The Honourable Phuong T.V. Ngo’s Questionnaire


Under the new judicial application process introduced by the Minister of Justice on October 20, 2016, any interested and qualified Canadian lawyer or judge may apply for federal judicial appointment by completing a questionnaire. The questionnaires are then used by the Judicial Advisory Committees across Canada to review candidates and submit a list of “highly recommended” and “recommended” candidates for consideration by the Minister of Justice. Candidates are advised that parts of their questionnaire may be made available to the public, with their consent, should they be appointed to the bench. The information is published as it was submitted by the candidates at the time they applied, subject to editing where necessary for privacy reasons.

Below are Parts 5, 6, 7, and 12 of the questionnaire completed by the Honourable Phuong T.V. Ngo.

Questionnaire for Judicial Appointment

Part 5 – Language

Please note that in addition to the answers to the questions set out below, you may be assessed as to your level of language proficiency in Canada’s two official languages.

Without further training, are you able to read and understand court materials in:

  • English: Yes
  • French: Yes

Without further training, are you able to discuss legal matters with your colleagues in: 

  • English: Yes
  • French: Yes

Without further training, are you able to converse with counsel in court in: 

  • English: Yes
  • French: Yes

Without further training, are you able to understand oral submission in court in: 

  • English: Yes
  • French: Yes

If you have answered yes to all four questions above, for both English and French, please answer the additional two questions below:

Without further training, are you able to write decisions in both French and English?*

  • Yes

Without further training, are you able to conduct hearings in both French and English?*

  • Yes

*Please note that the Office of the Commissioner for Federal Judicial Affairs conducts random verifications and assessments of candidates' language proficiency as stated in their questionnaire.

Part 6 – Education

Name of Institutions, Years Attended, Degree/Diploma and Year Obtained:

University of Ottawa, 1995-1998, LL.B., common law en français, 1998

University of Ottawa, 1994-1995, B. Ed, cycle primaire/moyen, 1995

Carleton University, 1990-1994, B.A, Political Science and French, 1994

Continuing Education (past 5-10 years):

Osgoode Trial Advocacy Course

Honours and Awards:


Please include a chronology of work experience, starting with the most recent and showing employers’ names and dates of employment.

Legal Work History:

1998- present: Gowling WLG, Ottawa, partner

  • articling student 1998
  • Legal Work and Areas of Specialization: procurement law, administrative law, health law, civil litigation since 2000

1996-  1998: Department of Justice, Section du code civil

  • student
  • legal research for team responsible for harmonization of federal statutes

1997-  1998: University of Ottawa, Vice-Dean, common law en français

  • legal research for Professor Louise Belanger-Hardy
  • Publication: "Négligence, Victimes Indirected et Préjudice Moral en Common Law: Les Limites à la Réparation se Justifient-Elles?", Osgoode Law Journal, Volume 36, Issue 3, Number 3 (Fall 1998)

Non-Legal Work History:

2015-2019: Gowling WLG Board of Trustees (two terms)

2010-2019: Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21 Board of Trustees (two terms)

2015: Evaluation committee member on RFP for Memorial to the Victims of Communism Design Competition

1995-1998: Supply Teacher, Ottawa-Carleton District School Board

1992-1994: Language assistant, Group Conversations, Carleton University Department of French (Speaking Support Services)

1994: President, Carleton University Vietnamese Students Association

1993: Vice-President, Carleton University Vietnamese Students Association

summers 1992-1994: Student, Constituency and Parliamentary offices of Mac Harb, MP

Other Activities and Memberships:

List all bar associations, legal or judicial-related committees of which you are or have been a member, and give the titles and dates of any offices which you have held in such groups.

Canadian Bar Association, member

Ontario Bar Association, member

Association des juristes d'expression française de l'Ontario, member

County of Carleton Law Association, member and member of External Relations Committee (autumn 2022)

Pro Bono Activities:

Pro Bono Ontario: Hotline (over the years)

Teaching and Continuing Education:

List all legal or judicial educational organizations and activities you have been involved with (e.g. teaching course at a Law Faculty, bar association, National Judicial Institute, Canadian Institute for the Administration of Justice, etc.)

2010   - Presenter, “Consent to Treatment and Informing the Patient”, Legal Risk Management for Nurses program, Osgoode Hall

2011   - Presenter, “Consent to Treatment”, Legal Risk Management for Nurses program, Osgoode Hall

2013   - Guest lecturer, invited to present on the topic of procurement law in the context of the Large Scale Infrastructure Law course, Windsor Law. Professor/Instructor: Tom Timmins

2013   - Guest lecturer, invited to present on the topic of procurement law in the context of the Canadian Power Procurement Policy Design course, Windsor Law. Professor/Instructor: Tom Timmins

2014   - Guest lecturer, “The Application of the Duty to Conduct Fair Competition”, University of Ottawa, Course: Procurement law - Studies in Business law course. Professor/Instructor: Daniel Sipes

2014   - Guest lecturer, invited to present on the topic of procurement law, Large Scale Infrastructure Law course, Windsor Law. Professor/Instructor: Tom Timmins

In addition to the above, I have participated in Continuing Education in the following ways:

I am an active member of the procurement law bar, a group of practitioners across Canada who meet on a quarterly basis to discuss legal developments in procurement law. The group’s members are lawyers who practice in the area of procurement law in private practice, in addition to counsel within government departments, agencies and with the Canadian International Trade Tribunal.

I have presented to our clients annually to provide in-house CLE on the topic of procurement law and compliance. These are either organized as legal training as well as information sessions and the audience includes business team members and in-house counsel. In addition, I have presented in-house CLE at the Finn on the area of procurement law.

Throughout the years, I have also participated as an interim instructor or judge on an ad hoc basis in the Art de la Plaidoirie course, University of Ottawa section de common law en français. Professor/Instructor: Daniel Boivin

I have completed the following continuing legal education as follows:

2011   “Conflicts of Interest in Your Civil Litigation Practice”, LSUC

2011 “Work / Life Balance: Myth or Reality?”, LSUC

2011   “The impact of trade treaties on municipal procurement", CBA

2012   “Administrative Law: fairness in public procurement”, OBA

2012   “Doing Business in Difficult Countries: What Would You Advise in this Scenario”, Association of Corporate Counsel Civil Litigation section

2012   The Six-Minute Administrative Lawyer, LSUC

2012   “Audit Response Letters: Ethical and Practice Management Issues Under the IFRS and GAAP”, Gowling WLG

2013   Dealing with the Self-Represented, LSUC

2013   “Clarity of Client Communications", Gowling WLG

2014   CBA Series: Managing Your Client's Expectations, CBA

2014   The Six-Minute Administrative Lawyer, LSUC

2015   Procurement Commitments under International and Domestic Trade Agreements, CBA

2015 “Thriving in a Multi-Generational Workplace” Gowling WLG

2015   “Mental Health and Wellness”, CBA

2015   “Demystifying Hospital Privileges Disputes: Practice Management Tips”, CBA

2016   “The Six-Minute Administrative Lawyer”, LSUC

2016   “Working in a Global Law Firm: Do you Have Cultural Agility?”, Gowling WLG

2016   "Business Conflicts 101", Gowling WLG

2017   “Privacy Law Summit”, OBA

2017   “Top 10 Ethical Traps that Litigators Should Avoid”, CBA, Gowling WLG

2018   “Emerging Risks in Health Law”, OBA

2018   “Diversity and Inclusion Training”, Gowling WLG

2018   “Respect in the Workplace Training”, Gowling WLG

2019   “New Canadian Trade Agreements: What Canadian Businesses Need to Know about the CUSMA and CPTPP”, OBA

2019 “Privacy Law Summit 2019”, CBA and OBA

2019   “Professionalism in Challenging Situations”, Gowling WLG

2019   “Delivering Effective Feedback”, Gowling WLG

2019 “Inclusion in a Large Professional Organization”, Gowling WLG

2019   “Unconscious Bias Training”, Gowling WLG

2020   “OBA Mindful Lawyer Series - Module 20: Elevating Morale and Fostering Resilience In Today's Climate”, OBA

2020 “Today's Privacy Challenges: Remote Workforces, Consent and Sensitive Personal Information”, OBA

2020   “Understanding the World of Electronic Documents”, OBA

2020 “Mastering Virtual Meetings: Best Practices”, OBA

2020   “Leadership Training”, Gowling WLG

2021   "Leadership Training - continuation", Gowling WLG

2022   “Reconciliation and Decolonization: Shifting Culture in Large Communities”, Gowling WLG 

Community and Civic Activities:

List all organizations of which you are a member and any offices held with dates.

Trustee, Board of Trustees, Museum of Immigration at Pier 21 : 2010-2019

Part 12 – The Role of the Judiciary in Canada's Legal System

The Government of Canada seeks to appoint judges with a deep understanding of the judicial role in Canada. In order to provide a more complete basis for evaluation, candidates are asked to offer their insight into broader issues concerning the judiciary and Canada’s legal system.

For each of the following questions, please provide answers of between 500 and 1000 words.

1. What would you regard as your most significant contribution to the law and the pursuit of justice in Canada?

When I considered what I regard as my most significant contribution, three things came to mind. The first is my involvement in procurement law cases that are of public interest. The second is my professional conduct by being a diligent, practical, and principled lawyer, as well as collegial and collaborative in my interactions with colleagues, opposing counsel/parties, regulatory bodies and the Court. The third is my involvement as a mentor to students and associates.

My legal career has involved procurement law cases such as advisory work for government entities and the representation of bidders. I consider these cases as matters of public interest because they relate to government procurement processes and regulatory compliance. I have observed through my years of practice how procurement cases can affect, clarify or inform government policy or practices. Many of my cases involved reviewing a public procuring entity’s procurement process to ensure that they meet their obligations of being fair, open and transparent. These obligations are enshrined in legislation, regulations, policies, trade agreements in addition to the common law. Procurements involve significant expenditure of public funds meant to benefit the taxpayer. The government entity and its officials are held to a high standard of conduct as a result. Challenging a government organization is usually the last resort for many whether it is a sole proprietorship, small or medium enterprise or large organization. Many view doing so to be a significant risk for their future. Nevertheless, it is a critical component of a democratic society that a private citizen be able to challenge government decisions and actions that impact them. Being able to pursue, and having pursued these avenues in a principled way, in my view, is a positive contribution to the law.

As mentioned, I have also represented government entities, such as Crown corporations, public health agencies and municipalities in my procurement law practice. I have dutifully represented my clients to ensure that a government organization follows its enabling legislation, rales and procedures. These organizations are comprised of people who are working hard to apply and uphold their legal obligations to the public and thus, helping them in their procurement processes contributes to the advancement of government services in the public interest.

In addition to my procurement law practice, my medical defence practice involves regulatory processes before provincial licensing and regulatory bodies. It also involves litigation for professional negligence. The outcome of these cases can have a significant effect on my clients’ livelihood. The same applies to my procurement law clients. As such, engaging in the legal and administrative law systems is that much more stressful and my role as counsel is to be fair, honest and compassionate all the while advocating on behalf of my clients. I have been very lucky throughout my career to work with excellent and respected lawyers. I have learned from them that being a good lawyer did not mean winning “at all costs”. Being a good lawyer means, to the best of your ability, helping your clients navigate the complex legal system that they find themselves in while continuing to maintain your professional and ethical standards. It means being clear and honest when conveying your legal analysis and assessment of their case so clients can understand the advice and be able to make important decisions that may impact their lives. It means providing them with good counsel, but also explaining their role, obligations and expected conduct as a party in the legal system. It means holding yourself to a high standard while conducting their case and being collegial and civil in the process. It means being collegial and professional with opposing counsel. It means engaging with litigants who are stressed and unknowledgeable in the law, and being respectful of their views and interests and advising them fairly.

Beyond the individual professional contributions to my clients, I feel it is important to be a good mentor and role model in the legal profession. Wonderful practitioners mentored me over the years. It is therefore important to continue to contribute to the meaningful and constructive mentorship of younger lawyers. After we started our family, I put my community volunteering time on hold to prioritize being a mother and building my practice. I did not pause mentoring. I have been actively involved in mentorship and leadership roles at Gowling WLG. I was involved in our student recruitment committees and associates’ evaluation process at the firm. I continue to be involved in our formal associate mentorship program. I also informally mentor the associates that work with me.

I have been fortunate to work in a team environment. I try to make sure that the young lawyers I work with are given as many opportunities as possible to experience all facets of a file and provide opportunities to enhance their professional development. Beyond the usual discussion of legal questions, I am honoured that my colleagues seek out my support with ethical or personal issues that can arise in their cases or how to manage conflicts or difficult situations with their clients or opposing counsel, among other things. I hope to support them as they learn how to strike a balance between being a strong advocate and still uphold their professional obligations and maintain the standards of the profession. I try to create an environment where they feel that they can canvass their thoughts, concerns and opinions in an open and safe way, knowing no question is wrong and knowing that they will have an opportunity to work out these difficult situations with a sounding board that they can trust. We often speak about work life balance, and discuss ways to manage a growing and busy practice but also ways to maintain a healthy balance outside of their professional life. Most importantly, I try to lead by example.

Finally, as a person of colour, I recognized that minority representation is important and I have been active in various leadership roles within Gowling WLG such as trustee on the Board of Trustees, among other things.

2. How has your experience provided you with insight into the diversity of Canadians, and their unique perspectives and lived realities?

My life has been surrounded with diversity both personally and professionally. As a first generation immigrant, a woman of Asian descent and a Francophone living in Ontario, my lived experiences have provided insight into the diversity of Canadians that I have met and worked with, and their unique perspectives.

My family arrived in Canada after the end of the Vietnam War in 1975. My family’s immigration story is not unique, but it is one immigrants and refugees know well. My father had a foreign university degree and a career in Vietnam. Overnight, he had to start over and took any job he could find to support his young family. We stayed in Ottawa where I continued my education in the French Catholic school board. My two boys are also pursuing their secondary and post-secondary education in French. I completed my post-secondary education in French as well, including my teaching degree and law degree (common law en français).

My parents were actively involved in the Vietnamese community and volunteered their time for as long as I can remember. I learned from a very young age the value public service and giving back. They were involved with initiatives such as Project 4000, assisting refugees from Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos settle in Canada, and a not-for-profit housing project in Ottawa. These initiatives helped new Canadians establish themselves in their new country and rebuild their lives. In University, I worked within the Vietnamese community and helped tutor individuals who were taking the Citizenship examination. I worked in leadership roles within the Vietnamese Students Association at Carleton University and the University of Ottawa. I met new people from across the country and learned about my cultures - both Canadian and Vietnamese, and learned from their diverse circumstances. Being a French language tutor at Carleton University also allowed me to meet students from across the country. In law school, I worked at the Legal Aid Clinic at the University of Ottawa in the landlord-tenant group. I worked with individuals at their most vulnerable in disputes that would affect whether they would still have a roof over their heads. As an occasional teacher, I met various students and families from different socio-economic and cultural backgrounds. As a law student working at the Department of Justice Civil Code Section, I learned about the nuances of our country’s bijuralism from my colleagues and their work in relation to harmonizing federal statutes to respect both types of systems.

Through my formative years, I experienced many overt and not so overt forms of racism such as being told to “get back on the boat” or assuming I could not speak English or French among the gamut of other stereotypes. It is not something that needs to be re-hashed, but I mention it inasmuch as it has given me insight about the experiences of others. While I cannot relate to each person’s own experiences of prejudice or racism, I have seen how bias, whether unconscious or not, can be harmful. It has affected how I approach a person I meet for the first time, whether it is a client, an opposing party, or counsel. It is also something that my husband and I strive to do with our two boys, to balance our two cultures with bi-racial children. We tried to ensure that they be exposed to as many experiences as possible. This meant learning about all facets of their culture, learning French, learning about my husband’s family and life experiences in rural Ontario, but and learning the Vietnamese language. They spent three hours on Saturdays from maternelle to grade 8 learning about their culture and language, hopefully learning about other classmates’ experiences and backgrounds.

My professional experiences have afforded me with broad insight and perspectives as my practice over the past 22 years has permitted me to engage actively with a diverse group of people, including my colleagues across Gowling WLG, and my clients. I have experienced a wide perspective of cases, including acting in matters before the Canadian Pension Appeal Board, Health Professions Appeal and Review Board and Human Rights Tribunal of Ontario, among others. I have also volunteered with the Pro Bono Ontario hotline over the years. These experiences permitted me to learn about challenges that many still experience, such as an inability to understand or access the legal system because of a language barrier or for cultural or socio-economic reasons, or prejudice and racism. I have met and worked individuals that covered all walks of life, providing me with the opportunity to understand and appreciate the variety and diversity of Canadians that make up our country. Through my roles at Gowling WLG as a mentor and a member of the firm’s Board of Trustees and my legal practice, I have been fortunate to work with individuals with diverse backgrounds, life experiences and rich cultures. My clients range from individuals, small and medium enterprises, Crown corporations to multinational organizations, which has given me the benefit and insight to see a question from different angles and different levels of sophistication.

Finally, I wish to highlight the work and experiences from my terms as a board member of the Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21 in Halifax, Nova Scotia. I learned about Canada’s very important and diverse immigration history and its impact on the fabric of our country. I met and worked with a diverse group of exceptional people from across the country. Each member of the board and each person that worked with us had impressive and diverse personal and professional backgrounds. I valued the time they gave in sharing their life experiences with me. Our board’s interactions within the broader community across Canada during these years allowed me to be exposed to even more perspectives and experiences.

My personal and professional experience has permitted me to learn about Canadians’ unique perspectives and lived realities that would be of significant benefit to the Court.

3. Describe how judicial decision-making impacts society in a constitutional democracy.

A constitutional democracy is comprised of three branches of government: the executive, the legislative and the judiciary. We are also a bijural country, with both common and civil law systems where federal statutes must be able to consider and harmonize both systems. While the executive branch runs government business and the legislative branch debates bills and passes legislation, the judiciary interprets and applies the law. As such, the Courts occupy an important and critical part of society in a constitutional democracy to ensure that the rule of law is upheld. As a result, Court decisions affect all aspects of society and have real-world impacts on society.

The government’s laws and decisions are far-reaching and affect Canadians in important and significant ways. In these increasingly turbulent times, confidence in public institutions has often been questioned, both loudly and publicly. Canadians rely on the judicial system to help uphold their rights and freedoms. Canadians have an expectation that their judicial system be strong and independent and remain balanced and stable. As such, when these laws or decisions are challenged or seek to be interpreted, the parties appearing before the Court and society must have confidence that the Court will consider the issues in a fair, impartial and objective manner. The Courts are responsible for ensuring that disputes are resolved fairly, applying legal principles consistently and correctly, among other things.

Court decisions have an impact not only in relation to the immediate parties, but also to broader society. It is the varying nature of the audience that the Court should be mindful of. Court decisions are not destined only for the parties and can also impact the customs and mores of society and establish or confirm accepted practices and standards. Some cases seek to clarify or challenge questions of law that can help interpret or change the law. The impact of a decision can also affect policy, or conduct of the institutions or industry moving forward. In the Federal Court or the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, a judge’s decision may involve the interpretation of legislation or a government decision or act. As such, legislators, policy-makers, regulators, as well as the public will form another component of the audience for Court decisions. This informs society about the application of the rule of law in a particular instance, and then by extrapolation to a broader group. As such, it is critical for a judge to be cognizant and mindful of the impact of their decisions.

Court decisions can influence social issues. Decision-makers will rely on the Court’s interpretation of their legislation or regulations to review the Court’s guidance on their processes or practices. It is not uncommon for me to rely on case law to advise my government clients to inform the administration of their processes and procedures, or when they prepare policies and their procurement documents. As such, when a public entity relies on Court decisions to affect change or clarification to their policies and procedures, this also affects society on a broader level. Industry and the public are also similarly guided by the Court’s comments or critiques. The Court’s decision may affect their own practices, as they take guidance on their interactions with public bodies. In litigation and regulatory cases, the Court’s decision will also inform them on how they should conduct their matters and affects strategy as well. In that, the Court has the potential to affect conduct and practices.

Court decisions can have political ramifications. We live in a rapidly changing world with constant innovations and advancements, and increasingly varying personal and political views. Statutes and regulations cannot contemplate every possible permutation of facts that will be applied in a case that a judge must adjudicate. The Court must therefore consider the full context of the case when considering the evidence and the legal test and precedents. Judges must be able to keep pace with society, and be sensitive to societal issues and interest. However, they cannot be influenced by society’s opinion in their resolution of a case. They cannot bring their own personal or political views into their analysis. Although they must bring their humanity, judges must maintain their independence and impartiality in considering the cases before them. They must strive to apply themselves to analyze the case objectively.

Court decisions impact not only the parties and society at large, but also in how they perceive the judicial system and their confidence in public institutions. As such, the dictum that justice must be seen to be done is even more important. Judges are the face of justice and the reliability of the Canadian judicial system, and their decisions are not only a reflection of this system but also a result of it.

4. Please describe the personal qualities, professional skills and abilities, and life experience that you believe will equip you for the role of a judge.

I have the personal qualities, professional skills and abilities, and life experience that equip me to be a judge. The personal qualities that would serve me well as a judge have also been inherently critical to my success in my career. I am patient, diligent, a critical thinker, a good listener and thoughtful communicator. I am principled, fair, objective and empathetic.

Growing up, my parents valued education and hard work, instilling in my siblings and I that a strong work ethic is of paramount importance. I have applied that diligence in everything I do. No task is too arduous and I do not take for granted the time and effort that needs to be applied to do excellent work. Because of the usually urgent nature of the work I do, I have to be very organized as I have to juggle the day to day work with my other responsibilities within Gowling WLG, as well as intermittent interruptions during the day. I also practice in significantly different areas, and am accessible to my clients and colleagues who consult me often. As such, I have to be able to pivot quickly from one topic to another while still being able to consider the legal and strategic issues that I was asked to consider.

I tackle difficult and complex cases with exceptionally voluminous materials on a regular basis. I am always learning new things but usually in very short time frames where I have to process complicated facts to analyze and provide legal advice. I am blessed that my career has exposed me to interesting areas of law. My work in procurement cases at all levels of government has allowed me to learn about and understand government process and procedures. These cases are also always different and I am constantly learning something new, whether it is the technology or good being procured, or an issue within the regulatory compliance sphere. I feel lucky that I do not always get the same question all the time and my practice has never been routine. Similarly, in my medical defence practice, I am always learning about medical procedures, medicine and other processes that are always interesting. My work has never been boring as I get to learn and be exposed to new experiences daily.

Because the work I do involves highly technical information, attention to detail is important. However, I do not lose sight of the overall context of the case. I understand the objective of the work product I am providing and it has to meet that objective. My clients’ legal issues are thoughtfully, thoroughly canvassed and considered and I communicate the analysis and legal issues to them in a clear and concise way. There is a significant human element to my work regardless of context. I provide advice and support in difficult situations and have to be mindful of not just the legal context of the case but the practical realities of my clients. I also have to convey difficult messages in a way that is kind and respectful. I deal with conflict regularly, but each case does not need to be adversarial. In many instances, the best way to advocate for your client is not to escalate the situation but to resolve the dispute. In addition, I believe that the way I conduct myself in cases in an ethical, principled and collegial way provides not just my clients but opposing counsel and parties the assurance that the matter will be dealt with professionally. I have worked in team settings consistently at the firm with my colleagues from across the country. I am a respectful and collaborative team player and am honoured that my colleagues seek my participation in their matters. My rankings and recognitions in procurement law in reputable legal directories such as Lexpert, Chambers Canada (Leading Lawyer), Legal 500, Best Lawyers in Canada and Who's Who Legal (Thought Leader), which are based on comments and input from clients, peers and members of the Bar, confirm my professional reputation that I have worked hard to achieve and maintain.

I am able to see both sides of the story. In particular, my procurement law practice has allowed me to understand different perspectives. While I first started out representing bidders who were participating in government procurement processes and assisting them in that context (contentious and non-contentious work), I also was fortunate to later, represent owners such as Crown corporations, municipalities, school boards, public health agencies and private owners who ran their own procurement processes. As a result, I have had the benefit of experiencing my role as legal adviser from both points of view. My over twenty years in private practice has allowed me to be able to see an issue with a wider lens, and ability to understand and navigate various competing issues.

These skills and abilities have also served me well in the other roles I have had over the years beyond lawyer. As a Board of Trustees member, a mentor, a teacher, and a mother, I apply these skills in my personal and professional lives. I still teach in my work with younger lawyers, students and staff that I interact with. In that capacity, I have had to interview, evaluate and provide feedback in a way that is respectful, constructive and encouraging. I am known as a hard worker, a team player, a caring and diplomatic person and a good mentor. These are all skills and abilities that I would bring to the bench.

5. Given the goal of ensuring that Canadians are able to look at the justices appointed to the bench and see their faces and life experiences reflected there, you may, if you choose, provide information about yourself that you feel would assist in this objective.

Canadians have to be able to see themselves in the institutions that they appear before so that they can have faith and confidence in those institutions. Canadians looking at the bench need to know that the judge understands and can empathize with their life experiences. I hope when Canadians see me, they see someone who has lived one of the diverse Canadian immigration stories but is a part of Canadian society. I hope that they see a woman of Vietnamese descent who arrived in Canada as a refugee with her family and built a rewarding life and career. I hope that they see a person who has not taken her opportunities for granted, and has worked hard in her personal and professional life to achieve her goals. I hope that they see a person, who like them, appreciates and embraces the richness of their culture and a fellow Canadian with different but complementary life experiences.

While I was lucky enough to be younger when I arrived in Canada, my family and I still had to navigate a new country with new customs and language. I had to determine my cultural identity all the while being told I was either not Asian enough, or not Canadian enough. Adding to this, I grew up in a Franco-Ontarian environment, and learned the perspective of French language rights in that capacity. I have experienced blatant racism and micro-aggressions, but all of these experiences taught me was to never to judge a book by its cover. People are more than what they appear to be. I had to fight stereotypes at many stages in my life. I made my way in the legal profession at a time when there were not many people of colour. When I became a partner in a national law firm, I was one of few Asian women in that position at that time. Many Canadians have experienced a similar perspective of being a minority even in a well-established and earned position, in a place where you have been for a long time and respected. I have lived a journey that many Canadians who immigrated to Canada have and continue to experience.

Through the years, I understood how important it was to be in leadership positions and active within the community, to bring diversity to the table where decisions are made. I have seen the diversity of the legal profession flourish and am encouraged to see more representation on that front. Throughout my life, I have met and worked with so many people in Canada and across the world. I listened to their stories, and learned from their experiences. My life is richer with these insights. I learned that there is a broad swath of experiences, struggles and challenges all people experience, and that no experience is exactly the same. What this has taught me is to continue to be open-minded, to learn, to be curious and always, to listen. I hope to bring the diversity of my personal, professional and lived experiences to the Court and I hope Canadians can see their faces and life experiences when they look at me.

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