Trades math workbook
Introduction
Working in the trades requires strong numeracy skills to help you succeed on the job. This workbook includes questions and learning material to help you:
 learn more about the numeracy skills required to work in the trades;
 discover how journeypersons use numeracy on the job;
 practice your numeracy skills; and
 find out which numeracy skills you may need to improve.
The workbook is divided into four sections, each of which highlights different numeracy skills that journeypersons use on the job.

Measurement and calculation:
Skills used to measure and describe the physical world, for example by taking measurements and calculating area and volume. 
Money math:
Skills used in paying and receiving money on the job, for example in handling cash, making change, preparing bills or making payments. 
Scheduling, budgeting and accounting:
Skills used to manage time and money, for example in planning and keeping track of how you use your time and money, in choosing the products or services that offer the best value and in using your time and money wisely. 
Data analysis:
Skills used to solve problems by analyzing and comparing numerical data.
An answer key is provided at the end of the workbook to help you review your answers and find out which areas of numeracy you may need to improve.
Math foundations
Math foundation skills  Workplace examples  

Whole numbers e.g.: 3, 14 
Read, write, count, round off, add, subtract, multiply and divide whole numbers. 

Integers e.g.: 5, 0, 11 
Read, write, add, subtract, multiply and divide integers. 

Fractions e.g.: ^{1}/_{8}", ^{1}/_{4}" 
Read, write, round off, add, subtract, multiply or divide fractions. Multiply or divide by a fraction. 

Decimals e.g.: 8.50, 0.00375 
Read, write, round off, add or subtract, multiply or divide decimals. Multiply or divide by a decimal. 

Percentages e.g.: 10%, 42% 
Read and write percentages. Calculate the percentage one number is of another. Calculate a percentage of a number. 

Equivalent numbers e.g.: ^{1}/_{2} = 0.5 = 50% 
Convert between fractions, decimals and percentages. 

Other real numbers e.g.: v36, 9^{2}, 2.2 x 10^{3}, p 
Use square roots, powers, scientific notation and significant digits. 

Equations and formulas  Solve problems using equations with one unknown quantity. Use formulas by inserting quantities. Solve quadratic equations. 

Rates, ratios and proportions  Use a rate comparing two quantities with different units. Use a ratio comparing two quantities with the same units. Use a proportion comparing two ratios or rates. 

Measurement conversions  Convert between imperial and metric (SI) measurements. Convert to another unit within a measurement system. 

Areas, perimeters and volumes  Calculate areas, perimeters and volumes. 

Geometry  Apply geometric concepts such as parallelism, perpendicularity and tangents. 

Trigonometry  Use trigonometry to determine the size of an unknown side or angle of a triangle. 

Summary calculations  Calculate averages and rates other than percentages, proportions or ratios.  Calculate averages for:

Statistics and probability  Use statistics and probability to draw conclusions. 

Section 1: Measurement and calculation
Measurement is the way that numbers are used most often in the trades. Measurement and calculation are used to measure and describe the physical world, for example by taking measurements and calculating area and volume. The following are three typical workplace examples of measurement and calculation:
 Construction electricians take measurements and perform calculations to make sure that electrical installations meet electrical code requirements.
 Carpenters take precise measurements using survey equipment.
 Plumbers perform calculations using trigonometry to design, fabricate and install pipe that needs to go around an obstacle.
Using measuring tools
Journeypersons who build things in their work use measuring tapes, laser survey equipment, micrometers, scales and other tools to measure on a daily basis. They work with both imperial and metric measurements on the job.
1. Enter the correct length beside each arrow on the measuring tape. Remember to include the correct unit (inches or centimetres). Two examples are provided for you.
2. Label the following measurements (a–f) on the measuring tape with an arrow and the letter of the question. Two examples have been done for you.
x. 37 ^{1}/_{2}" y. 1.01m
a.39 ^{1}/_{8} in.
b.3 ft. 4 ^{3}/_{4} in.
c. 3.5 ft.
d. 93 cm
e. 0.992 m
f. 107.5 cm
3. Carpenters take readings of elevations, directions and lengths of property lines using a levelling rod. The red numbers on the rod represent the number of feet, and the black numbers represent tenths of a foot.
Record the readings below. The first one has been done for you.
Note: The red numbers are larger than the black numbers when they mark an even number of feet (e.g., 3.0 feet), but smaller when they appear as “reminders” in between.
Using Formulas
The formulas in the box below will help you solve the workplace problems in this section.
Whether you are in a classroom or on the job, it is helpful to develop your own method for solving math problems involving measurements. The steps below can help you do this.
Steps:
 Draw a diagram and label it with measurements
 Identify the information you need.
 Think about the units you are working with (e.g., square metres, loads, feet).
 Decide which formula or formulas you will need to use.
 Calculate the answer.
Note: Use your calculator to complete the questions in this workbook.
 A carpenter is building a temporary fence around a building site. How many metres of fencing are required for a site that is 47.8 m × 30.3 m? Round your answer up to the nearest metre.
Use the problemsolving steps:
 Draw
 Decide
 Calculate
 How many studs will a carpenter need to frame the exterior walls of the building below? Use the formula given below to estimate the number of studs
 How many 3.7 L containers of bonding product does a floorcovering installer need to install vinyl sheet flooring in a room measuring 9.2 m × 7.8 m?
Only full containers can be ordered.
Typical recommended trowel and approximate coverage. Typical recommended trowel
(depth, width, space)Approximate coverage Trowel Fibrous feltbacked vinyl sheet goods:
^{1}/_{32}" × ^{1}/_{16}" × ^{1}/_{32}"
(0.8 mm × 1.6 mm × 0.8 mm)185–245 sq. ft./U.S. gal.
(4 5–6 0 m^{2}/L)
 A bricklayer is covering a playground surface with rubber tiles. Each 2ft ^{2} tile costs $13.29. Calculate how much it will cost to cover the playground.
Note: Only whole tiles can be ordered, so you will need to round your answer up when you calculate how many tiles are needed.
 A landscape horticulturalist needs to order enough sand to create a border 152 mm deep around a square surface, as shown below. How many cubic metres of sand are needed?
 A construction craft worker needs to know how much material is in the coneshaped pile shown below. Calculate the approximate volume of the pile in cubic yards.
Use this formula to calculate the radius of a pile of material:
r = ¾ × height
27 ft. ^{3} = 1 yd. ^{3}

Heat and frost insulators cover pipes to keep substances hot or cold. How many square metres of material are needed to insulate a pipe that is 6 m long and has a diameter of 2 m?
Think of the cylinder as being laid out flat so that the circumference becomes the width measurement.
Use this formula: pdh

Electricians calculate the total resistance of parallel electrical circuits. Use the formula below to calculate the total resistance for the circuit shown.
 Plumbers fit pieces of pipe for custom jobs. What is the centretocentre (c–c) length of the pipe shown below?

Carpenters perform calculations to help them lay out and construct wooden stairs. Calculate the length of the stringer (c) for the stairs shown below.

Refrigeration and air conditioning mechanics and sheet metal workers build and install transition elbows to connect different sizes of ducts. Calculate the length of the diagonal side of the transition elbow shown below.

Plumbers calculate water pressure in pounds per square inch (psi). What is the water pressure for a 28foot vertical pipe full of water?
Use this formula:
Water pressure (psi) = h × 0.433

Sheet metal workers install ducts in buildings.
The equation below shows the relationship between:
 airflow volume in cubic feet per minute (V);
 air velocity in feet per minute (v); and
 area of a crosssection of duct in square feet (A).
V = A × v
a. Calculate the area in square feet of a crosssection of an 8 in. × 24 in. duct.
1 ft. ^{2} = 144 in. ^{2}
b. Calculate the airflow volume if the air velocity in the same duct is 1,200 feet per minute.
Using drawings
Journeypersons working on a construction site follow specifications from a set of drawings or prints that show different views of the finished building project. Journeypersons in all trades scan the drawings for the detailed information they need.
Journeypersons often convert inches to fractions or decimals of a foot.
3 in = ¼ ft. or 0.25 ft.
6 in = ½ ft. or 0.5 ft.
9 in = ¾ ft. or 0.75 ft.
12 in = 1.0 ft.
Adding and subtracting feet and inches:
Step 1: Line up the measurements so that like units are under like units.
Step 2: Add or subtract the inches. Add or subtract the feet.
Step 3: Change the inches to feet (divide by 12).
Step 4: Add your answer from step 3 to the number of feet from step 2.
Example:
Step 1
7 ft. 11 in.
+ 2 ft. 9 in.
___________
Step 2
7 ft. 11 in.
+ 2 ft. 9 in.
___________
9 ft. 20 in.
Step 3
20 in. = 1 ft. 8 in.
Step 4
9 ft.
+ 1 ft. 8 in.
___________
10 ft. 8 in.
Look at the drawings for a residence to complete the questions below.

The walkin closet measures 1¼ in. × 1½ in. on the drawing. What are the actual dimensions of the closet?

How many pocket (sliding) doors are needed?

What is the exterior length from A to B?

Carpet costs $28.50 per square yard. What is the cost of carpet for the master bedroom and closet?
1 yd.^{2} = 9 ft.^{2}

Estimate the number of drywall sheets needed for the walls of the ensuite bathroom.
Drywall sheets: 4 ft. × 8 ft.
Height of room: 8 ft.
Width of pocket door: 3 ft.
Estimating weight loads
Mobile crane operators estimate weight loads. Calculating safe loads protects the equipment, the materials it carries, the workers on the job site and the general public.
Practice exercise
Estimate the weight of a 4 ft. × 18 in. aluminum plate ^{3}/_{8} in. thick.
Aluminum plate ^{1}/_{8} in. thick weighs approximately 1.75 pounds per square foot.
Steps:

Draw a diagram and label it with the measurements.

Calculate the area.
Area = L × W
= 4 ft. × 1.5 ft.
= 6 ft.^{2} 
Calculate the weight.
a) Weight of 1 ft.^{2} of ^{3}/_{8} in. aluminum plate: > ^{3}/_{8} in. ÷ ^{1}/_{8} in. = 3 > 1.75 lb./ft.^{2} × 3 = 5.25 lb./ft.^{2}
b)
Area of plate
× Weight per square foot:
_____________________
= Weight in pounds
6 ft.^{2}
× 5.25 lb./ft.^{2}
_______________
= 31.5 lb.
The aluminum plate
weighs approximately
31.5 pounds.

Boilermakers and ironworkers estimate the weight of materials used in fabrication. Calculate the approximate weight of a 2 ft. × 18 ft. steel plate ¾ in thick.
1" steel plate weighs about 40 lb./ft.^{2}.
 A mobile crane operator estimates the weight of a concrete panel to make sure that the crane can lift it safely. Calculate the approximate weight of the panel shown below.
Reinforced concrete weighs about 150 lb./ft.^{3}.
Working with quantities
Rates and ratios are used to compare two quantities. Both can be expressed in the following forms: 1 to 2, 1:2 or ½.
Rates compare two quantities with different units. For example, a rate can be used to describe the flow of a liquid in litres per second.
Example: 1 tablespoon of flour : 1 cup of milk
Ratios compare two quantities with the same units. For example, a ratio can be used to describe the number of parts of water and colouring agents to combine.
Example: 1 part water
___________
2 parts cement
Proportions compare two ratios or two rates.
 A sewer line slopes at ¼" per foot. Calculate the total fall in 30 feet.
Use this formula:
Total fall = length × grade 
Automotive service technicians occasionally need to convert kilometres to miles for American customers. An oil change is due at 35,000 km. What is the same distance in miles?
1 km = 0.6214 mi.
 A hairstylist is mixing a hair treatment. The client has long hair, so the hairstylist starts with 1¼ scoops of powder lightener.
Mixing: Measure 1 level scoop of powder lightener into a nonmetallic bowl or bottle. Add 1 oz. (30 g) of the booster and 2 fl. oz. (60 mL) of conditioning creme. Mix thoroughly to achieve a creamy consistency.
a. Calculate the number of grams of booster needed.
b. Calculate the number of millilitres of conditioning creme needed.

Cooks often change the yield of recipes to serve more or fewer customers. The following recipe makes 30 pancakes. Adapt the recipe to make 75 pancakes.
Use proportions to calculate how much of each ingredient is needed. The first ingredient is done for you using two different methods.
Method 1:
625 g = ? g
____ ____
30 75625 x 75 = 46875 ÷ 30 = 1562.5 g
____
30
Method 2:
625 ÷ 30 = 20.883
75 x 20.833 = 1562.5 g
Ingredient measurements Ingredient Amount for 30 Amount for 75 Flour 625 g 1562.5 g Sugar 60 g Baking powder 30 g Eggs 4 Milk 1 L Melted butter 125 g
 Product labels provide information about quantities to mix. Use the label to answer the questions below it.

A carpenter is building a fence with 9 posts. How many bags of concrete are required to set the posts?

Calculate the number of bags of concrete mix required for a slab measuring 5' × 2'4" × 6".

Tube forms are used to form concrete columns. The concrete is mixed at a ratio of 2.5 litres of water per bag of concrete mix. Calculate the amount of water needed for a 15foot column with a diameter of 8 inches.

Section 2:
Money math
Money math is used in paying and receiving money on the job, for example in handling cash, preparing bills or making payments. The following are three typical workplace examples of money math.
 Cooks use petty cash to purchase small quantities of supplies that are needed immediately.
 Hairstylists prepare bills and collect cash, debit and credit card payments for their services. They charge a set rate for each service and add applicable taxes, such as the GST.
 Automotive service technicians calculate the total cost of repair jobs including parts, labour, markup and taxes, and enter these amounts on estimates or finished work orders.
Calculating increases and decreases
In some shops, products are bought at wholesale prices and marked up to sell to customers. Here is one way to calculate markup and sales tax.
Method  Examples 

Markup

An item with a wholesale price of $14.35 is marked up 22%. Calculate the selling price. 100% + 22% = 122% ^{122}/_{100} = 1.22 1.22 × $14.35 = 17.507 = $17.51 
Sales tax

Calculate the aftertax cost of 2 hours of labour at a rate of $45/hour. 2 hours × $45.00 = $90.00 labour cost 100% + 7% = 107% ^{107}/_{100} = 1.07 1.07 × $90.00 = 96.3 = $96.30 
Products are sometimes discounted when they are discontinued or when the supplier has a promotion. Here is one way to calculate a discount.
Method  Examples 


An item with a regular price of $10.89 is discounted 15% Calculate the sale price. 100% – 15% = 85% ^{85}/_{100} = 0.85 0.85 × $10.89 = 9.257 = $9.26 

In a hair salon, products are marked up for resale. Calculate the selling prices of the items listed below.
Calculate the selling prices of the items Wholesale price Markup Selling price a. $97.25 10% b. $249.99 15% c. $6.50 8%

Calculate the aftertax cost of the items listed below.
Calculate the aftertax cost of the items Cost Tax Total a. $73.50 12% b. $1,847.00 13% c. $86.75 8%

In a hair salon, products are discounted for promotions. Calculate the sale prices of the items listed below.
Calculate the sale prices of the items Price Discount Sale price a. $85.40 10% b. $1,348.00 33% c. $459.75 40%
Invoicing for services
Journeypersons who install, maintain and repair equipment often make invoices for services and are paid in cash, by cheque or by credit card on the job. Calculating tax is a typical task in these situations.
1. a) Complete the invoice on the next page for the following services:
 Repair dishwasher
 Model #MDB7601AWW
 Clean pump assembly, Test OK
 Labour 1.2 hours at $88.25 per hour (5% GST)
 Parts $2.80 (5% GST + 6% PST)
b) The customer pays the bill in cash using the following amounts:
1 × $100
1 × $20
1 cent
How much change should the technician give the customer? Enter the amounts of money that could be given as change in the table below. (There are several correct answers.)
$50  $20  $10  $5  $2  $1  25¢  10¢  5¢  1¢ 

Section 3:
Scheduling, budgeting and accounting
Scheduling, budgeting and accounting are used to manage time and money, for example in planning and keeping track of how you use your time and money, in choosing the products or services that offer the best value and in using your time and money wisely. The following are three typical workplace examples of scheduling, budgeting and accounting.
 Industrial mechanics (millwrights) schedule tasks for construction, repair and maintenance projects. They also create maintenance schedules for equipment in manufacturing plants.
 Machinists adjust daily work schedules to accommodate rush jobs or jobs that take longer than estimated. For example, they may change machining processes or the order of jobs. They consider whether others are affected by changes in the workflow and try to minimize the disruption.
 Cooks establish weekly budgets that include the cost of fresh food, shelf items and kitchen staff requirements. They also establish separate budgets for each of the catering events for the week. The costs included in the catering budgets vary depending on the menu items, number of courses and number of people served.
Comparing values
Use a table structure to compare items.
Points of comparison  Item 1  Item 2  Item 3 

Cost 1  
Cost 2  
Cost 3 
The problems in this section require you to locate and understand information in documents.
Coating products can be applied by either a trowelon or a rollon method.
 A concrete finisher estimates the cost of resurfacing the sidewalk pictured using two different methods for placing concrete. The trowelon method lasts longer but costs more.
Estimate the cost difference given:
 The concrete finisher charges $37.50 per hour;
 Each coat takes approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to apply.
Component  9.29 m^{2}
(100 sq. ft.) 
18.58 m^{2}
(200 sq. ft.) 
27.87 m^{2}
(300 sq. ft.) 
37.16 m^{2}
(400 sq. ft.) 

No primer required  
Step 1: Rollon stone coat $89.00/ 9.2 L 
1 × 9.2 L  2 × 9.2 L  3 × 9.2 L  4 × 9.2 L 
Step 2: Protective top coat $26.78/946 mL 
1 × 946 mL  2 × 946 mL  1 × 3.78 L  1 × 3.78 L 
Component  9.29 m^{2}
(100 sq. ft. ) 
18.58 m^{2}
(200 sq. ft. ) 
27.87 m^{2}
(300 sq. ft. ) 
37.16 m^{2}
(400 sq. ft. ) 

Step 1: Primer coat $48.20/3.78 L 
1 × 3.78 L  1 × 3.78 L + 1 × 946 mL 
2 × 3.78 L  3 × 3.78 L 
Step 2: Trowelon stone coat $115.07/15.1 L $53.25/3.78 L 
1 × 15.1 L + 2 × 3.78 L 
3 × 15.1 L  4 × 15.1 L + 2 × 3.78 
6 × 15.1 L 
Step 3: Protective top coat $26.78/946 mL 
1 × 946 mL  2 × 946 mL  1 × 3.78 L  1 × 3.78 L 
Accounting for cost
Many journeypersons give estimates to customers. This involves telling the customer approximately how much he or she should expect to pay for a certain item.
In the example below, a journeyperson estimates that a sink will cost $100. If the sink is not purchased or costs less than $100, the savings are shown in brackets. This means the actual cost is less than budgeted.
Item  Allowance ($)  Actual ($)  Difference +/ ($) 

Sink  100.00  75.99  (24.01) 
If the sink costs more than $100, the extra cost is shown without brackets. This means the actual cost is more than budgeted.
Item  Allowance ($)  Actual ($)  Difference +/ ($) 

Sink  100.00  123.67  23.67 
 Journeypersons compare estimates with actual costs. When the customer selects the specific item they want to purchase, the journeyperson can point out how much higher or lower than estimated the actual cost will be.
Use the renovation invoice below to answer the following questions.

Compare the allowance for the floor coverings with the actual cost. Enter the difference on the invoice.

A contractor is bidding on apartment renovations and needs to submit an estimate for installing the same bathroom mirror, wall tile and toilet in 5 units. Use the actual costs from the invoice to calculate the estimate the contractor should provide. Add 10% to account for rising costs.

Section 4: Data Analysis
Data analysis is used to solve problems by analyzing and comparing data. The need for these skills is increasing as computer programs make data more available. The following are three typical workplace examples of data analysis.
 Automotive service technicians analyze readings from tests of vehicle electrical systems to diagnose problems such as an engine that will not start.
 Machinists review quality control data to examine trends in machine performance. For example, they may compare the finished dimensions of parts produced at different points in the machining cycle to decide when to replace tooling or recalibrate machinery.
 Construction electricians use the results of electrical measurements (e g, draw, voltage, torque and temperature) taken at several points in a circuit to analyze circuit operation, to troubleshoot electrical problems and to increase electrical efficiency.
Calculating tolerances

Sheet metal workers, machinists, refrigeration and air conditioning mechanics work to very tight tolerances. Decide if the measures in the following table are within specifications. If they are, place a v in the table; if they are not acceptable, place an X.
± means plus or minus
Table showing if measures are within specification Specification Measure v/X a. 22.5° ± 2° 20.1° b. 0.850 m ± 0.020 m 0.827 m c. 0.750 L ± 0.015 L 0.761 L 
An ironworker rigging a load plans to use a ¾inch wirerope choker hitch to lift a beam that weighs 4.6 tons. Use the table below to make a recommendation for a safer lift. (There are several correct answers.)
Note: This capacity table is for this workbook only. On the job you should use the manufacturer's table.
Using numbers in patterns

Automotive service technicians use diagnostic equipment to analyze problems in exhaust systems. When the system is operating correctly, the Y or vertical axis on the graph should show signals that constantly change from under 0.2 volts to over 0.8 volts.
The graph below shows two sets of numerical data. The top set shows the reading from the driver’s side of the engine and the bottom set shows the reading from the passenger’s side.
How are the two sets of graph lines different?
Answer key
Use this answer key to gain a better understanding of your numeracy skills. Compare your answers to those provided below to identify your strengths and areas for improvement.
Note: There may be more than one method of arriving at the right answer. Answers may also vary depending on how you round off your numbers.
Section 1: Measurement and calculation  

Pg 7  Using measuring tools  Math foundation skills 
Q1  Whole numbers, fractions, decimals (imperial, metric)  
Q2  Whole numbers, fractions, decimals (imperial, metric)  
Q3a  7.32 feet  Whole numbers, decimals 
Q3b  5.12 feet  Whole numbers, decimals 
Pg 9  Using formulas  
Q1  2 (47.8 m + 30.3 m) = 156.2 = 157 m  Perimeter (metric) 
Q2  52' + 14' + (52' – 30' 8") + (28' – 14 ‘) + 30' 8" + 28' = 160' 160 ÷ 2 = 80 studs 
Perimeter (imperial) 
Q3  9.2 m × 7.8 m = 71.76 m^{2}
71.76 m^{2} ÷ 4.5 m^{2}/L = 15.95 L 15.95 L ÷ 3.7 L = 4.31 = 5 containers 
Area (metric) 
Q4  3.1416 (8.2 ft. × 8.2 ft.) = 211.24 ft.^{2}
(211.24 ft.^{2} ÷ 2 ft. ^{2}/tile) = 105.62 = 106 tiles 106 tiles × $13.29/tile = $1,408.74 
Area (imperial) 
Q5  (14 m)^{2} – (9.25 m)^{2} = 110.44 m^{2}
110.44 m^{2} × 0.152 m = 16 79 m^{3} 
Volume (metric) 
Q6  r = ¾ × 16 ft. = 12 ft. (3.1416 × (12 ft.)^{2} × 16 ft.) ÷ 3 = 2 412.75 ft. ^{3} 2 412.75 ft. ^{3} ÷ 27 ft. 3/yd ^{3} = 89.36 yd ^{3} 
Volume (imperial) 
Q7  3.1416 × 2 m × 6 m = 37.6992 = 37.7 m^{2}  Area (metric) 
Q8  8 ohms ÷ 4 resistors = 2 ohms  Equations and formulas 
Q9  22^{2} + 18^{2} = 808 v808 = 28.43 cm 
Trigonometry 
Q10  1 000^{2} + 1 255^{2} = 2 575 025 v2 575 025 = 1 605 mm 
Trigonometry 
Q11  15^{2} + (12– 8)^{2} = 241 v241 = 15.52 inches 
Trigonometry 
Q12  28 × 0.433 = 12.12 psi  Equations and formulas 
Q13  8 in. × 24 in. = 192 in. ^{2}
192 in. ^{2} ÷ 144 in. 2/ft. ^{2} = 1.33 ft ^{2} 
Area (imperial) 
Q13b  1.33 ft. ^{2} ×1 200 ft. /min = 1 596 ft. ^{3}/min  Equations and formulas 
Pg 15  Using drawings  
Q1 
^{5}/_{4} × 1 ft. = 5 ft. ^{3}/_{2} × 1 ft. = 6 ft. Dimensions = 5 ft. × 6 ft. 
Rates, ratios and proportions 
Q2  3  Whole numbers 
Q3  2' 2" + 8' + 2' 2" = 12' 4"  Measurement conversions 
Q4  A = 12 ft. ×14 ft. = 168 ft.^{2}
168 ft.^{2} + 30 ft.^{2} = 198 ft.^{2} 198 ft.^{2} ÷ 9 ft. 2/yd.^{2} = 22 yd.^{2} $28.50/yd.^{2} × 22 yd.^{2} = $627.00 
Area, measurement conversions 
Q5 
Method 1: Method 2: 
Decimals 
Pg 17  Estimating weight loads  
Q1  2 ft. × 18 ft. = 36 ft.^{2}
¾ × 40 lb. /ft.^{2} = 30 lb. /ft.^{2} 36 ft.^{2} × 30 lb. /ft.^{2} = 1 080 lb. 
Equations and formulas 
Q2  26' × 30.17' × 0.5' = 392.21 ft.^{3}
392.21 ft. ^{3} × 150 lb. /ft.^{3} = 58 831.5 lb. 
Equations and formulas 
Pg 18  Working with quantities  
Q1  Total fall = 30 ft. × ¼ in/ft. = 7.5 ft.  Rates, ratios and proportions 
Q2  35 000 km × 0.6214 mi/km = 21 749 mi.  Rates, ratios and proportions 
Q3a  ^{5}/_{4} × 30 g = 37.5 g 
Rate, ratios and proportions 
Q3b  ^{5}/_{4} × 60 mL = 75 mL  Rate, ratios and proportions 
Q4 
amount × 75 = quantity of ingredients 30 
Rate, ratios and proportions 
Q5a  9 posts × 2.5 bags/post = 22.5 = 23 bags  Rate, ratios and proportions 
Q5b  5 bags = 3 ft. × 2 ft. × .33 ft. = 1.98 ft.^{3}
5 ft. × 2.33 ft. × 0.5 ft. = 5.825 ft.^{3} 5.825 ft. ^{3} ÷ 1.98 ft.^{3} = 2.94 2.94 × 5 bags = 14.7 = 15 bags 
Rate, ratios and proportions 
Q5c  15ft. ÷ 4 ft. = 3.75 3.75 × 3.5 = 13.125 = 14 bags 14 bags × 2.5 L/bag = 35 litres of water 
Rate, ratios and proportions 
Section 2: Money math  

Pg 20  Calculating increases and decreases  Math foundation skills  
Q1a  (1.00 + ^{10}/_{100}) × $97.25 = $106.98  Percentages  
Q1b  1.15 × $249.99 = $287.49  Percentages  
Q1c  1.08 × $6.50 = $7.02  Percentages  
Q2a  1.12 × $73.50 = $82.32  Percentages  
Q2b  1.13 × $1,847 = $2,087.11  Percentages  
Q2c  1.08 × $86.75 = $93.69  Percentages  
Q3a  (1.00 – ^{10}/_{100}) × $85.40 = $76.86  Percentages  
Q3b  0.67 × $1,348 = $903.16  Percentages  
Q3c  0.60 × $459.75 = $275.85  Percentages  
Pg 21  Invoicing for services  
Q1a  $105.90 × 1.05 = $111.20 (labour) $2.80 × 1.11 = $3.11 (parts) $111.20 + $3.11 = $114.31 
Decimals  
Q1b 
Change: $120.01 – $114.31 = $5.70

Decimals 
Section 3: Scheduling, budgeting and accounting  

Pg 23  Comparing values  Math foundation skills 
Q1 
Area of sidewalk = 32 ft. × 3 ft. = 96 ft.^{2} Rollon: (1 5 h × 2) × $37.50/h = $112.50 Trowelon: (1.5 h × 3) × $37.50 = $168.75 $465.30 – $228.28 = $237.02 
Decimals 
Pg 25  Accounting for cost  
Q1a  $3,050 – $6,356.03 = –$3,306.03 Entry on invoice: (3,306.03) 
Integers 
Q1b  ($153.00 + $145.12 + $199.10) × 5 = $2,486.10 1.10 × $2,486.10 = $2,734.71 
Integers, percentages 
Section 4: Data analysis  

Pg 27  Calculating tolerances  Math foundation skills 
Q1a  X not acceptable 22.5° – 2° = 20.5° 20.1° is not between 20.5° and 22.5° = not acceptable 
Integers 
Q1b  X not acceptable 0.850 m – 0.020 m = 0.830 m 0.827 m is not between 0.830 m and 0.850 m = not acceptable 
Integers 
Q1c  ✓acceptable 0.750 L + 0.015 L = 0.765 L 0.761 L is between 0.750 L and 0.765 L = acceptable 
Integers 
Q2 

Integers 
Pg 28  Using numbers in patterns  
Q1  In the top set, both lines fluctuate from under 0.2 volts to over 0 8 volts. In the bottom set, only one line is showing this pattern. The other line remains almost flat around 0.2 volts.  Statistics and probability 
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