia $3,227,624 $5,260,175 $8,487,799
New Brunswick $5,226,958 $17,102,195 $22,329,153
Quebec $4,558,856 $48,330,144 $52,889,000
Ontario $6,978,564 $60,576,881 $67,555,445
Manitoba $4,443,535 $7,534,749 $11,978,284
Saskatchewan $3,300,552 $3,473,540 $6,774,092
Alberta $3,604,440 $5,754,466 $9,358,906
British Columbia $3,504,340 $8,273,098 $11,777,438
Northwest Territories $6,293,490 $1,568,850 $7,862,340
Yukon $2,581,476 $1,235,800 $3,817,276
Nunavut $2,277,104 $772,885 $3,049,989
National (includes pan-Canadian and inter-regional projects) $8,029,403 $240,000 $8,269,403
Subtotal for all provinces and territories $58,264,179[1] $165,324,703 $223,588,882
  • [1] Refer to table 26 for a detailed breakdown of expenditures of the "Community Life" component of the Development of Official Language Communities Program by province and territory.
Table 26: Expenditures of the "Community Life" component of the Development of Official Language Communities Program by province and territory
Province or territory "Cooperation with the Community Sector" sub-component "Intergovernmental Cooperation on Services" sub-component Subtotal by province or territory
Newfoundland and Labrador $1,300,655 $350,000 $1,650,655
Prince Edward Island $1,349,682 $1,237,500 $2,587,182
Nova Scotia $1,929,624 $1,301,000 $3,227,624
New Brunswick $3,239,958 $1,987,000 $5,226,958
Quebec $4,158,856 $400,000 $4,558,856
Ontario $5,378,564 $1,600,000 $6,978,564
Manitoba $3,043,535 $1,400,000 $4,443,535
Saskatchewan $2,426,252 $874,300 $3,300,552
Alberta $2,954,440 $650,000 $3,604,440
British Columbia $2,804,340 $700,000 $3,504,340
Northwest Territories $591,490 $5,702,000 $6,293,490
Yukon $591,476 $1,990,000 $2,581,476
Nunavut $366,280 $1,910,824 $2,277,104
National (includes pan-Canadian and inter-regional projects) $8,029,403 $0 $8,029,403
Subtotal for all provinces and territories $38,161,555 $20,102,624 $58,264,179
Table 27: Expenditures of the Enhancement of Official Languages Program by province and territory
Province or territory "Promotion of Linguistic Duality" component "Second-Language Learning" component Subtotal by province or territory
Newfoundland and Labrador $136,710 $2,639,295 $2,776,005
Prince Edward Island $112,200 $1,504,102 $1,636,302
Nova Scotia $147,630 $4,177,355 $4,324,985
New Brunswick $147,065 $5,691,989 $5,839,054
Quebec $0 $18,557,573 $18,557,573
Ontario $294,500 $24,090,634 $24,385,134
Manitoba $149,330 $5,571,701 $5,721,031
Saskatchewan $149,330 $4,750,602 $4,889,932
Alberta $189,290 $9,273,359 $9,462,649
British Columbia $303,760 $10,457,846 $10,761,606
Northwest Territories $53,040 $1,348,705 $1,401,745
Yukon $0 $1,012,100 $1,012,100
Nunavut $0 $649,746 $649,746
National (includes pan-Canadian and inter-regional projects) $2,783,694 $0 $2,783,694
Subtotal for all provinces and territories $4,466,549 $89,745,007 $94,211,556
Table 28: Expenditures of the Official Languages Support Programs by national program
National programs Development of Official Language Communities Program ("Minority Education" component, with one exception)[1] Enhancement of Official Languages Program ("Second-Language Learning" component only) Subtotal by national program
Complementary Support for Language Learning: Explore and Destination Clic $832,136 $15,810,597 $16,642,733
Complementary Support for Language Learning: Odyssey $1,767,233 $5,029,818 $6,797,051
Cooperation with Non-Governmental Sector/Education $1,866,500 $895,412 $2,761,912
Young Canada Works $2,018,533[1] $2,018,538 $4,037,071
Subtotal for all national programs $6,484,402 $23,754,365 $30,238,767
  • [1] Unlike other national initiatives of the Development of Official Language Communities Program which are funded by the "Education" component, Young Canada Works is funded by the "Community Life" component.

Appendix 3: 2016–2017 expenditures by program component (Canadian Heritage)

Table 29: 2016–2017 expenditures of the Canadian Heritage's Official Languages Support Programs – Grand total
Program Expenditures
Development of Official Language Communities Program[1] $231,275,084
Enhancement of Official Languages Program[2] $118,264,121
Grand total $349,539,205
  • [1] Refer to table 30 for a detailed breakdown of the 2016–2017 expenditures of the Development of Official Language Communities Program.
  • [2] Refer to table 31 for a detailed breakdown of the 2016–2017 expenditures of the Enhancement of Official Languages Program.
Table 30: 2016–2017 expenditures of the Development of Official Language Communities Program by components
Component Sub-component Expenditures
Community Life Cooperation with the Community Sector $32,205,923
Intergovernmental Cooperation on Minority Language Services $20,102,624
Strategic Fund $3,493,039
Community Cultural Action Fund $2,462,593
Young Canada Works (official languages) $2,018,533
Subtotal: "Community Life" component $60,282,712
Minority Language Education Intergovernmental Cooperation on Minority Language Education $165,324,703
Complementary Support for Language Learning $2,599,369
Cooperation with the Non-Governmental Sector $1,866,500
Subtotal "Minority Language Education" component $ 169,790,572
Language Rights Support Alternative Dispute Resolution $454,585
Legal Remedies $747,215
Subtotal: "Language Rights Support" component $1,201,800
All components Total $231,275,084
Table 31: 2016–2017 expenditures of the Enhancement of Official Languages Program by components
Component Sub-component Expenditures
Promotion of Linguistic Duality Appreciation and Rapprochement $355,104
Promotion of Bilingual Services $477,801
Support for Interpretation and Translation $433,644
Subtotal: "Promotion of Linguistic Duality" $4,466,549
Second-Language Learning Intergovernmental Cooperation in the area of Second Language Learning $89,745,007
Complementary Support for Language Learning $20,840,415
Cooperation with the Non-Governmental Sector $895,412
Young Canada Works (official languages) $2,018,538
Subtotal: "Second-Language Learning" component $113,499,372
Language Rights Support Information and Promotion $298,200
Subtotal: "Language Rights Support" component $298,200
All components Total $118,264,121

Appendix 4: 2016–2017 education expenditures (Official Languages Branch)

Table 32: Breakdown of 2016–2017 education expenditures
Minority-language education Second-language learning Total
Federal funds Share of total federal funds Provincial funds Federal funds Share of total federal funds Provincial funds Federal funds Share of total federal funds Provincial funds
Intergovernmental cooperation[1] $165,324,703 97.4% $231,267,362 $89,745,007 79.1% $156,068,462 $255,069,710 90% $387,335,824
National programs[2] $4,465,869 2.6% 0 $23,754,365 20.9% 0 $28,220,234 10% 0
Grand total $169,790,572 100% $231,267,362 $113,499,372 100% $156,068,462 $283,289,944 100% $387,335,824
  • [1] Refer to table 33 for a detailed breakdown of intergovernmental cooperation initiatives expenditures in education.
  • [2] Refer to table 34 for a detailed breakdown of national programs expenditures in education.
Table 33: Breakdown of 2016–2017 education expenditures – Intergovernmental cooperation
Minority-language education Second-language learning Total
Federal funds Share of total federal funds Provincial funds Federal funds Share of total federal funds Provincial funds Federal funds Share of total federal funds Provincial funds
Student participation $28,599,105 16.8% $36,057,839 $9,533,495 8.4% $9,779,180 $38,132,600 13.5% $45,837,019
Program availability $60,080,958 35.4% $75,813,601 $45,811,101 40.4% $103,616,416 $105,892,059 37.4% $179,430,017
Student performance $7,271,575 4.3% $12,758,250 $5,556,973 4.9% $6,326,969 $12,828,548 4.5% $19,085,219
Enriched school environment $13,279,917 7.8% $13,126,097 $8,889,136 7.8% $9,072,816 $22,169,053 7.8% $22,198,913
Access to post-secondary education $28,869,200 17% $28,053,489 $7,173,347 6.3% $7,868,724 $36,042,547 12.7% $35,922,213
Support for educational staff and research $11,027,602 6.5% $11,092,368 $9,428,063 8.3% $12,319,687 $20,455,665 7.2% $23,412,055
Complementary funds – Projects $16,196,346 9.5% $54,365,718 $3,352,892 3% $7,084,670 $19,549,238 6.9% $61,450,388
Subtotal $165,324,703 97.4% $231,267,362 $89,745,007 79.1% $156,068,462 $255,069,710 90% $387,335,824
Table 34: Breakdown of 2016–2017 education expenditures – National programs
Minority-language education Second-language learning Total
Federal funds Share of total federal funds Provincial funds Federal funds Share of total federal funds Provincial funds Federal funds Share of total federal funds Provincial funds
Complementary Support for Language Learning: Explore and Destination Clic (Bursaries) $832,136 0.5% 0 $15,810,597 13.9% 0 $16,642,733 5.9% 0
Complementary Support for Language Learning: Odyssey (Monitors) $1,767,233 1% 0 $5,029,818 4.4% 0 $6,797,051 2.4% 0
Cooperation with the Non-Governmental Sector: Support for education $1,866,500 1.1% 0 $895,412 0.8% 0 $2,761,912 1% 0
Cooperation with the Non-Governmental Sector: Young Canada Works 0 0 0 $2,018,538 1.8% 0 $2,018,538 0.7% 0
Subtotal $4,465,869 2.6% 0 $23,754,365 20.9% 0 $28,220,234 10% 0

Appendix 5: School enrolment in 2015–2016 (Official Languages Branch)

Source: Centre for Education Statistics, Statistics Canada

Notice: The enrolment data for second-language instruction and minority-language education do not include data from private schools and/or home schooling.

Enrolments in second-language instruction programs in majority-language school systems

Notice: Second-language figures include enrolments for the majority-language system (French in Quebec and English elsewhere). For second-language enrolment totals outside Quebec, French immersion enrolments are included and provided separately as well. French immersion students in Quebec's English-language schools are not included in the second-language totals. Data on second-language enrolments in the French language minority system in New Brunswick were not available.

Table 35: Enrolments in second-language instruction programs in majority-language school systems – All of Canada
Type of second-language instruction program Year Total enrolment in majority schools Second language (including immersion) French immersion
Enrolment Percentage (of total population) Enrolment Percentage (of total population)
Total -– Students in majority-language school systems taking French as a second language combined with students taking English as a second language 1983–1984[1] 4,401,997 2,199,253 50% 117,454 2.7%
2015–2016 4,508,613 2,382,690 52.8% 428,619 9.5%
Total – English-language students in majority systems learning French as a second language (Canada minus Quebec) 1983–1984[1] 3,464,272 1,607,335 46.4% 117,454 3.4%
2015–2016 3,701,784 1,676,541 45.3% 428,619 11.6%
Total – Students in the French-language education system learning English as a second language in Quebec 1983–1984[1] 937,725 591,918 63.1% - -
2015–2016 806,829 706,149 87.5% - -
  • [1] Second-language totals for 1983–1984 do not include Yukon, Northwest Territories or Nunavut, for which no data were available. For each of these jurisdictions, the earliest year for which data is available is provided in the table 36 to establish a base year.
Table 36: Enrolments in second-language instruction programs in majority-language school systems by province and territory
Province or territory Year Total enrolment in majority schools Second language (including immersion) French immersion
Enrolment Percentage (of total population) Enrolment Percentage (of total population)
Newfoundland and Labrador 1983–1984 147,500 75,056 50.9% 970 0.7%
2015–2016 66,309 38,616 58.2% 10,185 15.4%
Prince Edward Island 1983–1984 24,964 15,911 63.7% 1,833 7.3%
2015–2016 18,864 11,202 59.4% 4,809 25.5%
Nova Scotia 1983–1984 172,770 95,201 55.1% 894 0.5%
2015–2016 112,686 59,175 52.5% 15 015 13.3%
New Brunswick 1983–1984 98,284 70,289 71.5% 11,009 11.2%
2015–2016 69,048 43,065 62.4% 19,710 28.5%
Quebec 1983–1984 937,725 591,918 63.1% - -
2015–2016 806,829 706,149 87.5% - -
Ontario 1983–1984 1,682,302 909,290 54.1% 65,310 3.9%
2015–2016 1,889,940 979,269 51.8% 245,817 13%
Manitoba 1983–1984 194,182 91,058 46.9% 9,090 4.7%
2015–2016 175,398 81,561 46.5% 23,547 13.4%
Saskatchewan 1983–1984 200,362 52,324 26.1% 4,018 2%
2015–2016 173,967 48,690 28% 13,869 8%
Alberta 1983–1984 447,759 120,868 27% 14,523 3.2%
2015–2016 632,841 184,524 29.2% 41,631 6.6%
British Colombia 1983–1984 496,149 177,338 35.7% 9,807 2%
2015–2016 539,721 225,549 41.8% 52,536 9.7%
Yukon 1984–1985 4,667 2,221 47.6% 186 4%
2015–2016 4,980 2,355 47.3% 669 13.4%
Northwest Territories 1990–1991 14,016 4,360 31.1% 404 2.9%
2015–2016 8,085 2,535 31.4% 831 10.3%
Nunavut 2002–2003 8,861 0 Not available 0 Not available
2015–2016 9,945 0 Not available 0 Not available

Enrolments in minority-education programs

Table 37: Enrolments in minority-education programs – All of Canada
Scope Year Total of school enrolment Enrolment in minority-language schools Classes Minority-language share of total school enrolment
Total – Canada 1983–1984[1] 4,682,999 281,002 - 6%
2015–2016 4,753,191 244,578 - 5.1%
Total – French minority-language schools 1983–1984[1] 3,634,315 152,594 - 4.2%
2015–2016 3,862,308 160,524 - 4.2%
  • [1] Minority-language figures for 1983–1984 exclude Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut, where there were no minority-language schools in 1983–1984. For each of these jurisdictions, the earliest year for which data is available is provided in the table 38 to establish a base year.
Table 38: Enrolments in minority-education programs by province and territory
Province or territory Year Total of school enrolment Enrolment in minority-language schools Classes Minority-language share of total school enrolment
Newfoundland and Labrador 1983–1984 147,603 103 Kindergarten to 12 0.1%
2015–2016 66,654 345 Kindergarten to 12 0.5%
Prince Edward Island 1983–1984 25,480 516 1 to 12 2%
2015–2016 19,713 849 Kindergarten to 12 4.3%
Nova Scotia 1983–1984 177,240 4,470 Kindergarten to 12 2.5%
2015–2016 118,152 5,466 Kindergarten to 12 4.6%
New Brunswick 1983–1984 146,045 47,761 Kindergarten to 12 32.7%
2015–2016 97,911 28,863 Kindergarten to 12 29.5%
Quebec 1983–1984 1,066,133 128,408 Kindergarten to 11 12%
2015–2016 890,883 84,054 Kindergarten to 11 9.4%
Ontario 1983–1984 1,773,478 91,176 Kindergarten to 12 5.1%
2015–2016 1,993,431 103,491 Kindergarten to 12 5.2%
Manitoba 1983–1984 199,743 5,561 Kindergarten to 12 2.8%
2015–2016 181,023 5,625 Kindergarten to 12 3.1%
Saskatchewan 1983–1984 201,130 768 Kindergarten to 12 0.4%
2015–2016 175,755 1,788 Kindergarten to 12 1%
Alberta 1983–1984 448,835 1,076 Kindergarten to 12 0.2%
2015–2016 640,869 8,028 Kindergarten to 12 1.3%
British Colombia 1983–1984 497,312 1,163 Kindergarten to 12 0.1%
2015–2016 545,253 5,532 Kindergarten to 12 1%
Yukon 1984–1985 4,697 30 Kindergarten to 8 0.6%
2015–2016 5,220 240 Kindergarten to 12 4.4%
Northwest Territories 1990–1991 14,079 63 Kindergarten to 11 0.4%
2015–2016 8,301 216 Kindergarten to 12 2.6%
Nunavut 2002–2003 8,901 40 Kindergarten to 12 0.4%
2015–2016 10,026 81 Kindergarten to 12 0.8%
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