Annual Report on Official Languages 2018-2019

This publication is available upon request in alternative formats.

On this page

List of figures

List of tables

List of acronyms and abbreviations

Official Languages Act
Action Plan 2018–2023
Action Plan for Official Languages 2018–2023: Investing in Our Future
Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission
Economic Development Initiative
Employment and Social Development Canada
FedDev Ontario
Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario
Federal Economic Development Initiative for Northern Ontario
Health Canada
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada
Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada
Justice Canada
Canadian Heritage
Public Services and Procurement Canada
Quebec Community Groups Network
RDÉE Canada
Réseau de développement économique et d’employabilité Canada
Western Economic Diversification Canada

Alternate format

Annual Report on Official Languages 2018-2019 [PDF version - 4.62 MB]

This report was originally written for digital. In order to simplify the text:

  • “community or communities” means an official language minority community or communities
  • a “federal institution” means a federal institution or agency subject to the Act.
  • the “Report” refers to the Annual Report on Official Languages 2018–2019

Message from the Minister

Mélanie Joly

English and French are at the heart of the Canadian identity. They are the languages of our common experience, a meeting place for our diversity and a powerful tool for inclusion. The year 2018-19 gave us tremendous opportunities to reaffirm our commitment to linguistic duality and to consolidate support for our official language minority communities.

Communities across the country urgently needed the unprecedented investments and measures announced in the Action Plan for Official Languages 2018–2023: Investing in Our Future. We began its implementation and community organizations were able to benefit from the roll-out of the 28% increase in their core funding, bringing the total core funding provided by Canadian Heritage, Employment and Social Development Canada, Justice Canada and Health Canada to $320 million over five years. We also announced major investments in 18 educational, community and cultural infrastructure projects in communities, totalling more than $16 million in 2018-19.

Official language minority radio stations and newspapers play an essential role in their communities. That is why the Action Plan proposes to help community media adapt to today’s reality. We acted swiftly by providing special recovery assistance to 15 vulnerable media outlets and launching a first series of internships for the next generation of media professionals.

The measures taken by federal institutions in 2018-19 were set against the backdrop of preparations for and kick-off of the celebrations marking the 50th anniversary of the Official Languages Act. All Canadians benefit from this Act that established the equal status of English and French and also language rights for citizens. This anniversary provides us with an opportunity to reflect on how far we have come in the past 50 years as we set out to modernize the Act so that it continues to meet the needs and aspirations of Canadians in all their diversity.

As Minister of Economic Development and Official Languages, I invite you to consult the Annual Report on Official Languages 2018-19 to learn more about the work carried out by Canadian Heritage and all federal institutions in support of official languages.

The honorable Mélanie Joly
Minister of Economic Development
and Official Languages

2018-2019 Highlights

Figure 1. 2018-2019 Highlights
Description of figure 1
  • Beginning implementation of a historic investment of $2.7 billion in initiatives under the Action Plan 2018–2023.
  • Beginning of the $70 million increase over five years in core funding to community organizations, an increase of 28%.
  • Ongoing dialogue with stakeholders to implement the new initiatives of the Action Plan using a "by and for" communities approach.
  • Creation of the Official Language Rights Expert Panel for the Court Challenges Program
  • Appointment of bilingual judges to the Supreme Court of Canada
  • The reinstatement of the degree-granting rights of the Royal Military College Saint-Jean in August 2018 and the provision of the necessary resources to resume university-level education in French in August 2018.
  • Doubling of the number of work placements funded under the Canada Summer Jobs Program — including official language placements.
  • Launch of the review process for the Official Languages (Communications with and Services to the Public) Regulations.
  • The first year of investments to support the construction of school, community and cultural infrastructure in communities through Action Plan 2018–2023 and the Investing in Canada
  • Investment of $36.6 million over the next five years in the Francophone integration pathway, which includes initiatives promoting Francophone immigration to official language minority communities.
  • Announcement of the development of “Le Mauril”, a new online language learning program
  • Investment of $22.8 million over the next five years for school-community projects and community media, as well as confirmation of the organizations that will offer these initiatives in 2019–2023:
    • Cultural micro-grants ($7.5 million): Fédération culturelle canadienne-française and English Language Arts Network-Québec
    • Micro-grants to enrich the cultural life of civic community schools ($5.3 million): Fédération de la jeunesse canadienne-française
    • Community Media Strategic Support Fund ($10 million): Association de la presse francophone, on behalf of the Community Media Consortium
  • Start-up of activities of the new Community Media Strategic Support Fund: provided one-time assistance to 15 vulnerable media outlets for recovery purposes and funded an initial series of internships for young journalists, and supported the collective reflection process to establish a strategic intervention framework for the entire sector
  • Celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Act and launching a review to modernize


In 2018–2019, more than ever before, official languages causes mobilized those in charge of the causes within federal institutions. In addition, more often than not, these causes were front and centre in the news.

One of the highlights of the year was the work being done to revise the Official Languages Regulations, the goal of which is to expand access to bilingual services for Canadians across the country. The Government’s proposed amendments were tabled in Parliament on October 25, 2018, so that all interested parties could review and comment on the proposal before promulgation, in 2019. Across Canada, federal institutions and communities went to work in 2018–2019 on preparations for the 50th anniversary of the Official Languages Act (the Act). These outstanding events complemented the many initiatives undertaken by federal institutions as part of existing programs and regular activities for the implementation of section 41 of the Act. This Report gives a partial overview.

In summer 2018, the Prime Minister mandated the Minister responsible for Official Languages, Mélanie Joly, to begin a review with a view to modernizing the Official Languages Act. In March 2019, an initial series of six round tables in Hemmingford, Moncton, Dartmouth, Charlottetown, St. John’s and Ottawa provided citizens from all walks of life with the opportunity to express their views on major themes such as official languages and Canada in the digital age, as well as on specific topics such as education, immigration and access to technology. This process continued in 2019–2020.

Lastly, on March 28, 2018, in the wake of the announcement of the Action Plan 2018–2023: Investing in Our Future, stakeholders got to work right away on its implementation. This plan focuses on three main pillars: strengthening our communities, strengthening access to services and promoting a bilingual Canada. In addition to maintaining the existing funding level for all programs, the Action Plan 2018–2023 includes a new investment of $500 million over five years. In addition to their regular activities, the federal institutions mandated to implement the announced initiatives quickly undertook major consultations with communities and the organizations that represent them. Throughout the year, processes were defined, steps were taken and calls for proposals were launched. The initial results are already apparent, and more will be seen in the coming months.

Figure 2. Unveiling of the Action Plan for Official Languages 2018–2023

For this reason, the structure of this Report is largely based on the structure of the Action Plan 2018-2023. Section 1 briefly describes the actions undertaken by Canadian Heritage and the partner departments identified as primarily responsible for its implementation; the Report also offers a brief look back at the major events of the year. Section 2 focuses on the economic, cultural and social dimensions of community development, while Section 3 focuses on strengthening access to services such as education, justice and health care. Lastly, section 4 is devoted to the promotion of official languages both in Canada and abroad.

The requirements of the Act

The Official Languages Act requires that the Minister responsible for Official Languages report to Parliament, after each fiscal year, on the activities and accomplishments of federal institutions subject to Part VII of the Act.

The Annual Report on Official Languages 2018–2019 provides an overview of the various measures taken by the 200 or so federal institutions subject to the Act to enhance the development and vitality of official language minority communities across the country, and foster the full recognition and use of both English and French in Canadian society.

1. A renewed commitment by federal institutions

The year 2018–2019 was marked by several important events, but also by increased collaboration among federal institutions, particularly in advance of the 50th anniversary of the Act. This section offers a brief look back at the highlights of this collaboration and the milestones that shaped the year.

1.1 Strong government collaboration

Leadership of Canadian Heritage

In 2018–2019, several major events led the Department to intensify its coordination efforts throughout the year. In doing so, Canadian Heritage also addressed the priorities set out in the mandate letter received by the Minister responsible for Official Languages in August 2018.

As part of its efforts, Canadian Heritage coordinated interdepartmental Canada wide programming under which federal institutions prepared activities to mark the 50th anniversary of the Act.

On the ground, the Department also put in place various mechanisms to ensure collaborative implementation of the Action Plan 2018–2023 initiatives. Canadian Heritage favours an approach referred to as “by and for” the communities, based on their representatives’ participation at all project stages. This year, the Department held many dialogue sessions with organizations that network for the development of communities, culture or second language learning in order to facilitate closer alignment among program parameters, the reality of different environments and the initiatives being developed.

Statutory dimensions

Section 42 of the Act gives Canadian Heritage responsibility for the horizontal coordination of official languages within federal institutions that implement section 41. As such, the Department acts as a true centre of expertise for the 200 or so institutions involved. In particular, the Department is responsible for the management and facilitation of a network of coordinators (Network 41) responsible for implementation within each institution. Furthermore, the Department works closely with the Treasury Board Secretariat and the Council of the Network of Official Languages Champions to increase leadership in official languages and promote the sharing of best practices.

Collaboration agreement for the development of arts and culture in the francophone minority communities of Canada

On December 12, 2018, the partners renewed the Collaboration Agreement for the Development of Arts and Culture in the Francophone Minority Communities of Canada for 2018–2023. The Agreement aims to strengthen collaboration among the communities, represented by the Fédération culturelle canadienne-française, the national organization representing the communities on cultural matters, and the six federal institutions that signed the agreement: Canadian Heritage, the National Arts Centre, the Canada Council for the Arts, the National Film Board of Canada, CBC/Radio-Canada and Telefilm Canada. The renewal of the Agreement, which was first signed 20 years ago, enhances the role of the committee of signatories, which will meet annually to identify priorities for action. The working groups, which will be called on to work on the priorities identified by the committee of signatories, will also play a greater role. Canadian Heritage, which spearheaded the agreement renewal process, is also coordinating its implementation in collaboration with the Fédération culturelle canadienne française.

1.2 Amendments to the Official Languages

On October 25, 2018, the government tabled in Parliament a series of proposed amendments to the Official Languages (Communications with and Services to the Public) Regulations (the Regulations), which had not been reviewed since their adoption in 1991. Effective July 2019, the Regulations were amended to:

The communities had long made this important update a priority. The modified Regulations will provide them with stronger and more resilient service infrastructure to better live their daily lives in the language of their choice and undertake new projects that will enhance their vitality and development.

1.3 A brief look back at the major events of the year

The 2018–2019 year was packed with events of importance for the communities and the promotion of Canada’s two official languages.

The 50th anniversary of the Act

Preparations for the 50th anniversary of the Act brought together many key players throughout 2018–2019. Canadian Heritage produced a range of tools and messages that were shared with all federal institutions wishing to highlight the event within their networks. Departmental employees who are members of Network 42, which has a mandate to mobilize federal institutions and coordinate their regional efforts to promote official languages across Canada, worked closely with the institutions to build truly Canada wide programming, in keeping with their respective mandates. At the national level, the Department, involved in a number of major events, also created and facilitated a steering committee to coordinate preparations for a major Symposium on the 50th Anniversary of the Act. Organized in partnership with Justice Canada and the Treasury Board Secretariat, the highly anticipated event took place in May 2019.

Figure 3. Symposium on the 50th Anniversary of the Official Languages Act

Lastly, through its Official Languages Support Programs, Canadian Heritage funded dozens of community projects celebrating this momentous occasion across Canada.

Key dates in the history of the Official Languages Act

1969: The first federal Official Languages Act is enacted, declaring English and French to be the two official languages of Canada.

1982: The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is enacted, strengthening language rights from that point forward.

1988: The second federal Official Languages Act is enacted to ensure the implementation of the federal language rights enshrined in the Charter. The Government of Canada is committed to enhancing the vitality of communities and supporting their development, as well as fostering the full recognition and use of both English and French in Canadian society.

2005: The Official Languages Act is amended to specify that federal institutions must take positive measures to realize the Government of Canada’s commitment to its communities. A legal remedy before the Federal Court is now applicable to that part of the Act.

2019: The Government of Canada undertakes a review of the Official Languages Act with a view to modernizing it.

Launch of a review with a view to modernizing the Act

In March 2019, the Minister responsible for Official Languages and La Francophonie began the process of reviewing the Act with a view to modernizing it. This exercise, launched on the 50th anniversary of the Act, will ensure that the Act is better able to address the major issues that make this review necessary today. Following that announcement, the Minister held some 20 forums and round tables, in every province and territory. In particular, participants were encouraged to consider the engagement, development and vitality of communities, the role of federal institutions, the promotion of culture and bilingualism, official languages and Canada’s place in the world, and official languages in the digital age.

This approach complemented other initiatives previously carried out. In spring 2018, the Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages conducted an online consultation to better identify the major issues associated with the potential future modernization of the Act. It also held consultations across Canada with individuals and groups that have particular experience in official languages—academic researchers, legal experts, and representatives of community organizations, for example. The Commissioner tabled his report, containing 18 recommendations, in May 2019.

In November 2018, the House of Commons Standing Committee on Official Languages undertook a study on three specific aspects of the modernization of the Act: the monitoring framework, the Treasury Board’s official languages responsibilities and duties (Part VIII of the Act), and the benefits of the Act as an agent of social cohesion. At the same time, the Standing Senate Committee on Official Languages examined issues related to the application of and compliance with the Act by federal institutions. Committee members heard from over 300 witnesses, and many stakeholders submitted extensive briefs containing concrete recommendations. The committee consulted young Canadians, members of official language minority communities and people who have witnessed the evolution of the Act, as well as representatives of the justice sector and federal institutions. The Committee tabled its report, containing 20 recommendations, in June 2019.

Figure 4. Public Meeting on the modernization of the Official Languages Act as part of the launch of the celebrations for the 50th anniversary of the Act

Other major events

In July 2018, the 23rd Ministerial Conference on the Canadian Francophonie was held in Whitehorse, Yukon. The theme of the meeting was “Keeping in Touch”. It provided an opportunity for the ministers to discuss a number of important topics, such as access to family justice in French and training for legal experts. Looking to the future, they also reflected on innovations in service delivery and the role that technological change could play in improving French language services.

The Whitehorse conference was held on the traditional territory of the Kwanlin Dün First Nation and Ta’an Kwäch’än Council, and the ministers were welcomed by Kluane Adamek, Regional Chief for Yukon at the Assembly of First Nations, who presented her vision of the bridges that exist and those to be built between Canada’s Francophone and Indigenous communities.

1.4 Implementation of the new Action Plan 2018–2023 initiatives

For all the institutions directly involved in the implementation of the Action Plan 2018–2023, as well as the communities concerned, the year 2018–2019 proved to be particularly busy. The renewal of $2.2 billion in permanent funding over five years enabled the federal institutions responsible for programs stemming directly from the Action Plan 2018–2023 to continue and to re-launch activities under way. In order to make the best use of the resources at their disposal, many consulted the communities they work with, reviewed certain programs to improve them, explored new courses of action and launched new calls for projects.

The Action Plan 2018–2023 had a budget increase of $500 million over five years. A significant portion of this additional amount, $70 million, is devoted to core funding for community organizations that represent or bring together community stakeholders and the promotion of official languages. This 28% increase brings the total core funding from Canadian Heritage (PCH), Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC), Justice Canada (JC) and Health Canada (HC) to $320 million over five years.

With this additional funding, some departments were also able to create new core funding programs for their partner organizations. For example, Justice Canada signed three-year funding agreements (2018–2019 to 2020–2021) with 11 organizations (ten provincial/ territorial and one national) through the Access to Justice in Both Official Languages Support Fund. Discussions are under way with the remaining provinces and territories to ensure that at least one eligible organization per province and territory can benefit from this program.

Federal institutions that are partners in the Action Plan 2018–2023 on the ground

The implementation of the Action Plan 2018–2023 requires a strong commitment not only from Canadian Heritage, but also from partner federal institutions. In their respective fields of expertise, all have set to work to put the Action Plan 2018–2023 statements into action in order to support the vitality of these communities, provide them with services to support their development and promote bilingualism in Canadian society. More detailed information about their work is presented at the start of each section of this report.

2. Supporting community stakeholders

In the context of their respective mandates, federal institutions work in various ways to support and foster the development of Francophone communities outside Quebec and English speaking communities in Quebec. Despite these efforts, Francophones in minority communities represented only 3.8% of the Canadian population in 2016 (6.1% in 1970). Decisive action must be taken; otherwise, Statistics Canada predicts that this proportion will be only 3% by 2036. The Action Plan 2018–2023 aims to stabilize this proportion at 4% and to enhance the vitality of English speaking communities in Quebec, especially those outside Greater Montréal.

In 2018–2019, federal institutions were called on to frame their actions within the context of the new Action Plan 2018–2023 for the first time. Section 2 therefore provides an overview of initiatives in the following broad areas:

2.1 Implementation of the new Action Plan 2018–2023

Figure 5. Supporting the vital forces of communities: new initiatives in the Action Plan 2018–2023
Description of figure 5
  • Beginning of the $70 million increase over five years in core funding to community organizations, an increase of 28%.
  • 18 infrastructure projects received a total of $16 million in funding.
  • Statistics Canada participated in 17 research activities and developed 9 analytical products on official languages and communities.
  • 14 communities across Canada selected to participate in the Welcoming Francophone Communities initiative of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada.
  • Canadian Heritage held a new series of discussions with representatives of the English-speaking community throughout Quebec to identify a range of regional issues that will be priorities for the new funding for the English-speaking Communities of Quebec.
  • 3 community radio projects were supported through the Strategic Fund sub-component of the DCLO program for a total amount of $377,519.
  • $950,000 provided by Employment and Social Development Canada to the Réseau de développement économique et d’employabilité Canada (RDÉE) to analyze the state of Francophone early childhood development in Canada and initiate a series of projects to promote the opening of new daycare centres and the provision of daycare services in French across the country.

The Action Plan 2018–2023 helps communities seize new opportunities for development, investment and outreach. With the 28% increase in core funding provided by PCH, ESDC, JC and HC to organizations representing the communities (refer to 1.4), the communities are able to fully participate in all stages of these developments. In concrete terms, it enables the use of a “by and for” approach whereby the communities play an essential role at each stage of project identification, prioritization, definition and implementation, be they recurring or ad hoc initiatives. This approach strengthens the communities’ capacity to act and benefits all the communities concerned.

Although seven federal institutions are primarily responsible for the implementation of the Action Plan 2018–2023, many institutions are implementing initiatives that contribute to the objectives of the Action Plan 2018–2023 and have undertaken new initiatives or expanded the scope of existing programs to better meet the needs of communities in priority areas.

Table 1. PCH: Growth generating Community Educational Infrastructure Projects
Project Description Total Amount Approved

Prince Edward Island

Expansion and renovation of the Belle-Alliance Centre and École- sur-Mer in Summerside

The expansion will create space for secondary school education. It includes new classrooms, a trades room, a science lab, technology facilities, culinary spaces and student council facilities. $3,000,000


Construction of an early learning and child care centre – University of Saint Boniface

The project involves the construction of a child care centre that will support parents who study or work at the University as well as those who live in the surrounding Francophone or Francophile community. $2,077,000

New Brunswick

Cafetorium/theatre at École Assomption in Rogersville

The capital project involves the establishment of a cafeterium/theatre at École Assomption in Rogersville. $3,200,000

Nova Scotia

Renovation of the Gustave Blanche Building in Clare

This project will involve the renovation of the roof, windows and exterior cladding of the building, as well as upgrading of certain interior spaces (renovation of the Fanfare Hall, creation of multi-purpose rooms). $500,000


Upgrade to the recreational facilities at Royal Vale School in the Côte des Neiges / Notre Dame de Grâce district of Montréal

The project involves renovating the area of the school’s old swimming pool by removing the pool and installing a multi-purpose gym, a fully equipped locker room and a fitness room to meet the needs of both the school and the community. $500,000


Addition of specialized spaces and community access to the arts and sports facilities at the Centre d’excellence artistique de l’Ontario and De La Salle public high school in Ottawa

The school and the Centre are planning to add over 35,000 square feet and renovate over 20,000 square feet of existing space to meet educational programming needs, as well as community needs. The project will also provide for the purchase of state of-the-art audiovisual equipment to support creation and dissemination in a context of learning, collaboration and sharing. $5,858,450

2.2 Continuing to invest in community economic development

The economic development initiative

For Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada (ISED), Action Plan 2018–2023 launched the third iteration of the Economic Development Initiative (EDI). Under the initiative, the Department and its regional development agencies specifically target communities where major unfavourable differences can be seen relative to the majority in terms of socio- economic indicators such as the unemployment rate and income levels.

Throughout the year, ISED worked closely with its regional development agencies to discuss major issues related to the EDI, determine its directions and identify its performance measurement tools. The research component of the EDI has initiated more than a dozen studies and analyses. Two national consultations with Anglophone and Francophone community representatives each brought together more than 50 community stakeholders and representatives of federal institutions: the consultations provided an opportunity to share information about key initiatives and strengthen cooperation among community stakeholders in economic development.

Although ISED sometimes works directly with communities on engaging initiatives, ISED’s growth generating economic development programs and projects are typically managed directly by regional development agencies.

Other support for community economic growth

Under their respective mandates, several other federal institutions also support community economic development. For example, Agriculture and Agri- Food Canada (AAFC) approved funding for two major companies in Ontario communities to help them deal with issues resulting from increased market access to foreign competitors. The Fromagerie Kapuskoise, located in Kapuskasing, in Northern Ontario, and the St-Albert Cheese Cooperative, located in Russell, in Eastern Ontario, received $48,000 and over $1.5 million respectively. This funding, from the Dairy Processing Investment Fund, will be used to purchase automated production equipment and to upgrade equipment and buildings to optimize processes and reduce production costs.

Across Canada, tourism has become an increasingly important source of economic development for communities, and it also represents an asset to the regions where they are located. In November 2018, Destination Canada and RDÉE Canada signed a five-year memorandum of understanding that will bolster the export potential of Francophonie experiences throughout the country. This agreement will benefit both organizations and all communities, as it will allow for the cross promotion of Destination Canada’s collection of signature experiences and the Francophone Heritage, Culture and Tourism Corridor, which provides a range of heritage, cultural and tourism products and services that offer visitor services in French. Several months after this new agreement was signed, during RDÉE’s quarterly meeting Destination Canada held a workshop that was attended by organizations from Western and Northern Canada, the purpose of which was to better understand the communities’ expectations and identify options that will address concrete needs.

For example, ISED donated $20,000 to the Northern Ontario Hockey Association, which was preparing to celebrate its centennial by organizing its first bilingual hockey festival in New Liskeard, in the Témiscaming region located on the Quebec border. This money was used to offset promotional costs in neighbouring northwestern Quebec, thereby encouraging greater interprovincial participation. The organizers hoped to welcome 5,000 visitors during the festivities, which took place in May 2019.

Contracting and employment opportunities

Knowing where to look and being on the lookout for opportunities can sometimes change many things in the lives of entrepreneurs and job seekers alike. The Office of Small and Medium Enterprises (OSME) of Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC) has offices across the country. Through its networks, it promotes some 45 webinars offered free of charge in French on topics such as selling to government, business opportunities and defence procurement. Across the country, its representatives maintain ongoing relationships with local and regional economic development organizations; together, they organize various seminars for business people. To meet the growing demand, the OSME’s Moncton office hired two additional Francophone outreach officers this year.

In 2018–2019, Natural Resources Canada had to meet organizational needs and fill bilingual positions. The Department therefore incorporated its recruitment strategies and communications activities into its obligations under Part VII of the Act. This decision led it to participate in various career fairs at Ontario’s Francophone post-secondary institutions to recruit students in fields as diverse as communications, engineering and scientific research. The availability of promotional material, active on-site communication in both official languages and the possibility of immediate conditional offers of employment resulted in a notable increase in student participation.

Along the same lines, ACOA provided $25,000 under the EDI to RDÉE Newfoundland and Labrador to hold an annual bilingual conference on careers and entrepreneurship requiring post-secondary education. For the first time, the event, intended for Francophone and French immersion high school students, was held in two locations, on the east and west coasts of the island: no fewer than 753 students attended the conference, which represents a considerable increase in the number of participants compared to previous years.

2.3 Promoting vibrant media for informed communities

Support for community media

There is a broad consensus recognizing the essential role that community media play in communities, and this is one of the key areas of intervention identified in the Action Plan 2018–2023. In 2018–2019, a new Community Media Strategic Support Fund set up by Canadian Heritage with $10 million over five years provided 15 community media—including Huronia radio in Penetanguishene, Ontario, and the newspapers l’Eau Vive in Regina and West Quebec Post in Gatineau—with one- time and strategic support for targeted projects enabling them to overcome specific challenges. Worth a total of $605,000, these projects served, among other things, to develop sales strategies and new markets that provide these media with some stability through increased revenues from advertising and subscribers.

Officially piloted by the Association de la presse francophone (APF), the Fund is supported collectively by all members of the Consortium of Official Language Minority Community Media. Formed in 2016, this Consortium was created by the APF, the Alliance des radios communautaires du Canada and the Quebec Community Newspapers Association. The English Language Arts Network (ELAN) more recently joined the Consortium to represent English language community radio stations in Quebec. In January 2019, the Fund also made it possible to organize a one-day collaborative session during which representatives of these associations, various media outlets and the government worked together to develop a set of recommendations to determine the essential parameters for implementing this new Fund.

An envelope of more than $4.5 million over five years also made it possible to create, starting in September 2018, an initial series of 37 new internships at radio stations and newspaper publishers in Anglophone and Francophone communities across Canada. Implemented under Canadian Heritage’s Young Canada Works at Building Careers in English and French program, the fund is administered by the Fédération de la jeunesse canadienne-française.

In addition, in 2018–2019, PCH funded three community radio projects through the Strategic Fund for the Development of Official Language Communities, providing a total amount of $377,519. For example:

The sensitivity of all federal institutions to the crucial role of these media has also resulted in various decisions and initiatives that bring hope to communities.

Informing communities in their language

Throughout the year, Société Radio-Canada (SRC) bolstered initiatives promoting the production and broadcasting of information and entertainment programming that targets communities as a priority. In particular, it deployed video journalists to some Francophone communities (particularly in Hamilton and the Greater Toronto Area) to increase coverage of Francophone communities on the various stations. From January to April 2019, it carried out a pilot project in Iqaluit to provide French-language news coverage of the community. In September 2018, the work of SRC was recognized by the Association canadienne-française de l’Alberta, which awarded its Provincial Impact Award to ICI Alberta.

Radio Canada’s English-language counterpart, the CBC, performed equally well. In September 2018, for the first time in Quebec’s history, a televised debate of political party leaders was held in English during the provincial election campaign. Held at the Maison de Radio-Canada in Montréal and broadcast on television and on multiple platforms, the debate was organized by CBC Quebec, in collaboration with other English language media.

The decline in spending on advertising is hard on all media, but it is felt even more strongly by community media. However, many federal institutions continue to use them because these advertisements remain a preferred means of reaching their target audiences and supporting the communities. For example, as part of the construction, operation and decommissioning project for an open pit lithium and tantalum mine north of Nemaska in the municipality of James Bay, Quebec, the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency made sure to have its notices published in the newspaper “The Temiskaming Speaker” in order to reach the English-speaking community. The same approach was used in a remediation and restoration project east of Pictou, Nova Scotia: advertisements placed in Le courrier de la Nouvelle- Écosse and broadcast via CKJM-FM, the Chéticamp radio cooperative, ensure that the Francophone communities concerned remain informed.

Equally systematic efforts were made by the Canadian Air Transport Security Authority (CATSA): in fall 2018, the institution took great care to include community media in cities in British Columbia and the Prairies affected by its security screening campaign during the busy holiday season. CATSA also worked hard to maximize the visibility of its materials and digital campaign messages in Francophone markets across the country. The results were conclusive: Francophones accounted for 42% of people who installed CATSA’s application, and its Facebook ads generated more clicks and hits combined than English-language ads.

2.4 Fostering cultural outreach

Support for creation and dissemination

Figure 6. Some key figures on Canadian Heritage and Canada Council for the Arts support to community artists in 2018-2019
Description of figure 6
  • Funding provided by Canadian Heritage for the organization of music showcases that promote market access for community artists and organizations: $1,150,000
  • 736 music showcases
  • 415 community-based artists or arts organizations
  • $550,000: Funding in 2018-19 from the Canada Council for the Arts to assist community artists or arts organizations to access existing or promising markets and to tour.
  • 27: number of artists or arts organizations receiving funding
  • $18,515,868: Total Canada Council for the Arts funding to community artists and arts organizations in 2018-19
    • $10,369,673 to individuals, groups and organizations in English-speaking and French-speaking communities in 2018-2019.
    • $8,146,195 to individuals, groups and organizations in Francophone communities.
    • 24.9% increase in funding to communities compared to last year.
  • The Canada Media Fund invested $13.4 million in the production of French-language programs outside Quebec.
  • 149 hours of television and 20 convergent projects with 20 digital media components
  • More than 68 Canadian French-language productions, totalling more than 590 hours, were broadcast on TV5MONDE, available in 198 countries.
  • 8 organizations supported by the Canada Book Fund for the marketing and promotion of community-authored books
  • 30 publishers received funding to translate 82 Canadian-authored books (into English or French)
  • $850,000 from the Canada Periodical Fund goes to community periodicals

In 2018–2019, the Canada Council for the Arts provided over $18.5 million in total funding (programs and strategic funding combined) to communities, representing an increase of 24.9% over the amounts provided in 2017–2018. Among the commitments stemming from the Action Plan 2018–2023, the Market Access Strategy for Artists from Official Language Minority Communities provided $550,000 to 27 separate recipients, including Montreal’s Black Theatre Workshop. With a grant of $35,000, it was able to present its production of The Mountaintop at the Great Canadian Theatre Company in Ottawa in January and February 2019, thereby increasing its opportunities to develop a national audience.

Administered by Canadian Heritage, the Canada Arts Presentation Fund provides financial assistance to organizations that professionally present arts festivals or performing arts series and organizations that offer support to arts presenters. In 2018–2019, through the Fund, dozens of communities gained access to a wealth and variety of artistic experiences offered by their cultural organizations and institutions. For example:

The Fund also helps promote the talents of Canadian artists abroad. For example, in January 2019, the Réseau Ontario des Arts de la scène, as part of Canada’s Creative Export Strategy, brought a delegation of presenters from France, Belgium and the United States to the Contact ontarois event, held in Ottawa.

In March 2019, the federal government announced in the Budget that the Fund would receive an additional $16 million over two years, starting in 2019–2020.

In film, Telefilm Canada broke new ground by contributing to the creation of a new professional development program entitled Écriture scénaristique: écrire pour la télévision, le cinéma et le Web [Script writing: Writing for television, film and the Web]. This new activity was organized in collaboration with Unis TV, TV5, the Association acadienne des artistes professionnel.le.s du Nouveau-Brunswick, the Université de Moncton and Ici Radio-Canada Acadie.

Other initiatives undoubtedly contribute to the emergence of artistic vocations. Raconte-moi ta francophonie is a project launched by the NFB, in collaboration with New Brunswick’s Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, Global Affairs Canada and the Conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Governments of La Francophonie (CONFEMEN). First, in 2018, a team from the NFB Media School aided 19 students from Népisiguit high school in the production of digital short stories, each about two minutes long, using accessible equipment, standard software and a learning module. The outcome of their efforts was presented at the 58th session of the CONFEMEN ministerial meeting in Bathurst in May. Following the presentation, the partners agreed to make Raconte-moi ta francophonie an international challenge, to be launched in all member countries in fall 2019.

Along the same lines, but this time targeting emerging Anglophone, Allophone and Indigenous filmmakers from Quebec and Nunavik, the NFB’s Quebec Atlantic Studio launched a call for applications for its new project Reimagining My Quebec. In December 2018, the four persons selected began work on a 15-minute film, expected to be completed in late 2019. In addition to receiving approximately $15,000 in writer and director fees, each participant benefits from the Board’s technical expertise and state-of-the-art equipment, as well as an individual marketing strategy that will help their work reach its audiences.

In the 2018 Fall Economic Update, the Government of Canada announced an investment of $14.6 million over five years starting in 2019-2020 to support the creation, development and launch of a French-language digital platform bringing together public broadcasters that are members of TV5MONDE. The free digital platform, which will be called TV5MONDEplus, will allow the world to discover French-language content from TV5MONDE and its partner public broadcasters, including Canada. The development of the platform will increase the online presence of French-language content and provide increased visibility for Canadian content and additional broadcasting opportunities for Canadian artists and producers. It will also increase discoverability and make it easier for people all around the world to access French-language and Canadian programming worldwide. It is expected to launch in the fall of 2020.

Lastly, in music, Canadian Heritage is continuing the very popular Music Showcases program for community- based artists. In 2018–2019, more than 415 artists took part in some 736 music showcases at regional, national and international events, in addition to participating in several tours. Many of the music showcases receiving support included a digital promotion component.

Showcasing talent and development

Through all its programs, the National Arts Centre actively contributes to both the promotion of talent and the development of young artists from the communities.

The Canada Council for the Arts supported the creation of a co-production, by Moncton’s Satellite Theatre and the United Kingdom’s Grafted Cede, of a bilingual show entitled The Limits of Possible Noise / Les limites du bruit possible. Sixteen Acadian, Quebec and British artists joined talents to present this work, which uses physical theatre, dance, puppetry and masked play. Satellite Theatre received $30,000 through the Arts Abroad program for this performance, which was presented in Moncton and Quebec. A tour in the United Kingdom is planned for May–June 2019.

Through its Support to Organizations program, the Canada Book Fund administered by Canadian Heritage supported eight organizations involved in the marketing and promotion of books by authors from the communities.

Accessibility of heritage – preserving moments in time

In 2018–2019, Canadian Heritage’s Building Communities Through Arts and Heritage program funded more than 80 projects from the communities that brought Canadians together to celebrate their talents and their belonging in their own language. Another program, the Legacy Fund, provided support for projects designed to impact on communities for years to come:

Education continues to be an important part of museums’ activities, and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights has made it a priority. In 2018–2019, the Museum hosted no fewer than 83 Francophone groups representing a total of 3,071 students at all levels from French and immersion schools. These students accounted for nearly 13% of all students who visited the Museum during the year. The Museum identified the following success factors contributing to these results: hiring bilingual staff in nearly 90% of the positions requiring direct contact with the public, creating a bilingual mobile application to facilitate self-guided tours, and collaborating closely with teachers and Manitoba’s Bureau de l’éducation française.

Given the importance of having bilingual staff to greet visitors, Canadian Heritage also provided financial support for the creation of summer jobs for young people from the communities in various museums and other cultural sites across the country. In 2018–2019, the Young Canada Works in Heritage Organizations program therefore contributed to the creation of 71 summer jobs and 12 internships at sites such as the Old Jail Museum in l’Orignal, Ontario, the Eastern Townships Resource Centre in Sherbrooke, and the Louise-et-Reuben Cohen Art Gallery in New Brunswick.

Other programs target individuals who may not be able to visit our sites in person to learn about our history. The Virtual Museum of Canada is an investment program managed by the Canadian Museum of History that addresses this issue by helping museums and heritage organizations develop bilingual virtual exhibits and various online products. In 2018–2019, it posted online the story of the connection that Canada’s very first Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, and his family had to their summer residence at Villa Les Rochers, on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River, not far from Rivière- du-Loup. Visitors taking the virtual tour can learn about not only the architecture of that time, but also various parts of Macdonald’s life away from his responsibilities in Canada’s capital, works of art created by his wife, Lady Agnes, and her commitment to the local French-speaking community. A documentary produced by the non profit organization Canadian Heritage of Quebec, which now owns the site, is accessible to all Canadians and to visitors from around the world.

Institutional frameworks and infrastructure

Many of the initiatives described above would not have been possible without umbrella agreements or licences, which provide a framework for collaboration among local stakeholders as well as the work accomplished.

In August 2018, the CRTC renewed the licence and mandatory distribution order for TV5 and UNIS TV services, first granted in 2013, until 2023. After analysis, the Commission concluded that these complementary services remain of exceptional importance in the Canadian broadcasting system and require financial support. TV5 provides Francophone communities with a gateway to the television programming of the international Francophonie, but also offers an opportunity for Francophone viewers around the world to learn more about the Canadian Francophonie. UNIS TV, whose programming reflects the diversity of the Canadian Francophonie, provides Francophone producers, creators, artists and technicians across Canada with the opportunity to showcase their talents and skills, and share their ideas and concerns.

On another level, Canadian Heritage plays an equally pivotal role through the Canada Cultural Spaces Fund. This Fund contributes to improving the physical conditions that foster innovation in arts, heritage and creation. This year, the activities supported by the Fund included:

2.5 Increasing Francophone immigration

In 1971, Francophones in minority communities outside Quebec represented 6.1% of the population. By 2016, this percentage had declined to 3.8%, dropping below 4% for the first time. In the Action Plan 2018–2023, the Government set an objective to stabilize this proportion at 4% by supporting a strong, stable and resilient Canadian Francophonie. To make this happen, immigration will play a decisive role in the vitality of communities, in cooperation with the provinces and territories. The Action Plan 2018–2023 targets an increase in the proportion of Francophone immigrants outside Quebec, to reach 4.4% of all immigrants by 2023. This year, while continuing to roll out its recurring programs, IRCC launched new programs made possible by funding contained in the Action Plan 2018–2023. The Department also finalized the consultations that led to the publication of a new Francophone Immigration Strategy.

Figure 7. Francophone Immigration Strategy

Launch of the new Francophone Immigration Strategy

Throughout the year, following an initial series of consultations, IRCC continued its efforts to prepare a new Francophone Immigration Strategy. Joint planning exercises were held as part of nine Francophone regional summits which took place from August to October 2018. These events brought together close to 350 stakeholders from community organizations, representatives of all levels of government, members of the Francophone Immigration Networks and Anglophone partners specific to each region. Through these consultations, IRCC was able to gather ideas from the communities and better understand the specific needs of each region in order to better attract newcomers and integrate them into their host communities.

Working today and preparing for the future

The Service Delivery Improvement Program at IRCC aims to test new service delivery models, identify what works best and thereby increase the effectiveness of the Settlement Program. It represents a dedicated source of funding of over $30 million per year. In 2018–2019, the program funded close to 100 regional projects in various fields. Its priorities include coming up with new ways to help newcomers learn English or French. The initiatives supported include the following:

Promotion and recruitment activities in Canada

Other efforts have been made to better match the needs and expectations of communities with Francophone candidates for immigration from different countries. Throughout the year, officers from IRCC’s Paris, Tunis, Rabat and Bucharest offices conducted liaison tours in seven Canadian provinces and one territory. The initiative was carried out in partnership with the FCFA, the RDÉE and several local Francophone immigration networks. One of the benefits of these tours was that IRCC was able to survey the views of stakeholders in the field (employers, occupational sector councils, municipalities, stakeholder organizations, chambers of commerce) on local and regional labour market needs. Meetings with employers also provided an opportunity to promote the added value of Francophone immigrants from different regions of the world, as well as recruitment mechanisms abroad that facilitate their hiring, including on a temporary basis.

FPT immigration action plan

With respect to immigration, 2018–2019 marked the beginning of the new Federal/Provincial/Territorial Action Plan for Increasing Francophone Immigration Outside of Quebec. This Action Plan outlines the concrete actions that will be taken to attract, integrate and retain Francophone immigrants in Francophone minority communities. It centres on three strategies for collaboration: championing Francophone immigration; collaborating on the areas of employment, accessible services and inclusive communities; and reporting on progress. Throughout the year, the parties worked to complete their work plan, which details the actions they intend to carry out by 2023.

3. Strengthening access to services

Committed to their development, communities also need services accessible in their language of choice and equal in quality to the services offered in the language of the majority. Whether related to health, education or justice, the needs and expectations can vary across provinces, territories, or even parts of the country. The amendments to the Official Languages Regulations tabled in Parliament by the government in October 2018 will also better address these needs. The commitments set out in the Action Plan for Official Languages 2018–2023 confirm the government’s willingness to allocate additional resources for services to communities.

Section 3 provides an overview of various projects implemented in the following broad areas:

3.1 Implementation of the new Action Plan 2018–2023 initiatives

Figure 8. Strengthening Access to Services: New Initiatives in the Action Plan 2018–2023
Description of figure 8
  • Justice Canada allocated $400,000 for the implementation of a new translation activity for judgments and other legal texts that will help increase the legal information available to communities in both official languages by targeting the translation of 125 judgments per year.
  • With the core funding announced in the Action Plan 2018–2023, Justice Canada established three-year funding agreements with 10 provincial and territorial organizations and 1 national organization.
  • Five academic institutions in British Columbia, Saskatchewan and Ontario have developed new programs for the Consortium national de formation en santé.
  • The Public Health Agency of Canada consulted with over 150 community stakeholders to develop their new program (Request for Proposals began in spring 2019).

The additional funding injected into the Action Plan 2018–2023 made it possible for several federal institutions to improve various services offered to communities, but also to offer new services in the first year of its implementation, for example:

3.2 Support for minority language education

Education agreements

The education agreements between the federal government and its provincial and territorial counterparts expired on March 31, 2018. By mutual agreement, the parties decided to extend the agreements for one year, until March 31, 2019. Negotiations on the new Protocol for Agreements on Minority Language Education and Second Language Learning continued. The Protocol and the bilateral agreements it covers could, for instance, include new clauses on reporting and on regular consultations with community stakeholders.

In 2018–2019, PCH disbursed just over $183 million under its initiatives to support minority language education, including just over $178 million transfered to the provinces and territories, through bilateral agreements and projects, to support the considerable efforts made by these administrations in minority language education. Financial support is provided at all school levels covering the continuum of education, from pre-school to post-secondary:

Learning science in your own language

The PromoScience Program of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) supports organizations that work with young Canadians to help them understand science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Eight of the recipients target communities:

New partnerships in Manitoba for the translation bureau

In January 2019, the Translation Bureau of Public Services and Procurement Canada signed two new partnership agreements, one with the Association of Translators, Terminologists and Interpreters of Manitoba (ATIM) and the other with the Université de Saint- Boniface. The former provides ATIM members with access to an annual corpus of approximately 56,000 words (English-French and French-English), as well as access to unclassified original and translated documents. The latter laid the groundwork for an academic terminology project that was to start in September: the university receives support from a terminologist responsible for academic projects, who provides feedback to the students. Together, these projects contribute to enhancing local skills and training future translators.

3.3 Improving access to justice

Increased access to justice in English for Quebec communities

On April 20, 2018, with support from Justice Canada, the Quebec Community Groups Network (QCGN) held a forum entitled No Justice Without Access which marked a turning point in the development of its Access to Justice in English in Quebec initiative. The participants— legal experts, lawyers and community leaders— identified three priority areas for action: administrative justice, youth and family affairs, and seniors. Working committees were created, and their members developed an Action Plan. As a result of this project, communities in all regions of Quebec will gain a better understanding of the justice system, cooperation among the players in the system will be enhanced, and communities will improve their ability to take action, all of which will mean improved access to justice for members of Quebec’s English-speaking community.

A partner for jurisource is the only website in the world to offer thousands of free legal and terminology resources in French for professionals working in Canada’s common law provinces and territories. Thousands of people visit the site every month, and the number of visits keeps rising. The Public Prosecution Service of Canada (PPSC) has been a major partner and contributor to this resource for several years. The significance of its contribution is due in particular to the fact that it is the only partner specializing in areas such as drug trafficking or regulatory crimes (corruption, pollution, immigration, etc.). The PPSC shares with Jurisource its prosecution policies, as well as weekly updates of its lexicon, produced by its own legal translators.

3.4 Access to health care and social services in the minority language

Health Canada supports transformative initiatives

Throughout the year, several activities funded by Health Canada through its Official Languages Health Program facilitated access to health care and services for communities. To give just a few examples:

New bilingual training program at the University of Regina

Given the rural exodus and the aging population, the demand for health care in French in Saskatchewan is growing. WD provided a contribution of $135,785 to the Cité universitaire francophone at the University of Regina to support the creation of a new bilingual nursing program.

The funding was used to purchase equipment and educational resources in French. In the first year, the Cité accepted 16 new students who will graduate in three years. A new cohort of students will be accepted each year and will increase the number of bilingual workers capable of providing health care in French in the province. This initiative has been a priority of Saskatchewan’s French speaking community for the past ten years.

Healing and prevention

In 2018–2019, several institutions continued their important work to combat gender-based violence and prevent youth crime.

The Department for Women and Gender Equality, through its Gender-Based Violence Funding Program, assisted several organizations that work with women living in official language communities:

Prevention is also an important part of the work being done by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police to combat gender-based violence and bullying. For example, in 2018–2019, in the Atlantic region alone, its officers made more than 140 presentations to schools, community organizations or local media to educate among young people in the communities on issues such as cyberbullying and sexism, healthy sexuality and consent, LGBTQ laws, stereotypes and discrimination.

3.5 Agreements with the provinces and territories on French language services

Intergovernmental cooperation on minority language services aims to support the efforts of provincial and territorial governments to offer provincial, territorial and municipal services in the language of minority communities, as well as to establish and maintain the necessary infrastructure. The goals and objectives of each cooperation agreement may differ depending on the priorities of eligible recipients.

Canadian Heritage allocates $9.6 million per year to provincial governments through federal–provincial service agreements. In 2018–2019, negotiations that began the previous year resulted in the signing of ten agreements, specifically, agreements with eight provinces in effect until 2022–2023, a two-year extension of the 2013–2018 agreement with Alberta, and a one-year agreement with Quebec (2018–2019). Discussions are under way to renew the latter two agreements until 2022–2023.

With respect to French-language service in the North, agreements with the territories are in place for 2016–2020 and were enhanced in December 2017 with the announcement of new funding of up to $12 million per year. Since 2018–2019, with this enhancement, Canadian Heritage has allocated $17.1 million per year to the three territorial governments for French-language services.

In total, PCH will allocate $26.7 million per year, or $133.5 million over five years (2018–2023), to bilateral agreements with the provinces and territories for services in the minority language.

4. Promotion of official languages

Promoting the presence of two strong languages, English and French, in Canada reinforces the official languages as a pillars of our social contract. This section presents some examples of initiatives that federal institutions undertook in 2018–2019 to celebrate our official languages and help Anglophones and Francophones in Canada get to know one another better.

The start of implementation of the Action Plan 2018–2023, here again, resulted in the enhancement of many existing activities and the launch of new initiatives. That said, several federal institutions also continued their work, with renewed energy. They worked closely with communities and their representatives every day to recognize and promote the richness and benefits of Canada’s linguistic duality, both at home and abroad.

Section 4 of this report therefore focuses on the following:

4.1 Implementation of the new Action Plan 2018–2023 initiatives

Figure 9. Promotion of Official Languages: New Initiatives in the Action Plan 2018–2023
Description of figure 9
  • Launch a call for proposals to identify who will be responsible for implementing the new initiative to strengthen the bilingual character of Canada's Capital.
  • Launch of the process to identify a community partner responsible for implementing the new initiative to encourage Anglophone students to pursue post-secondary education in their second official language. The first bursaries ($3,000) will be awarded for the academic year 2020-21.
  • 5901: number of participants in the Explore program
  • 155: number of participants in Destination Clic program
  • 245: number of participants in the Odyssey program
  • Partnership with Radio-Canada/CBC for the development of the new Canadian cultural program for online learning and maintenance of English and French as second languages started: le Mauril.

In the Action Plan 2018–2023, the government set an objective to increase the national bilingualism rate from 17.9% to 20% by 2036, mainly through an increase in the bilingualism rate of Anglophones outside Quebec from 6.8% to 9%. The 2018–2019 year saw the launch of several new initiatives, including the hiring of new teachers and the enhancement of various existing programs. Together, these initiatives are contributing to the realization of this ambitious goal:

4.2 Promotion of linguistic duality abroad

For several years now, to mark International Day of la Francophonie, Global Affairs Canada (GAC) has funded activities organized by its diplomatic and consular network to recognize Canada’s Francophone character. Stakeholders from official language communities across Canada have been involved in various cultural and educational activities. In 2018–2019, collaboration among multiple embassies increased the impact of their various projects more than ever before.

Canadian missions abroad also carried out various initiatives to promote Canada’s bilingual nature:

4.3 Promotion of linguistic duality in Canada

Support for second language learning

Figure 10. Increase in the number of enrolments in French immersion programs offered outside Quebec since 2003
Description of figure 10
Year Number of enrolments in French immersion programs offered outside Quebec
2003-2004 282,837
2004-2005 288,970
2005-2006 295,197
2006-2007 300,464
2007-2008 311,115
2008-2009 317,662
2009-2010 328,716
2010-2011 341,694
2011-2012 356,580
2012-2013 372,879
2013-2014 392,430
2014-2015 409,899
2015-2016 428,619
2016-2017 449,769
2017-2018 463,119

The extension to March 31, 2019, of education agreements with the provinces and territories (see 3.2) also allowed for the extension of programs under the Second Language Learning component. To that end, in 2018–2019 PCH disbursed almost $115 million. The component also includes a Complementary Fund that supports various projects addressing very specific needs:

The creation of a National Table on French as a Second Language was explored with provincial and territorial governments and key stakeholders in the area of French second-language learning, including Canadian Parents for French, the Canadian Association of Immersion Professionals, the Canadian Association of Second Language Teachers and French for the Future. The purpose of this Table would be to discuss common issues; to facilitate the sharing of information, expertise, winning practices and solutions; and to promote cooperation and collaboration among members.

The Odyssey program reaches a major milestone: In November 2018, the Odyssey program celebrated its 45th anniversary! Formerly known as the Official Languages Monitors Program (OLMP), Odyssey was established in 1973 to promote Canada’s two official languages and the culture they convey by encouraging young people across the country to share their language and culture with students in a region other than their own. Since its inception, the program has had more than 36,000 participants.

Odyssey is a program funded by Canadian Heritage and administered by the Council of Ministers of Education (Canada). It offers a nine-month paid work experience to participants, who work as language monitors in the classroom to help students improve their oral communication skills in their second official language. In 2018–2019, 245 university students took advantage of this opportunity to gain new work experience while discovering another region of Canada. The additional $3.5 million provided under the Action Plan 2018–2023 made it possible to increase the participants’ pay from $18,000 to $25,000.

Enhancement of intensive immersion program explore

In 2018–2019, through the Explore intensive immersion program, no fewer than 5,901 young Francophones were given an opportunity, over five weeks, to develop their skills in their second official language by discovering another region of Canada. Funded by Canadian Heritage, the program is administered by the Council of Ministers of Education (Canada). The bursary paid to post- secondary institutions covers course materials, meals and accommodation. The training program is complemented by numerous cultural activities, customized for individuals 16 to 17 years of age. In 2018–2019, the additional funds injected by the Action Plan 2018–2023 made it possible to increase the amount of these bursaries from $2,200 to $2,800.

Youth, innovation and official languages

In 2018–2019, Canadian Heritage organized or participated in the organization of two programming marathons (hackathons) that mobilized young Canadians from various fields in partnership with community organizations and federal institutions. In two days, the participants had to create a mobile or Web application that offered a solution to official languages issues and challenges in their communities. In addition to promoting official languages and fostering closer relationships between young people from the two language communities, these events enabled the participants to test their knowledge and connect with potential employers in their own communities. Efforts were made to continue developing certain prototypes with various partners.

The Canada Council for the Arts changes its policies to benefit community creators

The Public Lending Right (PLR) program of the Canada Council for the Arts sends yearly payments to authors and translators whose works are in Canada’s public libraries. In 2018–2019, the Commission that oversees the program changed its sampling techniques to better identify French-language titles outside Quebec, New Brunswick and the Ottawa public library system, and English-language titles in Quebec. In concrete terms, this means, for example, that the works of a Francophone writer in Edmonton or an Anglophone translator in Montréal are now considered and compensated by the PLR program. A strategic investment of additional funding enabled the Council to increase payments to authors and translators by more than 15%. Direct payment to authors working in both official languages across the country has increased to over $12 million.

An increasingly popular language portal

Figure 11. Some figures on the popularity of the Language Portal of Canada (2018-2019)
Description of figure 11
  • 6.8 million page views (the highest number of page views since the launch of the Portal in 2009)
  • 575 ambassadors, organizations that promote the site and raise the profile of official languages in their networks: a 29% increase in one year
  • 64 activities:
    • Kiosks to promote the Portal to tens of thousands of people
    • Workshops to train 850 users
  • 28 blog posts from external collaborators have been published in the Our Languages blog of the Portal
  • 3332 new content, including games, articles, blog posts and social media messages, including 180 related to Aboriginal culture or languages

The Language Portal of Canada offers all Canadians a wide range of free writing tools, games and Government of Canada resources on various aspects of official languages. Users seeking advice on grammar, spelling and punctuation, and solutions for difficult points of English and French can trust the tools designed by language experts. Use of the Portal, managed by the Translation Bureau (PSPC), continues to increase year after year.

In 2018–2019, to help Canadians better communicate in both official languages, the Portal team created 3,332 new items, including games, articles, blog posts and social media messages. During the year, the team also implemented an extensive three-pronged awareness campaign. It increased its number of ambassadors by 39% compared to 2017–2018; there are now 575 individuals who regularly contribute to the site’s outreach. Team members also carried out 64 outreach activities, including setting up booths enabling them to meet tens of thousands of people, and providing training workshops on the use of Portal resources to more than 850 participants. The third component consisted of an advertising campaign using email and social media. As a result of these efforts, the number of page views in the Portal and its writing tools reached 6.8 million, a record since its launch in 2009.

Getting to know one another better

Every year, Canadian Heritage provides financial support to many projects that enable members of one community to discover or get to know representatives of the other community in their province or territory. This year, the following projects were funded:

Festive events and gatherings

In 2018–2019, through various programs, Canadian Heritage supported and made possible hundreds of festive events that brought communities together and enabled them to connect with and have a better understanding of one another:


The 2018–2019 year was an eventful one during which official languages gained visibility in the public sphere.

In addition to the numerous recurring activities carried out by the communities, more than ever before the year saw the mobilization of all stakeholders— mobilization surrounding the long awaited initiative to amend the Official Languages Regulations; mobilization surrounding the preparations for the review of the Act itself; and mobilization surrounding the preparations for the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Act.

Year one of the implementation of the Action Plan 2018–2023 also provided an opportunity for a historic commitment to be made. The core funding granted in year one enabled those who represent the communities in all consultation forums to make their voices better heard and to fully contribute to defining the initiatives in relation to their needs. Some initiatives have begun to show initial results. These participatory approaches laid the groundwork for new programs and broadened the scope of existing initiatives. The results of these contributions will be the subject of the next annual report. Many of the initiatives made possible by the Action Plan 2018–2023 will gain momentum throughout the second year of its implementation.

Everyone is aware that the agenda for the coming year will be full and that federal institutions will be fully committed to the development of communities, the delivery of services that meet their needs in the official language of their choice, and support for linguistic duality across the country. The Department will continue to work closely with the communities to help them achieve their goals. In the same spirit, the coming into force of the new federal/provincial/territorial agreements will set new foundations for collaboration among the various levels of government for the well-being of the communities.

The process of modernizing the Act will take significant steps forward. This will also be an opportunity to review the agreement with the provinces and territories to support education in the official language of the minority. And also to remember the best moments of the World Acadian Congress! For the first time, the event was held—in part—on Prince Edward Island, a sign, if one were needed, of the remarkable vitality of the province’s Francophone and Acadian community. To be continued!

Appendix 1: 2018-2019 Summary of government investments in official languages (including initiatives of Action Plan 2018–2023)

Table 2. 2018-2019 Summary of government investments in official languages (including initiatives of Action Plan 2018–2023)
Initiatives Total allocated from 2018 to 2023 (in dollars) Planned Spending 2018-2019 (in dollars) Actual Spending 2018-2019 (in dollars)
Canadian Heritage – historical base
Minority-language education (federal-provincial-territorial agreements) 805,100,000 157,251,357 162,836,521
Cooperation with the non-governmental sector (minority-language organizations) 8,750,000 1,750,000 1,750,000
Intergovernmental Cooperation on Minority-Languages Services (federal-provincial-territorial agreements) 81,000,000 14,895,500 14,895,500
Cooperation with the community sector (minority-language organizations) 159,500,000 31,888,550 32,658,800
Strategic funds 22,500,000 4,800,000 2,479,937
Community Cultural Action Fund 10,000,000 2,000,000 1,939,682
Support for second-language learning (federal-provincial-territorial agreements) 448,000,000 89,467,838 88,113,435
Cooperation with the non-governmental sector (second-language organizations) 4,850,000 975,000 909,420
Summer language bursaries (Explore, Destination Clic) 84,500,000 16,923,407 13,932,738
Official-language monitors (Odyssey) 35,500,000 7,114,398 6,206,585
Promotion of linguistic duality (appreciation and rapprochement) 18,500,000 3,700,000 3,499,258
Promotion of bilingual services in the voluntary sector 1,100,000 212,571 253,100
Support for interpretation and translation 2,500,000 500,000 416,005
Young Canada Works in Both Official Languages 18,630,000 3,725,000 3,589,844
Exchanges Canada (official-language initiative) 11,250,000 2,250,000 2,250,000
Music Showcases Program for Artists from official-language minority communities 5,750,000 1,150,000 1,150,000
National Translation Program for Book Publishing 4,000,000 800,000 800,000
Canadian Heritage – new funds in Action Plan 2018–2023Footnote 1
Additional funding for community organizations 57,370,000 6,725,000 6,547,269
Enhancement of the Community Cultural Action FundFootnote 2 11,160,000 0 127,018
Funding for Quebec English-speaking communitiesFootnote 3 5,280,000 0 0
Strengthening community media and radio (Strategic support & Ensuring succession)Footnote 4 14,530,000 1,500,000 1,895,283
Support for community spaces – infrastructure 67,250,000 8,000,000 12,113,238
Strengthening strategic investment capacity 10,000,000 1,500,000 1,508,303
Support to Civic Community School InitiativeFootnote 3 5,250,000 0 0
Recruitment of teachers for minority community schoolsFootnote 3 31,290,000 0 0
Enhanced support for French-language services in the territories (2017) 60,000,000 9,341,447 9,341,447
Support for educational community infrastructure ($80 million over 10 years) (2017) 28,000,000 3,892,062 3,892,062
Mobile application for learning French and English as a second language 16,500,000 813,467 674,176
Enhanced support for Explore language bursaries 21,000,000 4,200,000 3,915,000
Enhanced support for Odyssey official-language monitorsFootnote 5 17,500,000 3,500,000 1,521,722
Bursaries for post-secondary education in French as a second languageFootnote 3 12,600,000 0 0
Recruitment of teachers for French immersion schoolsFootnote 3 31,290,000 0 0
Additional support for Young Canada Works in Both Official Languages (2017) 1,200,000 1,200,000 1,200,000
Employment and Social Development Canada – historical base
Social Partnership Initiative in OLMCs 4,000,000 1,686,255 1,686,189
OLMC Literacy and Essential Skills Initiative 7,500,000 1,500,000 532,781Footnote 6
Enabling Fund for OLMCs (Employability and economic development) including the increase in core funding to organizations ($4.5 million out of five) 73,500,000 14,300,000 13,485,901
Employment and Social Development Canada – new funds in Action Plan 2018–2023
Support for early childhood development - Support for the opening of daycares and daycare services 6,849,682 1,077,122 1,024,929
Support for early childhood development - Training and capacity building for early childhood educators 13,150,000 2,647,226 20,831Footnote 7
Health Canada – historical base
Official Languages Health Contribution Program (Networks, Training and Access to Health Services) 174,300,000 34,860,000 34,950,463
Health Canada – new funds in Action Plan 2018–2023
Additional Funding for community organizations 4,400,000 0 440,000
Enhancement of the Official Languages Health Contribution Program - Training and Retention of Health Human Resources 5,000,000 0 1,000,000
Enhancement of the Official Languages Health Contribution Program – Strengthening the Capacity of English-Language Health Networks in Quebec 3,500,000 0 700,000
Enhancement of the Official Languages Health Contribution Program – Innovation Projects 4,000,000 0 0
Immigration, Refugee and Citizenship Canada – historical base
Immigration to official-languages minority communities 29,408,190 5,881,638 5,881,638
Immigration, Refugee and Citizenship Canada – nouveau fonds du Plan d’action 2018–2023
Francophone integration pathway 36,553,615 4,300,090 4,144,607
Cooperation and Accountability 4,185,138 869,692 586,349
Justice Canada – historical base
Networks, Training and Access to Justice Services, including Additional funding for Access to Justice in Both Official Languages Support Fund (10 million over five years) 50,194,995 10,038,999 7,959,967Footnote 8
Contraventions Act Fund 49,611,635 9,922,327 5,068,907Footnote 9
Justice Canada – new funds in Action Plan 2018–2023
Core funding to justice organizations 3,750,000 500,000 669,016
Innovation, Science, and Economic Development Canada – historical base
Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada (coordination) 1,600,000 380,000 385,787
Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency 6,200,000 1,230,185 1,202,375
Canada Economic Development for Quebec Regions 10,200,000 2,022,450 2,108,091
Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency (CanNor) 400,000 80,000 80,000
Federal Economic Development Initiative for Northern Ontario 4,450,000 890,000 890,000
Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario 4,450,000 890,000 906,180
Western Economic Diversification Canada-Economic 3,200,000 640,000 1,087,544
Public Health Agency of Canada – new funds in Action Plan 2018–2023
Enhanced early childhood health promotion programming 10,000,000 315,000 124,187Footnote 10
Canada Council for the Arts – historical base
Market Access Strategy for Artists from OLMCs 2,750,000 550,000 550,000
National Research Council (NRC) – historical base
Strengthening language industries and technologies 10,000,000 2,000,000 2,124,388
Public Services and Procurement Canada (Translation Bureau) – historical base
Language Portal of Canada 16,000,000 3,200,000 3,060,320
Statistics Canada – new funds in Action Plan 2018–2023
Additional, continued support to the language statistics section 2,997,270 599,454 601,400
Total – historical base 2,169,194,820 427,821,189 419,641,356
Total – new funds in Action Plan 2018–2023 484,605,705Footnote 11 50,980,560 52,046,837
Total of government investments in official languages 2,653,800,525 478,801,749 471,688,193

Appendix 2: 2018-2019 Expenditures of the Official Languages Support Programs by component

Table 3. Expenditures of Canadian Heritage Official Languages Support Programs – Grand total (in dollars)
Program Expenditures
Development of Official Language Communities Program 256,539,249
Enhancement of Official Languages Program 119,623,889
Grand Total 376,163,138
Table 4. Expenditures of the Development of Official Language Communities Program by component (in dollars)
Component Sub-component Expenditures
Community Life Cooperation with the Community SectorFootnote 12 38,760,352
Intergovernmental Cooperation on Minority Language ServicesFootnote 13 24,236,947
Strategic FundFootnote 14 3,988,240
Community Media Strategic Support Fund 833,035
Community Cultural Action Fund 1,939,682
Community Cultural Action Micro-Grant Program for Minority Schools (Micro-grants) 127,018
Young Canada Works (official languages)Footnote 15 3,457,170
Subtotal: "Community Life" component 73,342,444
Minority Language Education Intergovernmental Cooperation on Minority Language EducationFootnote 16 162,836,521
InfrastructureFootnote 17 16,005,300
Complementary Support for Language Learning 2,359,984
Cooperation with the Non-Governmental SectorFootnote 12 1,995,000
Subtotal: "Minority Language Education" component 183,196,805
All components Total 256,539,249
Table 5. Expenditures of the Enhancement of Official Languages Program by component (in dollars)
Component Sub-component Expenditures
Promotion of Linguistic Duality Appreciation and ReconciliationFootnote 12 4,195,440
Promotion of Bilingual Services 253,100
Support for Interpretation and Translation 416,005
Subtotal: "Promotion of Linguistic Duality" 4,864,545
Second Language Learning Intergovernmental Cooperation on Second Language LearningFootnote 18 88,113,441
Complementary Support for Language LearningFootnote 19 23,216,061
Cooperation with the Non-Governmental SectorFootnote 12 1,034,920
Young Canada Works (official languages) 2,394,922
Subtotal: " Second Language Learning" component 114,759,344
All components Total 119,623,889

Appendix 3: 2018-2019 expenditures of the Official Languages Support Programs by province and territory

Table 6. Official Languages Support Programs Expenditures by Province and Territory (in dollars)
Province or territory Development of Official Language Communities Program Enhancement of Official Languages Program Subtotal by province or territory
Newfoundland and Labrador 3,107,300 2,803,347 5,910,647
Prince Edward Island 5,203,931 1,533,742 6,737,673
Nova Scotia 8,781,084 3,938,511 12,719,595
New Brunswick 28,731,654 5,324,863 34,056,517
Quebec 53,687,593 18,406,662 72,094,255
Ontario 73,603,233 24,508,034 98,111,267
Manitoba 12,477,084 5,719,647 18,196,731
Saskatchewan 7,342,319 4,493,522 11,835,841
Alberta 13,061,970 9,122,007 22,183,977
British Columbia 12,929,385 11,331,533 24,260,918
Northwest Territories 7,855,078 1,327,153 9,182,231
Yukon 7,650,616 977,100 8,627,716
Nunavut 5,665,151 526,746 6,191,897
National (national organizations, Canadian and inter regional projects) 10,625,697 4,000,039 14,625,736
Complementary Support for Language Learning: Explore and Destination Clic (Bursaries) 821,878 17,025,860 17,847,738
Complementary Support for Language Learning: Odyssey 1,538,106 6,190,201 7,728,307
Young Canada Works 3,457,170 2,394,922 5,852,092
Total 256,539,249 119,623,889 376,163,138
Table 7. Expenditures of the Development of Official Language Communities Program by province and territory (in dollars)
Province or territory "Community Life" component "Minority Language Education" component Subtotal by province or territory
Newfoundland and Labrador 1,805,749 1,301,551 3,107,300
Prince Edward Island 2,756,529 2,447,402 5,203,931
Nova Scotia 3,644,359 5,136,725 8,781,084
New Brunswick 6,641,985 22,089,669 28,731,654
Quebec 5,338,807 48,348,786 53,687,593
Ontario 8,306,703 65,296,530 73,603,233
Manitoba 4,708,365 7,768,719 12,477,084
Saskatchewan 3,529,030 3,813,289 7,342,319
Alberta 4,333,695 8,728,275 13,061,970
British Columbia 3,953,045 8,976,340 12,929,385
Northwest Territories 6,172,228 1,682,850 7,855,078
Yukon 5,414,816 2,235,800 7,650,616
Nunavut 4,769,266 895,885 5,665,151
National (national organizations, pan Canadian and inter regional projects) 8,510,697 2,115,000 10,625,697
Complementary Support for Language Learning: Explore and Destination Clic (Bursaries) 0 821,878 821,878
Complementary Support for Language Learning: Odyssey 0 1,538,106 1,538,106
Young Canada Works 3,457,170 0 3,457,170
Total 73,342,444 183,196,805 256,539,249
Table 8. Expenditures of the “Community Life” component of the Development of Official Language Communities Program by province and territory (in dollars)
Province or territory “Cooperation with the Community Sector” sub component “Intergovernmental Cooperation on Services” sub component Subtotal by province or territory
Newfoundland and Labrador 1,455,749 350,000 1,805,749
Prince Edward Island 1,519,029 1,237,500 2,756,529
Nova Scotia 2,343,359 1,301,000 3,644,359
New Brunswick 5,044,985 1,597,000 6,641,985
Quebec 4,938,807 400,000 5,338,807
Ontario 6,906,703 1,400,000 8,306,703
Manitoba 3,308,365 1,400,000 4,708,365
Saskatchewan 2,769,030 760,000 3,529,030
Alberta 3,683,695 650,000 4,333,695
British Columbia 3,253,045 700,000 3,953,045
Northwest Territories 672,228 5,500,000 6,172,228
Yukon 658,605 4,756,211 5,414,816
Nunavut 584,030 4,185,236 4,769,266
National (national organizations, Canadian and inter regional projects) 8,510,697 0 8,510,697
Young Canada Works 3,457,170 0 3,457,170
Total 49,105,497 24,236,947 73,342,444
Table 9. Expenditures of the Enhancement of Official Languages Program by province and territory (in dollars)
Province or territory “Promotion of Linguistic Duality” component “Second Language Learning” component Subtotal by province or territory
Newfoundland and Labrador 164,052 2,639,295 2,803,347
Prince Edward Island 134,640 1,399,102 1,533,742
Nova Scotia 177,156 3,761,355 3,938,511
New Brunswick 176,478 5,148,385 5,324,863
Quebec 0 18,406,662 18,406,662
Ontario 353,400 24,154,634 24,508,034
Manitoba 179,196 5,540,451 5,719,647
Saskatchewan 179,196 4,314,326 4,493,522
Alberta 227,148 8,894,859 9,122,007
British Columbia 364,512 10,967,021 11,331,533
Northwest Territories 63,648 1,263,505 1,327,153
Yukon 0 977,100 977,100
Nunavut 0 526,746 526,746
National (national organizations, pan Canadian and inter regional projects) 2,845,119 1,154,920 4,000,039
Complementary Support for Language Learning: Explore and Destination Clic 0 17,025,860 17,025,860
Complementary Support for Language Learning: Odyssey 0 6,190,201 6,190,201
Young Canada Works 0 2,394,922 2,394,922
Total 4,864,545 114,759,344 119,623,889

Appendix 4: 2018-2019 education expenditures

Table 10. Breakdown of education expenditures (in dollars)
Minority language education Second language learning Total
Federal funds Share of total federal funds Provincial / territorial funds Federal funds Share of total federal funds Provincial / territorial funds Federal funds Share of total federal funds Provincial / territorial funds
Bilateral agreements 149,251,357 81.47% 177,133,029 86,269,115 75.17% 148,977,892 235,520,472 79.05% 326,110,921
Complimentary projects 13,585,164 7.42% 23,071,531 1,844,326 1.61% 681,451 15,429,490 5.18% 23,752,982
Infrastructure 16,005,300 8.74% 18,050,394 0 0% 0 16,005,300 5.37% 18,050,394
Cooperation with the non-governmental sector;
Complementary support for language learning;
Young Canada Works (Second-Language Learning)
4,354,984 2.38% 0 26,645,903 23.22% 0 31,000,887 10.4% 0
Grand Total 183,196,805 100 % 218,254,954 114,759,344 100 % 149,659,343 297,956,149 100 % 367,914,297
Table 11. Breakdown of education expenditures – Intergovernmental cooperation (in dollars)
Minority language education Second language learning Total
Federal funds Share of total federal funds Provincial / territorial funds Federal funds Share of total federal funds Provincial / territorial funds Federal funds Share of total federal funds Provincial / territorial funds
Student participation 31,576,767 18.9 % 41,393,295 9,545,495 8.3 % 9,769,180 41,122,262 14.6 % 51,162,475
Program availability 61,031,312 36.5 % 76,435,601 45,898,801 40 % 103,665,616 106,930,113 37.9 % 180,101,217
Student performance 7,409,075 4.4 % 12,808,250 5,544,973 4.8 % 6,312,969 12,954,048 4.6 % 19,121,219
Enriched school environment 13,529,289 8.1 % 13,327,397 8,917,436 7.8 % 9,150,216 22,446,725 8 % 22,477,613
Access to post secondary education 38,017,102 22.7 % 44,830,464 8,587,873 7.5 % 8,242,575 46,604,975 16.5 % 53,073,039
Support for educational staff and research 11,152,976 6.7 % 11,409,553 9,618,863 8.4 % 12,518,787 20,771,839 7.4 % 23,928,340
Complementary funds - CMEC 120,000 0.1 % 0 0 - 0 120,000 - 0
Subtotal 162,836,521 97.3 % 200,204,560 88,113,441 76.8 % 149,659,343 250,949,962 89 % 349,863,903
Table 12. Breakdown of education expenditures — Council of Ministers of Education, Collaboration with the non-governmental sector and Young Canada Works (in dollars)
Minority language education Second language learning Total
Federal funds Share of total federal funds Provincial / territorial funds Federal funds Share of total federal funds Provincial / territorial funds Federal funds Share of total federal funds Provincial / territorial funds
Complementary Support for Language Learning: Explore and Destination Clic 821,878 0.5 % 0 17,025,860 14.8 % 0 17,847,738 6.3 % 0
Complementary Support for Language Learning: Odyssey 1,538,106 0.9 % 0 6,190,201 5.4 % 0 7,728,307 2.7 % 0
Cooperation with the Non-Governmental Sector 1,995,000 1.2 % 0 1,034,920 0.9 % 0 3,029,920 1.1 % 1,995,000
Young Canada Works 0 0 0 2,394,922 2.1 % 0 2,394,922 0.8 % 0
Subtotal 4,354,984 3 % 0 26,645,903 23 % 0 31,000,887 11 % 0

Appendix 5: School enrolment in 2017-2018

Table 13. Enrolments in second language instruction programs in majority language school systems – All of Canada
Type of second language instruction program Year Total enrolment in majority schools Second language (including immersion) French immersion
Enrolment Percentage (of total population) Enrolment Percentage (of total population)
Total–Students in majority language school systems taking French as a second language combined with students taking English as a second language 1983-1984Table 13 note 1 4,401,997 2,199,253 50 % 117,454 2.7 %
2017-2018 4,609,161 2,449,827 53.2 % 463,119 10.0 %
Total–English language students in majority systems learning French as a second language (Canada minus Quebec) 1983-1984Table 13 note 1 3,464,272 1,607,335 46.4 % 117,454 3.4 %
2017-2018 3,767,001 1,708,242 45.3 % 463,119 12.3 %
Total–Students in the French language education system learning English as a second language in Quebec 1983-1984Table 13 note 1 937,725 591,918 63.1 % - -
2017-2018 842,160 741,585 88.1 % - -

Table 13 notes

Table 13 note 1

Second language totals for 1983–1984 do not include Yukon, Northwest Territories or Nunavut, for which no data were available. For each of these jurisdictions, the earliest year for which data is available is used to establish a base year.

Return to first table 13 note 1 referrer

Table 14. Enrolments in second language instruction programs in majority language school systems by province or territory
Province or territory Year Total enrolment in majority schools Second language (including immersion) French immersion
Enrolment Percentage (of total population) Enrolment Percentage (of total population)
Newfoundland and Labrador 1983-1984 147,500 75,056 50.9 % 970 0.7 %
2017-2018 64,932 41,277 63.6 % 10,434 16.1 %
Prince Edward Island 1983-1984 24,964 15,911 63.7 % 1,833 7.3 %
2017-2018 19,248 11,769 61.1 % 5,094 26.5 %
Nova Scotia 1983-1984 172,770 95,201 55.1 % 894 0.5 %
2017-2018 113,097 58,059 51.3 % 15,471 13.7 %
New Brunswick 1983-1984 98,284 70,289 71.5 % 11,009 11.2 %
2017-2018 68,793 44,517 64.7 % 22,743 33.1 %
Quebec 1983-1984 937,725 591,918 63.1 % - -
2017-2018 842,160 741,585 88.1 % - -
Ontario 1983-1984 1,682,302 909,290 54.1 % 65,310 3.9 %
2017-2018 1,911,744 1,002,126 52.4 % 270,321 14.1 %
Manitoba 1983-1984 194,182 91,058 46.9 % 9,090 4.7 %
2017-2018 178,884 81,201 45.4 % 25,164 14.1 %
Saskatchewan 1983-1984 200,362 52,324 26.1 % 4,018 2 %
2017-2018 179,376 49,551 27.6 % 15,318 8.5 %
Alberta 1983-1984 447,759 120,868 27 % 14,523 3.2 %
2017-2018 657,468 184,359 28.0 % 43,377 6.6 %
British Columbia 1983-1984 496,149 177,338 35.7 % 9,807 2 %
2017-2018 549,801 230,148 41.9 % 53,481 9.7 %
Yukon 1984-1985 4,667 2,221 47.6 % 186 4 %
2017-2018 5,103 2,544 49.9 % 771 15.1 %
Northwest Territories 1990-1991 14,016 4,360 31.1 % 404 2.9 %
2017-2018 8,544 2,691 31.5 % 945 11.1 %
Nunavut 2002-2003 8,861 0 Not available 0 Not available
2017-2018 10,011 0 Not available 0 Not available
Table 15. Enrolments in minority language education programs – All of Canada
Scope Year Total of school enrolment Enrolment in minority language schools Classes Minority language share of total school enrolment
Total – Canada 1983-1984Table 15 note 1 4,682,999 281,002 - 6 %
2017-2018 4,860,060 250,899 - 5.2 %
Total – French minority language schools 1983-1984Table 15 note 1 3,634,315 152,594 - 4.2 %
2017-2018 3,934,251 167,250 - 4.3 %

Table 15 notes

Table 15 note 1

Minority language figures for 1983–1984 exclude Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut, where there were no minority language schools in 1983–1984. For each of these jurisdictions, the earliest year for which data is available is used to establish a base year.

Return to first table 15 note 1 referrer

Table 16. Enrolments in minority language education programs by province and territory
Province or territory Year Total of school enrolment Enrolment in minority language schools Classes Minority language share of total school enrolment
Newfoundland and Labrador 1983-1984 147,603 103 Kindergarten to 12 0.1 %
2017-2018 65,283 351 Kindergarten to 12 0.5 %
Prince Edward Island 1983-1984 25,480 516 1 to 12 2 %
2017-2018 20,184 936 Kindergarten to 12 4.6 %
Nova Scotia 1983-1984 177,240 4,470 Kindergarten to 12 2.5 %
2017-2018 118,962 5,865 Kindergarten to 12 4.9 %
New Brunswick 1983-1984 146,045 47,761 Kindergarten to 12 32.7 %
2017-2018 97,755 28,962 Kindergarten to 12 29.6 %
Quebec 1983-1984 1,066,133 128,408 Kindergarten to 11 12 %
2017-2018 925,809 83,649 Kindergarten to 11 9.0 %
Ontario 1983-1984 1,773,478 91,176 Kindergarten to 12 5.1 %
2017-2018 2,020,248 108,504 Kindergarten to 12 5.4 %
Manitoba 1983-1984 199,743 5,561 Kindergarten to 12 2.8 %
2017-2018 184,710 5,826 Kindergarten to 12 3.2 %
Saskatchewan 1983-1984 201,130 768 Kindergarten to 12 0.4 %
2017-2018 181,272 1,896 Kindergarten to 12 1.0 %
Alberta 1983-1984 448,835 1,076 Kindergarten to 12 0.2 %
2017-2018 665,868 8,400 Kindergarten to 12 1.3 %
British Columbia 1983-1984 497,312 1,163 Kindergarten to 12 0.1 %
2017-2018 555,738 5,937 Kindergarten to 12 1.1 %
Yukon 1984-1985 4,697 30 Kindergarten to 8 0.6 %
2017-2018 5,391 288 Kindergarten to 12 5.2 %
Northwest Territories 1990-1991 14,079 63 Kindergarten to 11 0.4 %
2017-2018 8,733 189 Kindergarten to 12 2.2 %
Nunavut 2002-2003 8,901 40 Kindergarten to 12 0.4 %
2017-2018 10,107 96 Kindergarten to 12 0.9 %

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2020
Catalogue Number: CH10–2E-PDF
ISSN: 2562-704X

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