General nesting periods of migratory birds

General nesting periods of migratory birds in Canada

Environment and Climate Change Canada publishes technical information on general nesting periods to support the planning of activities in order to reduce the risk of detrimental effects to migratory birds, their nests and eggs (see Warning below). However, any time nests containing eggs or young are encountered, the immediate area should be avoided until the young have naturally left the vicinity of the nest (see Buffer zones and setbacks distances). This protection measure should be taken even if the nest has been found outside the dates of the general nesting period for the area published by Environment and Climate Change Canada. Once out of the nest, young birds are still vulnerable therefore precautionary measures are recommended.

Species at risk

: In some cases, such as for migratory birds listed under the Species at Risk Act (SARA), more specific information on nesting periods may be available and should be considered. At all times, the onus remains with the individual or company to comply with all applicable legislation. See more information on requirements related to residence protection under SARA.

General nesting periods:

In Canada, the general nesting period may start as early as mid-March and may extend until late August. This is a general nesting period that covers most federally protected migratory bird species (see below for species with a breeding period that may fall outside the general nesting period). This period varies regionally across Canada mainly due to differences in species assemblages, climate, elevation and habitat type. Generally, the nesting period is delayed in more northerly latitudes, corresponding to vegetation development and food availability. To help with determining regionally relevant periods where nesting is likely to occur, Environment and Climate Change Canada is publishing estimated regional nesting periods (see table) within large geographical areas across Canada referred as "nesting zones" (see the map and the text below about the nesting zones). These periods are estimated for each zone and consider only the time of first egg-laying until the young have naturally left the vicinity of the nest. The nesting periods do not take into account the nest building period (few days up to around 2 weeks) preceding egg-laying. Thus, precautionary measures are recommended at the beginning of the general nesting period. Note that the technical information published on this web site may be updated - and possibly modified - as new data become available.

Nesting calendars:

In addition to the regional nesting period tables, the information is also presented in a set of calendars. These calendars show the variation in nesting intensity by habitat type and nesting zone. Nesting intensity is defined as the proportion of species that are estimated to be actively nesting on a given date from March to September. The median value was used to determine the representative proportion of species from all parts of a nesting zone (colours from white to dark red). The blue markers show extreme dates predicted for some atypical parts of a nesting zone where nesting could occur earlier or later. For example, in the nesting zone "A1", the general nesting period in open field habitat is predicted to occur between March 30 and August 16, but, in some atypical part of that nesting zone in open field habitat, the earliest/latest nesting records are March 16 and August 17 respectively. These nesting calendars are the result of predictive models based mainly on the mean annual temperature. The dates were established by considering only the species known to nest in each of the nesting zones (see below about the species analyzed and the list of species included /excluded for the determination of regional nesting periods and calendars). In the case of one or more species or sites of interest, customized nesting calendars could be created from the online query tool of Bird Studies Canada in the Project NestWatch section of their web site. Finally, note that the nesting calendar is based upon the number of nesting species, not the number of nesting individuals, therefore periods with fewer nesting species may still have a high number of individuals within those species that nest during that time period (for example: many Canada Geese, Mallards and Pintails nest in April on the prairies, nesting zones B3 and B4.

Northern Flickers © iStockphoto
Photo: © iStockphoto.
Northern Flickers

Query tool:

In addition to the nesting calendars, an external nesting calendar query tool is available through Bird Studies Canada. This is a query tool that enables users to create customized nesting calendars based on the species and areas of interest. The nesting calendars are constructed using data from the main part of the nesting season and can be sorted under a variety of categories such as: species, ecodistricts, bird conservation regions, ecoregions, nesting zones, provinces and territories, federal protection, habitats, nest type and species type. Users should read the warning prior to using the tool.

Nesting zones:

The regional nesting period table and calendars are associated with broad geographical areas distributed across Canada, referred to as "nesting zones" (see map). These nesting zones were determined using mainly the limits defined by the Bird Conservation Regions (BCR), which reflect broad changes in species diversity across Canada. Nesting zones also consider variation in the mean annual temperature, as well as similarities in the nesting periods within and between zones. It should be noted that changes in the nesting period between adjacent nesting zones occurs as a gradient. Therefore, when working near the boundary of a zone, it is advisable to also consider the nesting period in adjacent zones in order to determine when migratory birds are most likely to be nesting.

Accuracy of the nesting predictions:

The nesting dates presented on this web site regarding the “General nesting periods of migratory birds in Canada” are estimates from predictive models that identify the main nesting period. In general, the accuracy of the estimated nesting dates could vary within a period of up to 10 days or more due to the natural variability in the timing of nesting events between regions, individuals and years and due to the sampling and the constraints associated with the method used. Moreover, since the timing of nesting applies to broad geographical areas (nesting zones), it is possible that nesting periods in a given location could have different start dates and/or durations than the estimated dates due to micro-climatic conditions in specific areas (e.g., high elevation sites or coastal sites), as well as inter-annual variation due to factors such as an early spring or a cold, wet summer. Consequently, it is possible that birds could nest before and/or after these dates, but the probability of encountering an active nest (with eggs or with young) is much lower, although it is not zero. For more information on the methodology underlying these estimations, please click on the tab « About » in the online query tool.

Exceptions - species with a breeding period that may fall outside the general nesting period

The general nesting period covers most federally protected migratory bird species and may not include the complete nesting period for species under provincial/territorial jurisdiction (such as jays, owls, hawks, blackbirds, grouse, cormorants or pelicans). Estimates of nesting periods for species under provincial/territorial jurisdiction are available from Bird Studies Canada on the Project NestWatch section of their website.

In addition, the general nesting period may not be accurate for:

  • species that can breed any time conditions are right, such as Red Crossbills and White-winged Crossbills nesting in winter when cone crops are available;
  • species that may nest earlier, such as Great Blue Heron and American Woodcock in March, or those which may nest later such as Cedar Waxwing, Bohemian Waxwing, Pine Siskin, American Goldfinch, Common Murre and Great Blue Heron until the end of September, or Leach’s Storm-Petrel, Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel and Northern Gannet in October;
  • the south of British-Columbia, on the coastal area especially, where some species can start nesting in February, such as Song Sparrow, Anna’s Hummingbird, Great Blue Heron and Mallard and, in early March, such as Canada Goose, Common Merganser, Killdeer and Bushtit; or those which may nest later in September such as swallows, wrens, chickadees, Bushtit, Swainson’s Thrush and Dark-eyed Junco;
  • mountainous landscapes (e.g. Rockies, Torngats) where the nesting period can start later on mountain tops or earlier in valleys.

Species analysed:

The determination of the regional nesting period table and calendars are the result of a statistical analysis based on nearly 640,000 nest observations gathered from nearly 180,000 nests by volunteers and others who contributed their data to Project NestWatch. This project is managed by Bird Studies Canada in collaboration with provincial and regional nest record schemes across Canada. Among the 364 federally protected species known to breed in Canada, 259 species (71%) were included for the determination of the regional nesting period table and calendars. The remaining 105 species were excluded because of insufficient nest records available (87 species), species that can breed any time conditions are right and/or very late or very early nesters (5 species) or unsuccessful modeling (13 species; see the list of species included/excluded). Note that the list of species included may change as more information becomes available, which could result in the changing of technical information published on this web site.

Warning

The technical information contained in the "General nesting periods of migratory birds in Canada" published on this web site is general information that constitutes advice only. All persons must adhere to all pertinent laws (for example provincial or territorial laws), regulations and permit requirements including but not restricted to the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994 (MBCA) and the Migratory Birds Regulations (MBR). It is important to note that some species of birds protected under the MBCA have also been listed in Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act (SARA). These species receive protection from both the MBCA and SARA. This information does not provide an authorization for harming or killing migratory birds or for the disturbance, destruction or taking of nests or eggs as prohibited under the MBR. This information does not provide a guarantee that the activities will avoid contravening the MBR or other laws and regulations. This is general information not intended to be relied on as official advice concerning the legal consequences of any specific activity. It is not a substitute for the MBCA, the MBR, or any other legislation.

It is the responsibility of individuals and companies to assess their risk with regards to migratory birds and design relevant avoidance and mitigation measures (see the Specific consideration related to determining the presence of nests and the Guide for Developing Beneficial Management Practices for Migratory Bird Conservation). Since the "General nesting periods of migratory birds in Canada" applies to large geographical areas, it is possible that local nesting periods could have a different starting date and/or duration than published dates due to micro-climatic conditions in specific areas (e.g. high elevation sites or coastal sites) as well as inter-annual variation due to factors such as early spring or cold, wet summer. The technical information published on this web site will be updated as new data become available, which could result in the changing of dates and/or limits of the nesting zones.

Please contact Environment and Climate Change Canada's Wildlife Service office in your region for further technical information.

Regional nesting period table in Canada, technical information for planning purposes

Table 1a. Regional nesting period table in Canada, technical information for planning purposes: Nesting zone A
Nesting zone A:
Northern Pacific Rainforest (BCR5), Great Basin (BCR9) and Northern Rockies (BCR10)
(Map of Nesting zone A) (Nesting calendars of zone A)
Regional nesting period
A1 Late March - Mid-August
A2 Early April - Mid-August
A3 Mid-April - Mid-August
A4 and A5 Late April - Mid-August
Table 1b. Regional nesting period table in Canada, technical information for planning purposes: Nesting zone B
Nesting zone B:
Prairie Potholes (BCR11), Boreal Taiga Plains (BCR6) and Northwestern Interior Forest (BCR4)
(Map of Nesting zone B) (Nesting calendars of zone B)
Regional nesting period
B3 and B4 Mid April - Late August
B5 Late April - Late August
B6 Late April - Mid-August
B7 and B8 Early May - Late August
B9 Mid-May - Mid-August
Table 1c. Regional nesting period table in Canada, technical information for planning purposes: Nesting zone C
Nesting zone C:
Lower Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Plain (BCR13), Atlantic Northern Forest (BCR14), Boreal Hardwood Transition (BCR12), parts of Boreal Softwood Shield (BCR8) and parts of Taiga Shield and Hudson Plains (BCR7)
(Mapof Nesting zone C) (Nesting calendars of zone C)
Regional nesting period
C1 Late March - Late August
C2 Early April - Late August
C3 and C4 Mid-April - Late August
C5 Late April - Late August
C6 Late April - Mid-August
C7 and C8 Early May - Mid-August
Table 1d. Regional nesting period table in Canada, technical information for planning purposes: Nesting zone D
Nesting zone D:
Quebec-Labrador and Newfoundland sub-zones of Boreal Softwood Shield (BCR8) and of Taiga Shield and Hudson Plains (BCR7)
(Map of Nesting zone D) (Nesting calendars of zone D)
Regional nesting period
D3-4 Mid-April - Mid-August
D5 Late April - Mid-August
D6 and D7 Early May - Mid-August
Table 1e. Regional nesting period table in Canada, technical information for planning purposes: Nesting zone N
Nesting zone N:
Arctic Plains and Mountains (BCR3)
(Map of Nesting zone N) (Nesting calendars of zone N)
Regional nesting period
N8 and N9 Mid-May - Mid-August
N10 Late May - Mid-August

Map of the nesting zones in Canada

The figure present the map of Canada showing the 27 nesting zones associated with the regional nesting periods of migratory birds in Canada. The nesting zones are identified by a letter A, B, C, D or N and by a number from 1 to 10. The map shows the boundaries of the Bird Conservation Regions and of the provinces and territories and the boundaries between zones A, B, C, D and N.
Atome d'oxygène
Long description for map

The figure presents a map of Canada showing the 27 nesting zones associated with the regional nesting periods. The nesting zones are identified by a letter A, B, C, D or N, representing broad geographical area, mainly from west to east and by a number from 1 to 10, associated with mean annual temperature variations, mainly from south to north. In addition, the map shows the boundaries of the Bird Conservation Regions (BCR) and of the provinces and territories. To help situating the limits of the nesting zones, the map shows the location of 62 municipalities and, in background, the countries neighboring Canada (parts of United-States of America including parts of Alaska, parts of Greenland and Iceland).

From west to east, the nesting zones are situated as follows: the greater nesting zone A is found in British Columbia (BC) and it includes the bird conservation region of the Northern Pacific Rainforest BCR 5, the Great Basin BCR 9 and the Northern Rockies BCR 10. It is divided in five sub-zones numbered from one to five. The zone A1 covers the southern portion of the BCR 5, including Vancouver Island and the Pacific coast, expanding north from the border with United-States (US) to half the distance in latitude between the islands of Vancouver and Haida Gwaii. The zone A1 also covers the western and eastern parts of BCR 9, expanding north from the US border to the northern portion of BCR 9. The middle portion of BCR9 belongs to zone A2 and splits the zone A1 in two disjointed portions. The town of Penticton is located at the western limit of the eastern portion of zone A1. The zone A2 covers two disjointed areas. The first one located in the south of BC, covers the middle portion of BCR 9 including the City of Kamloops and the south-western area of BCR 10 between the eastern portion of zone A1 and the Town of Kimberly. It expands north from the border with the US to the northern tip of BCR 9, except for a disjointed portion belonging to zone A1 embedded. The second portion of zone A2 is along the Pacific coast of BC, and covers the northern portion of BCR 5, including the Island of Haida Gwaii. It expands north from zone A1 to near the border with Yukon. A small portion of zone A2 is also located in the north-western tip of BCR 10. The zone A3 covers the southern portion of BCR 10. It expands north from zones A1, A2 and the US border (near the border between BC and Alberta) to around the latitude of the City of Williams Lake. It expands east from zone A1 to the Rockies and the boundary with Alberta at the level of Calgary. The zone A4 covers the northern half of BCR 10 with the City of Prince George located roughly in the middle. It expands north from zone A3 to the north of BCR 10 and east from the limit of zone A2 to the boundary with Alberta. The zone A5 covers a small area from the top of BCR 10 embedded within zone A4.

The greater nesting zone B is found in the western part of Canada expanding north from the US border to the north of Yukon and the Northwest Territories, and, east from Alaska to the southern part of Manitoba. It includes the bird conservation regions of the Prairie BCR 11, the Boreal Taiga Plains BCR 6 and the Northwestern Interior Forest BCR 4. It is divided into seven sub-zones numbered from three to nine. The zone B3 covers the south-western portion of BCR 11 expanding north from the US border and no more north than the latitude of Calgary, and East, from the boundary between BC and Alberta to east of the Town of Maple Creek. The zone B4 covers most of the BCR 11. The northern limit follows roughly a line between the Cities of Edmonton, Provost, Saskatoon, Regina and Winnipeg. It expands east from the City of Calgary to the City of Winnipeg. The zone B5 expands north from the northern limits of zone B4 to roughly a line between the Cities of Fort St. John, Peace River, Fort McMurray and Nipawin, and east, from the boundary between BC and Alberta to Lake Winnipeg. The zone B6 expands north from the southern portion of BCR 4 in BC, north of nesting zones A2, A4 and A5, and north of B5 within the BCR 6 up to the southern limits of Yukon and the north of BC and Alberta. It includes the Towns of Fort Nelson and High Level but excludes Lake Claire. It expands east from almost the Pacific coast of BC to near the eastern portion of Lake Winnipeg following the eastern boarder of BCR 6 with BCR 8. The zone B7 expands north from the northern limits of zone B6 including a band of land on each side of the BC - Yukon border and a larger portion, from the northern part of Alberta to south of Great Bear Lake in the Northwest Territories. It expands east from the border with Alaska to the eastern limits of BCR 6 at the longitude of Fort McMurray, and includes the City of Whitehorse and most of the Great Slave Lake, south of Yellowknife. The zone B8 expands north from the northern limits of zone B7 to roughly the latitude of Whitehorse to the north of the City of Dawson at the latitude of the southern tip of the Arctic Plains and Mountains BCR 3 located in Yukon, and east, from Alaska to Great Bear Lake (completely included). The zone B9 expands north in Yukon and the Northwest Territories from the northern limits of zone B8 to the coast of the Arctic Ocean. It expands east from the border with Alaska on both sides of the Yukon’s portion of the Arctic Plains and Mountains BCR 3 within BCR4 and to the north limits of the BCR6.

The greater nesting zone C is found mostly in the eastern part of Canada expanding north from the southern tip of Ontario to the south of BCR3, and, east, from Great Bear Lake, in the Northwest Territories to Cape Breton Island, in Nova Scotia. It includes the bird conservation regions of the Lower Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Plain (BCR13), the Atlantic Northern Forest (BCR14), the Boreal Hardwood Transition (BCR12), the Boreal Softwood Shield (BCR8) and the Taiga Shield and Hudson Plains (BCR7). It is divided in eight sub-zones numbered from one to eight. The zone C1 covers the southern tip of BCR 13 in Ontario. It expands north from Pelee Island, in Ontario mostly along Lake Erie to the south of the Cities of London and Toronto. The zone C2 is divided in two parts. The first one covers most of BCR 13 in Ontario north of zone C1. It expands north from the City of London to the west near the Town of Gravenhurst and to the east near the boundary with Quebec. The second part covers the south eastern portion of Nova Scotia and expands north up to Halifax. The zone C3 is divided in two parts. The first one covers the southern part of BCR 12 in Ontario and all of BCR 13 and the south of BCR 14 in Quebec. It expands north from zone C2 in Ontario south of Gravenhurst, in Ontario to near Temiscaming in Quebec and along the St. Lawrence River to the Town of La Pocatière, Quebec. It expands east from the western tip of Lake Michigan to west of the Town of Lac-Mégantic in Quebec. The second part covers most of New-Brunswick, Nova Scotia and all of Prince Edward Island. It expands north from Grand Manan Island to Miscou Island in New Brunswick and from north of Halifax to Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia and includes the Magdalene Islands in Quebec. The zone C4 covers most of BCR 12 in Ontario and in Quebec, the north-eastern part of BCR 14 in Quebec and New Brunswick and a small portion of BCR 8 in Quebec along the North Shore of the St. Lawrence River. It expands north in Ontario from zone C3, from Lake Huron near Sudbury to the north of the City of Kenora in the west and to the south of the City of Timmins in the east, and in Quebec, from zone C3 north of Ottawa to north of the City of Baie-Comeau on the northern shore of the St. Lawrence River and from Lac-Mégantic to the Gaspé Peninsula on the southern shore of the St. Lawrence River. It expands east from the limits of BCR 11 in Manitoba to the Gaspé Peninsula, including the north-western part of New Brunswick, north of Fredericton and the Lake Saint-Jean area in Quebec. The zone C5 covers the southern portion of BCR 8 mostly located in Ontario. It expands north from zone C4, in its western part from Lake Superior at the latitude of Thunder Bay in Ontario to the north of Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba and in its eastern part from the City of Rouyn-Noranda to the City of Chibougamau, in Quebec. It expands east from Lake Winnipeg, in Manitoba to the north of Lake Saint-Jean in Quebec. The zone C6 covers the northern part of BCR8 to the latitude of Wollaston Lake in Saskatchewan and the southern part of BCR 7 in Ontario and Quebec around the James Bay area. It expands north from zone C5, north of the Town of La Ronge in Saskatchewan, north of Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba, north of the Town of Hearst in Ontario, and north of the City of Chibougamau in Quebec. It expands east from near the border with Alberta in Saskatchewan to near the City of Baie-Comeau in Quebec. The zone C7 covers the northern part of BCR 8 and the southern part of BCR 7. It expands north from C6, around the latitude of the Town of Thompson, Manitoba to the south of the Great Slave Lake, in the Northwest Territories and to the East, from the Great Slave Lake to nearly the coast of the James Bay in Ontario. The zone C8 covers the south of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut from the northern border of Manitoba and Saskatchewan to Great Bear Lake. It expands east from Great Bear Lake within BCR 7 to the coast of the Hudson Bay around the longitude of Churchill in Manitoba.

The greater nesting zone D is found in the northern portion of the Quebec-Labrador peninsula. It expands north from around the north of Mistassini Lake, in Quebec to the southern limit of BCR 3, and, to the east from the Hudson Bay to Anticosti Island in Quebec and Newfoundland. It includes the northern part of the bird conservation region of the Taiga Shield and Hudson Plains (BCR7), the eastern part of the Boreal Softwood Shield (BCR8) and the Atlantic Northern Forest (BCR14) in Newfoundland. It is divided in four sub-zones numbered from the combined zone 3-4 to seven. The zone D3-4 covers all of Newfoundland The zone D5 covers the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence from north of the City of Baie-Comeau, in Quebec to the latitude of the island of Belle Isle, Newfoundland and Labrador and, in land, from Lake Mistassini to north of the Town of Fermont, Quebec. The zone D6 covers most of Labrador with the exception of the northern tip located in BCR 3. The zone D7 covers most of the northern part of Quebec from La Grande River to the southern limits of BCR 3, north of Kuujjuak. It expands north to the Ungava Bay and east from Belcher Islands in Hudson Bay to the border with Labrador.

The greater nesting zone N is found in the Arctic part of Canada and it includes the entire area of the bird conservation region of the Arctic Plains and Mountains BCR 3. It expands north from the sub-zone B9, B8, C8, D7 and D6, from the latitude of the Town of Churchill, Manitoba to the North Pole in Nunavut, and, East from the north of Yukon to the northern tip of Labrador. It is divided in three sub-zones numbered from 8 to 10. The zone N8 covers the Quebec and Labrador portion of BCR 3, north of D7 and D6 from north of the Belcher Islands to the Arctic Ocean. The zone N9 covers the southern portions of the Arctic in the Nunavut, the northern portion of the Northwest Territories, and the Arctic portion at the northern tip of the Yukon. It expands from the latitude of Churchill in Manitoba to the Arctic Ocean including parts Southampton Island but not the portion north of the Town of Baker Lake, in Nunavut. Zone N10 covers all of the northern portions of the Arctic, mostly in the Nunavut from Baker Lake to Ellesmere Island.

Zone A: includes Northern Pacific Rainforest (BCR5), Great Basin (BCR9) and Northern Rockies (BCR10);

Zone B: includes Prairie Potholes (BCR11), Boreal Taiga Plains (BCR6) and Northwestern Interior Forest (BCR4);

Zone C: includes Lower Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Plain (BCR13), Atlantic Northern Forest (BCR14), Boreal Hardwood Transition (BCR12), parts of Boreal Softwood Shield (BCR8) and parts of Taiga Shield and Hudson Plains (BCR7);

Zone D: includes Quebec-Labrador and Newfoundland sub-zones of Boreal Softwood Shield (BCR8) and of Taiga Shield and Hudson Plains (BCR7);

Zone N: includes Arctic Plains and Mountains (BCR3)

Nesting Calendars in zone A (Map of zone A), technical information for planning purposes covering Northern Pacific Rainforest (BCR5), Great Basin (BCR9) and Northern Rockies (BCR10)

The figure presents a set of calendars showing the proportion of species predicted to be actively nesting from early March to late August by habitat types and nesting zones within the larger nesting zone A.
Long description for nesting calendars in zone A

The figure presents a set of 15 calendars showing the proportion in percentage of federally protected species that are predicted to be actively nesting on a given date from March to September for three habitat types: wetlands, open and forest and for five nesting zones: A1, A2, A3, A4 and A5. On each day, the percentage of species is shown according to one of the following six categories: 0 percent, less than 5 percent, 6 to 10 percent, 11 to 20 percent, 21 to 40 percent, 41 to 60 percent and 61 to 100 percent. In addition, markers show extreme dates predicted for some atypical parts of the nesting zone where nesting could occur earlier or later.

For nesting zone A1, within the species used, there are 55 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from March 26 to 30 and from August 8 to 9, 6 to 10 percent from March 31 to April 1 and from August 5 to 7, 11 to 20 percent from April 2 to 13 and from August 1 to 4, 21 to 40 percent from April 14 to 24 and from July 28 to 31, 41 to 60 percent from April 25 to May 5 and from July 20 to 27, 61 to 100 percent from May 6 to July 19. The markers are on March 12 and August 11. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone A1, within the species used, there are 75 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from March 30 to April 1 and from August 13 to 16, 6 to 10 percent from April 2 to 9 and from August 8 to 12, 11 to 20 percent from April 10 to 17 and from August 1 to 7, 21 to 40 percent from April 18 to May 1 and from July 28 to 31, 41 to 60 percent from May 2 to 12 and from July 22 to 27, 61 to 100 percent from May 13 to July 21. The markers are on March 16 and August 17. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone A1, within the species used, there are 44 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from March 26 to 28 and on August 8, 6 to 10 percent from March 29 to 30 and from July 30 to August 7, 11 to 20 percent from March 31 to April 6 and from July 26 to 29, 21 to 40 percent from April 7 to 28 and from July 20 to 25, 41 to 60 percent from April 29 to May 3 and from July 16 to 19, 61 to 100 percent from May 4 to July 15. The markers are on March 12 and August 9. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone A2, within the species used, there are 63 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 4 to 8 and from August 10 to 11, 6 to 10 percent from April 9 to 13 and from August 6 to 9, 11 to 20 percent from April 14 to 22 and from August 2 to 5, 21 to 40 percent from April 23 to May 4 and from July 28 to August 1, 41 to 60 percent from May 5 to 14 and from July 21 to 27, 61 to 100 percent from May 15 to July 20. The markers are on March 31 and August 12. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone A2, within the species used, there are 82 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 8 to 14 and from August 13 to 17, 6 to 10 percent from April 15 to 22 and from August 9 to 12, 11 to 20 percent from April 23 to 29 and from July 31 to August 8, 21 to 40 percent from April 30 to May 11 and from July 28 to 30, 41 to 60 percent from May 12 to 18 and from July 21 to 27, 61 to 100 percent from May 19 to July 20. The markers are on April 5 and August 18. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone A2, within the species used, there are 54 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 4 to 7 and from August 3 to 11, 6 to 10 percent from April 8 to 10 and from July 31 to August 2, 11 to 20 percent from April 11 to 26 and from July 28 to 30, 21 to 40 percent from April 27 to May 5 and from July 22 to 27, 41 to 60 percent from May 6 to 10 and from July 17 to 21, 61 to 100 percent from May 11 to July 16. The markers are on March 31 and August 12. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone A3, within the species used, there are 67 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 14 to 17 and from August 10 to 12, 6 to 10 percent from April 18 to 21 and from August 7 to 9, 11 to 20 percent from April 22 to May 2 and from August 3 to 6, 21 to 40 percent from May 3 to 10 and from July 28 to August 2, 41 to 60 percent from May 11 to 19 and from July 22 to 27, 61 to 100 percent from May 20 to July 21. The markers are on April 11 and August 23. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone A3, within the species used, there are 88 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 17 to 22 and from August 14 to 19, 6 to 10 percent from April 23 to 27 and from August 12 to 13, 11 to 20 percent from April 28 to May 4 and from August 3 to 11, 21 to 40 percent from May 5 to 14 and from July 30 to August 2, 41 to 60 percent from May 15 to 21 and from July 24 to 29, 61 to 100 percent from May 22 to July 23. The markers are on April 13 and August 23. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone A3, within the species used, there are 58 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 14 to 16 and from August 3 to 9, 6 to 10 percent from April 17 to 18 and from August 1 to 2, 11 to 20 percent from April 19 to May 3 and from July 30 to 31, 21 to 40 percent from May 4 to 10 and from July 23 to 29, 41 to 60 percent from May 11 to 15 and from July 19 to 22, 61 to 100 percent from May 16 to July 18. The markers are on April 11 and August 16. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone A4, within the species used, there are 66 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 21 to 24 and from August 10 to 13, 6 to 10 percent from April 25 to 28 and from August 8 to 9, 11 to 20 percent from April 29 to May 8 and from August 3 to 7, 21 to 40 percent from May 9 to 13 and from July 29 to August 2, 41 to 60 percent from May 14 to 22 and from July 23 to 28, 61 to 100 percent from May 23 to July 22. The markers are on April 19 and August 24. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone A4, within the species used, there are 80 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 21 to 24 and from August 15 to 19, 6 to 10 percent from April 25 to May 1 and from August 10 to 14, 11 to 20 percent from May 2 to 9 and from August 3 to 9, 21 to 40 percent from May 10 to 16 and from July 30 to August 2, 41 to 60 percent from May 17 to 23 and from July 23 to 29, 61 to 100 percent from May 24 to July 22. The markers are on April 19 and August 24. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone A4, within the species used, there are 53 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 21 to 22 and from August 4 to 9, 6 to 10 percent from April 23 to 26 and from August 1 to 3, 11 to 20 percent from April 27 to May 6 and from July 30 to 31, 21 to 40 percent from May 7 to 12 and from July 24 to 29, 41 to 60 percent from May 13 to 17 and from July 20 to 23, 61 to 100 percent from May 18 to July 19. The markers are on April 19 and August 17. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone A5, within the species used, there are 51 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 26 to 30 and from August 10 to 11, 6 to 10 percent from May 1 to 3 and from August 8 to 9, 11 to 20 percent from May 4 to 12 and from August 4 to 7, 21 to 40 percent from May 13 to 16 and from July 30 to August 3, 41 to 60 percent from May 17 to 25 and from July 24 to 29, 61 to 100 percent from May 26 to July 23. The markers are on April 25 and August 12. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone A5, within the species used, there are 52 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 26 to 27 and from August 15 to 19, 6 to 10 percent from April 28 to May 4 and from August 8 to 14, 11 to 20 percent from May 5 to 10 and from August 3 to 7, 21 to 40 percent from May 11 to 19 and from July 30 to August 2, 41 to 60 percent from May 20 to 24 and from July 22 to 29, 61 to 100 percent from May 25 to July 21. The markers are on April 25 and August 20. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone A5, within the species used, there are 38 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from August 5 to 9, 6 to 10 percent from April 26 to 30 and from August 2 to 4, 11 to 20 percent from May 1 to 9 and on August 1, 21 to 40 percent from May 10 to 15 and from July 26 to 31, 41 to 60 percent from May 16 to 20 and from July 21 to 25, 61 to 100 percent from May 21 to July 20. The markers are on April 25 and August 10. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

Legend for calendars: Number of species in percentage (Blue markers show extreme dates predicted for some atypical parts of the nesting zone where nesting could be earlier or later)

The legend provides the colour scheme for Figure 2.1 broken down into the following six categories: 0 percent, less than 5 percent, 6 to 10 percent, 11 to 20 percent, 21 to 40 percent, 41 to 60 percent and 61 to 100 percent. See long description below.
Long description for calendar's legend

The legend provides the colour scheme for nesting calendars in zone A broken down into the following six categories: 0 percent, less than 5 percent, 6 to 10 percent, 11 to 20 percent, 21 to 40 percent, 41 to 60 percent and 61 to 100 percent. In addition, markers show extreme dates predicted for some atypical parts of the nesting zone where nesting could occur earlier or later. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

Nesting Calendars in zone B (Map of zone B), technical information for planning purposes covering Prairie (BCR11), Boreal Taiga Plains (BCR6) and Northwestern Interior Forest (BCR4)

A set of calendars showing the proportion of species predicted to be actively nesting from early April to late August by habitat types and nesting zones within the larger nesting zone B.
Long description for nesting calendars in zone B

The figure presents a set of 21 calendars showing the proportion in percentage of federally protected species that are predicted to be actively nesting on a given date from March to September for three habitat types: wetlands, open and forest and for six nesting zones: B3, B4, B5, B6, B7, B8 and B9. On each day, the percentage of species is shown according to one of the following six categories: 0 percent, less than 5 percent, 6 to 10 percent, 11 to 20 percent, 21 to 40 percent, 41 to 60 percent and 61 to 100 percent. In addition, markers show extreme dates predicted for some atypical parts of the nesting zone where nesting could occur earlier or later.

For nesting zone B3, within the species used, there are 47 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 12 to 16 and from August 15 to 23, 6 to 10 percent from April 17 to 21 and on August 14, 11 to 20 percent from April 22 to May 2 and from August 4 to 13, 21 to 40 percent from May 3 to 10 and from July 31 to August 3, 41 to 60 percent from May 11 to 25 and from July 23 to 30, 61 to 100 percent from May 26 to July 22. The markers are on April 8 and August 24. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone B3, within the species used, there are 76 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 17 to 24 and from August 17 to 23, 6 to 10 percent from April 25 to 29 and from August 14 to 16, 11 to 20 percent from April 30 to May 6 and from August 3 to 13, 21 to 40 percent from May 7 to 14 and from July 30 to August 2, 41 to 60 percent from May 15 to 21 and from July 25 to 29, 61 to 100 percent from May 22 to July 24. The markers are on April 13 and August 24. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone B3, within the species used, there are 46 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 12 to 16 and from August 4 to 14, 6 to 10 percent from April 17 to 20 and from July 31 to August 3, 11 to 20 percent from April 21 to May 4 and on July 30, 21 to 40 percent from May 5 to 9 and from July 24 to 29, 41 to 60 percent from May 10 to 13 and from July 19 to 23, 61 to 100 percent from May 14 to July 18. The markers are on April 8 and August 16. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone B4, within the species used, there are 86 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 17 to 21 and from August 18 to 24, 6 to 10 percent from April 22 to 25 and from August 15 to 17, 11 to 20 percent from April 26 to May 7 and from August 8 to 14, 21 to 40 percent from May 8 to 17 and from July 30 to August 7, 41 to 60 percent from May 18 to 26 and from July 24 to 29, 61 to 100 percent from May 27 to July 23. The markers are on April 14 and August 28. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone B4, within the species used, there are 100 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 22 to 29 and from August 18 to 24, 6 to 10 percent from April 30 to May 4 and from August 15 to 17, 11 to 20 percent from May 5 to 9 and from August 4 to 14, 21 to 40 percent from May 10 to 17 and from July 30 to August 3, 41 to 60 percent from May 18 to 23 and from July 26 to 29, 61 to 100 percent from May 24 to July 25. The markers are on April 19 and August 28. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone B4, within the species used, there are 65 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 17 to 21 and from August 10 to 16, 6 to 10 percent from April 22 to 26 and from August 4 to 9, 11 to 20 percent from April 27 to May 7 and from July 31 to August 3, 21 to 40 percent from May 8 to 12 and from July 26 to 30, 41 to 60 percent from May 13 to 17 and from July 21 to 25, 61 to 100 percent from May 18 to July 20. The markers are on April 14 and August 17. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone B5, within the species used, there are 81 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 22 to 27 and from August 18 to 24, 6 to 10 percent from April 28 to May 2 and from August 11 to 17, 11 to 20 percent from May 3 to 12 and from August 4 to 10, 21 to 40 percent from May 13 to 19 and from July 30 to August 3, 41 to 60 percent from May 20 to 27 and from July 24 to 29, 61 to 100 percent from May 28 to July 23. The markers are on April 19 and August 29. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone B5, within the species used, there are 102 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 26 to 28 and from August 18 to 24, 6 to 10 percent from April 29 to May 5 and from August 11 to 17, 11 to 20 percent from May 6 to 12 and from August 3 to 10, 21 to 40 percent from May 13 to 20 and from July 30 to August 2, 41 to 60 percent from May 21 to 24 and from July 25 to 29, 61 to 100 percent from May 25 to July 24. The markers are on April 24 and August 29. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone B5, within the species used, there are 65 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 22 to 26 and from August 5 to 17, 6 to 10 percent from April 27 to May 1 and from August 2 to 4, 11 to 20 percent from May 2 to 9 and on August 1, 21 to 40 percent from May 10 to 15 and from July 26 to 31, 41 to 60 percent from May 16 to 21 and from July 21 to 25, 61 to 100 percent from May 22 to July 20. The markers are on April 19 and August 18. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone B6, within the species used, there are 72 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 30 to May 5 and from August 11 to 12, 6 to 10 percent on May 6 and from August 9 to 10, 11 to 20 percent from May 7 to 14 and from August 5 to 8, 21 to 40 percent from May 15 to 20 and from July 31 to August 4, 41 to 60 percent from May 21 to 28 and from July 24 to 30, 61 to 100 percent from May 29 to July 23. The markers are on April 24 and August 29. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone B6, within the species used, there are 84 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent on April 30 and from August 16 to 20, 6 to 10 percent from May 1 to 10 and from August 5 to 15, 11 to 20 percent from May 11 to 15 and from August 2 to 4, 21 to 40 percent from May 16 to 22 and from July 29 to August 1, 41 to 60 percent from May 23 to 26 and from July 24 to 28, 61 to 100 percent from May 27 to July 23. The markers are on April 29 and August 29. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone B6, within the species used, there are 66 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent on May 1 and from August 4 to 5, 6 to 10 percent from May 2 to 5 and on August 3, 11 to 20 percent from May 6 to 11 and from August 1 to 2, 21 to 40 percent from May 12 to 18 and from July 26 to 31, 41 to 60 percent from May 19 to 23 and from July 22 to 25, 61 to 100 percent from May 24 to July 21. The markers are on April 24 and August 20. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone B7, within the species used, there are 60 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from May 3 to 9 and from August 13 to 14, 6 to 10 percent from May 10 to 11 and from August 11 to 12, 11 to 20 percent from May 12 to 18 and from August 6 to 10, 21 to 40 percent from May 19 to 22 and from August 1 to 5, 41 to 60 percent from May 23 to 30 and from July 25 to 31, 61 to 100 percent from May 31 to July 24. The markers are on April 30 and August 20. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone B7, within the species used, there are 74 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from May 3 to 5 and from August 11 to 20, 6 to 10 percent from May 6 to 14 and from August 6 to 10, 11 to 20 percent from May 15 to 18 and from August 3 to 5, 21 to 40 percent from May 19 to 25 and from July 30 to August 2, 41 to 60 percent from May 26 to 29 and from July 24 to 29, 61 to 100 percent from May 30 to July 23. The markers are on May 2 and August 21. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone B7, within the species used, there are 58 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent on May 6 and from August 6 to 9, 6 to 10 percent from May 7 to 11 and on August 5, 11 to 20 percent from May 12 to 14 and from August 3 to 4, 21 to 40 percent from May 15 to 21 and from July 27 to August 2, 41 to 60 percent from May 22 to 26 and from July 23 to 26, 61 to 100 percent from May 27 to July 22. The markers are on April 30 and August 20. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone B8, within the species used, there are 48 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from May 5 to 9 and from August 12 to 13, 6 to 10 percent from May 10 to 14 and from August 8 to 11, 11 to 20 percent from May 15 to 19 and on August 7, 21 to 40 percent from May 20 to 23 and from August 2 to 6, 41 to 60 percent from May 24 to 31 and from July 27 to August 1, 61 to 100 percent from June 1 to July 26. The markers are on May 4 and August 15. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone B8, within the species used, there are 66 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from May 5 to 9 and from August 18 to 21, 6 to 10 percent from May 10 to 16 and from August 12 to 17, 11 to 20 percent from May 17 to 21 and from August 3 to 11, 21 to 40 percent from May 22 to 28 and from July 31 to August 2, 41 to 60 percent from May 29 to 30 and from July 26 to 30, 61 to 100 percent from May 31 to July 25. The markers are on May 4 and August 22. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone B8, within the species used, there are 48 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from August 7 to 10, 6 to 10 percent from May 10 to 14 and on August 6, 11 to 20 percent from May 15 to 16 and from August 4 to 5, 21 to 40 percent from May 17 to 23 and from July 28 to August 3, 41 to 60 percent from May 24 to 28 and from July 24 to 27, 61 to 100 percent from May 29 to July 23. The markers are on May 7 and August 11. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone B9, within the species used, there are 30 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from May 15 to 17 and from August 12 to 13, 6 to 10 percent on May 18 and from August 10 to 11, 11 to 20 percent from May 19 to 21 and from August 8 to 9, 21 to 40 percent from May 22 to 27 and from August 5 to 7, 41 to 60 percent from May 28 to 29 and from July 28 to August 4, 61 to 100 percent from May 30 to July 27. The markers are on May 9 and August 14. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone B9, within the species used, there are 60 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from May 15 to 16 and from August 14 to 18, 6 to 10 percent from May 17 to 20 and on August 13, 11 to 20 percent from May 21 to 27 and from August 4 to 12, 21 to 40 percent from May 28 to 31 and from July 28 to August 3, 41 to 60 percent from June 1 to 2 and from July 25 to 27, 61 to 100 percent from June 3 to July 24. The markers are on May 9 and August 22. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone B9, within the species used, there are 46 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from August 9 to 11, 6 to 10 percent from May 16 to 18 and on August 8, 11 to 20 percent from May 19 to 20 and from August 6 to 7, 21 to 40 percent from May 21 to 27 and from July 28 to August 5, 41 to 60 percent from May 28 to June 1 and from July 22 to 27, 61 to 100 percent from June 2 to July 21. The markers are on May 15 and August 12. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

Legend for calendars: Number of species in percentage (Blue markers show extreme dates predicted for some atypical parts of the nesting zone where nesting could be earlier or later)

The legend provides the colour scheme for Figure 3.1 broken down into the following six categories: 0 percent, less than 5 percent, 6 to 10 percent, 11 to 20 percent, 21 to 40 percent, 41 to 60 percent and 61 to 100 percent. See long description below.
Long description for calendar's legend

The legend provides the colour scheme for nesting calendars in zone B broken down into the following six categories: 0 percent, less than 5 percent, 6 to 10 percent, 11 to 20 percent, 21 to 40 percent, 41 to 60 percent and 61 to 100 percent. In addition, markers show extreme dates predicted for some atypical parts of the nesting zone where nesting could occur earlier or later. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

Nesting Calendars in zone C (Map of zone C), technical information for planning purposes covering Lower Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Plain (BCR13), Atlantic Northern Forest (BCR14), Boreal Hardwood Transition (BCR12), parts of Boreal Softwood Shield (BCR8) and of Taiga Shield and Hudson Plains (BCR7)

A set of calendars showing the proportion of species predicted to be actively nesting from late March to late August by habitat types and nesting zones within the larger nesting zone C.
Long description for nesting calendars in zone C

The figure presents a set of 24 calendars showing the proportion in percentage of federally protected species that are predicted to be actively nesting on a given date from March to September for three habitat types: wetlands, open and forest and for six nesting zones: C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7 and C8. On each day, the percentage of species is shown according to one of the following six categories: 0 percent, less than 5 percent, 6 to 10 percent, 11 to 20 percent, 21 to 40 percent, 41 to 60 percent and 61 to 100 percent. In addition, markers show extreme dates predicted for some atypical parts of the nesting zone where nesting could occur earlier or later. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C1, within the species used, there are 69 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from March 31 to April 5 and from August 16 to 25, 6 to 10 percent from April 6 to 9 and from August 12 to 15, 11 to 20 percent from April 10 to 23 and from August 4 to 11, 21 to 40 percent from April 24 to May 9 and from July 24 to August 3, 41 to 60 percent from May 10 to 20 and from July 20 to 23, 61 to 100 percent from May 21 to July 19. The markers are on March 23 and August 26. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C1, within the species used, there are 83 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 5 to 10 and from August 16 to 25, 6 to 10 percent from April 11 to 17 and from August 12 to 15, 11 to 20 percent from April 18 to 26 and from August 2 to 11, 21 to 40 percent from April 27 to May 8 and from July 26 to August 1, 41 to 60 percent from May 9 to 17 and from July 20 to 25, 61 to 100 percent from May 18 to July 19. The markers are on March 28 and August 26. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C1, within the species used, there are 53 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from March 31 to April 3 and from August 11 to 14, 6 to 10 percent from April 4 and from August 8 to 10, 11 to 20 percent from April 5 to 9 and from July 28 to August 7, 21 to 40 percent from April 10 to 29 and from July 23 to 27, 41 to 60 percent from April 30 to May 6 and from July 16 to 22, 61 to 100 percent from May 7 to July 15. The markers are on March 23 and August 15. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C2, within the species used, there are 84 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 5 to 10 and from August 16 to 26, 6 to 10 percent from April 11 to 15 and from August 11 to 15, 11 to 20 percent from April 16 to 28 and from August 4 to 10, 21 to 40 percent from April 29 to May 12 and from July 28 to August 3, 41 to 60 percent from May 13 to 21 and from July 22 to 27, 61 to 100 percent from May 22 to July 21. The markers are on March 31 and August 27. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C2, within the species used, there are 91 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 10 to 16 and from August 17 to 26, 6 to 10 percent from April 17 to 21 and from August 13 to 16, 11 to 20 percent from April 22 to 30 and from August 4 to 12, 21 to 40 percent from May 1 to 11 and from July 28 to August 3, 41 to 60 percent from May 12 to 19 and from July 22 to 27, 61 to 100 percent from May 20 to July 21. The markers are on April 5 and August 27. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C2, within the species used, there are 64 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 5 to 8 and from August 9 to 15, 6 to 10 percent from April 9 to 10 and from August 3 to 8, 11 to 20 percent from April 11 to 15 and from July 29 to August 2, 21 to 40 percent from April 16 to May 5 and from July 24 to 28, 41 to 60 percent from May 6 to 9 and from July 19 to 23, 61 to 100 percent from May 10 to July 18. The markers are on March 31 and August 16. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C3, within the species used, there are 84 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 12 to 16 and from August 17 to 27, 6 to 10 percent from April 17 to 21 and from August 12 to 16, 11 to 20 percent from April 22 to May 4 and from August 4 to 11, 21 to 40 percent from May 5 to 15 and from July 29 to August 3, 41 to 60 percent from May 16 to 23 and from July 23 to 28, 61 to 100 percent from May 24 to July 22. The markers are on April 8 and August 28. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C3, within the species used, there are 88 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 17 to 21 and from August 18 to 27, 6 to 10 percent from April 22 to 25 and from August 14 to 17, 11 to 20 percent from April 26 to May 4 and from August 4 to 13, 21 to 40 percent from May 5 to 15 and from July 28 to August 3, 41 to 60 percent from May 16 to 21 and from July 23 to 27, 61 to 100 percent from May 22 to July 22. The markers are on April 12 and August 28. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C3, within the species used, there are 60 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 12 to 14 and from August 9 to 15, 6 to 10 percent from April 15 to 16 and from August 3 to 8, 11 to 20 percent from April 17 to 21 and from July 30 to August 2, 21 to 40 percent from April 22 to May 9 and from July 25 to 29, 41 to 60 percent from May 10 to 13 and from July 20 to 24, 61 to 100 percent from May 14 to July 19. The markers are on April 8 and August 16. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C4, within the species used, there are 83 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 17 to 21 and from August 18 to 27, 6 to 10 percent from April 22 to 24 and from August 10 to 17, 11 to 20 percent from April 25 to May 8 and from August 4 to 9, 21 to 40 percent from May 9 to 18 and from July 29 to August 3, 41 to 60 percent from May 19 to 26 and from July 24 to 28, 61 to 100 percent from May 27 to July 23. The markers are on April 14 and August 28. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C4, within the species used, there are 89 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 22 to 24 and from August 20 to 27, 6 to 10 percent from April 25 to 29 and from August 15 to 19, 11 to 20 percent from April 30 to May 9 and from August 4 to 14, 21 to 40 percent from May 10 to 17 and from July 30 to August 3, 41 to 60 percent from May 18 to 23 and from July 24 to 29, 61 to 100 percent from May 24 to July 23. The markers are on April 19 and August 28. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C4, within the species used, there are 61 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 17 to 19 and from August 4 to 16, 6 to 10 percent from April 20 to 21 and from August 2 to 3, 11 to 20 percent from April 22 to 26 and from July 31 to August 1, 21 to 40 percent from April 27 to May 12 and from July 25 to 30, 41 to 60 percent from May 13 to 17 and from July 21 to 24, 61 to 100 percent from May 18 to July 20. The markers are on April 14 and August 17. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C5, within the species used, there are 76 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 22 to 26 and from August 15 to 28, 6 to 10 percent from April 27 to 29 and from August 12 to 14, 11 to 20 percent from April 30 to May 11 and from August 4 to 11, 21 to 40 percent from May 12 to 19 and from July 30 to August 3, 41 to 60 percent from May 20 to 27 and from July 23 to 29, 61 to 100 percent from May 28 to July 22. The markers are on April 20 and August 29. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C5, within the species used, there are 80 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 27 to 28 and from August 20 to 28, 6 to 10 percent from April 29 to May 5 and from August 15 to 19, 11 to 20 percent from May 6 to 14 and from August 4 to 14, 21 to 40 percent from May 15 to 20 and from July 29 to August 3, 41 to 60 percent from May 21 to 25 and from July 25 to 28, 61 to 100 percent from May 26 to July 24. The markers are on April 25 and August 29. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C5, within the species used, there are 57 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 22 to 25 and from August 3 to 17, 6 to 10 percent from April 26 to 27 and from August 2 to 2, 11 to 20 percent from April 28 to May 2 and from July 31 to August 1, 21 to 40 percent from May 3 to 16 and from July 26 to 30, 41 to 60 percent from May 17 to 21 and from July 21 to 25, 61 to 100 percent from May 22 to July 20. The markers are on April 20 and August 18. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C6, within the species used, there are 69 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 28 to May 1 and from August 13 to 19, 6 to 10 percent from May 2 to 5 and from August 9 to 12, 11 to 20 percent from May 6 to 14 and from August 4 to 8, 21 to 40 percent from May 15 to 20 and from July 31 to August 3, 41 to 60 percent from May 21 to 28 and from July 24 to 30, 61 to 100 percent from May 29 to July 23. The markers are on April 25 and August 29. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C6, within the species used, there are 80 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent on May 1 and from August 10 to 20, 6 to 10 percent from May 2 to 8 and from August 5 to 9, 11 to 20 percent from May 9 to 15 and from August 2 to 4, 21 to 40 percent from May 16 to 22 and from July 28 to August 1, 41 to 60 percent from May 23 to 26 and from July 23 to 27, 61 to 100 percent from May 27 to July 22. The markers are on April 30 and August 29. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C6, within the species used, there are 69 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 28 to May 1 and from August 4 to 19, 6 to 10 percent from May 2 to 3 and from NA, 11 to 20 percent from May 4 to 11 and from August 1 to 3, 21 to 40 percent from May 12 to 18 and from July 26 to 31, 41 to 60 percent from May 19 to 23 and from July 22 to 25, 61 to 100 percent from May 24 to July 21. The markers are on April 25 and August 20. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C7, within the species used, there are 57 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from May 3 to 5 and from August 13 to 14, 6 to 10 percent from May 6 to 9 and from August 9 to 12, 11 to 20 percent from May 10 to 15 and from August 5 to 8, 21 to 40 percent from May 16 to 21 and from July 31 to August 4, 41 to 60 percent from May 22 to 28 and from July 25 to 30, 61 to 100 percent from May 29 to July 24. The markers are on April 29 and August 21. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C7, within the species used, there are 69 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from May 3 to 5 and from August 9 to 20, 6 to 10 percent from May 6 to 11 and from August 5 to 8, 11 to 20 percent from May 12 to 18 and from August 2 to 4, 21 to 40 percent from May 19 to 24 and from July 27 to August 1, 41 to 60 percent from May 25 to 28 and from July 23 to 26, 61 to 100 percent from May 29 to July 22. The markers are on May 2 and August 21. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C7, within the species used, there are 63 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from May 4 to 5 and from August 5 to 9, 6 to 10 percent from May 6 to 9 and from NA, 11 to 20 percent from May 10 to 14 and from August 3 to 4, 21 to 40 percent from May 15 to 21 and from July 27 to August 2, 41 to 60 percent from May 22 to 27 and from July 23 to 26, 61 to 100 percent from May 28 to July 22. The markers are on April 29 and August 21. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C8, within the species used, there are 43 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent on May 9 and from August 12 to 13, 6 to 10 percent from May 10 to 15 and from August 8 to 11, 11 to 20 percent from May 16 to 19 and from August 6 to 7, 21 to 40 percent from May 20 to 23 and from August 3 to 5, 41 to 60 percent from May 24 to 29 and from July 27 to August 2, 61 to 100 percent from May 30 to July 26. The markers are on May 4 and August 16. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C8, within the species used, there are 68 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from May 9 to 12 and on August 12, 6 to 10 percent from May 13 to 19 and from August 4 to 11, 11 to 20 percent from May 20 to 25 and on August 3, 21 to 40 percent from May 26 to 29 and from July 28 to August 2, 41 to 60 percent from May 30 to 31 and from July 24 to 27, 61 to 100 percent from June 1 to July 23. The markers are on May 4 and August 17. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone C8, within the species used, there are 59 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from May 11 to 12 and from August 8 to 11, 6 to 10 percent from May 13 to 16 and from August 6 to 7, 11 to 20 percent on May 17 and from August 4 to 5, 21 to 40 percent from May 18 to 25 and from July 27 to August 3, 41 to 60 percent from May 26 to 29 and from July 23 to 26, 61 to 100 percent from May 30 to July 22. The markers are on May 7 and August 12. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

Legend for calendars: Number of species in percentage (Blue markers show extreme dates predicted for some atypical parts of the nesting zone where nesting could be earlier or later)

The legend provides the colour scheme for Figure 4.1 broken down into the following six categories: 0 percent, less than 5 percent, 6 to 10 percent, 11 to 20 percent, 21 to 40 percent, 41 to 60 percent and 61 to 100 percent. See long description below.
Long description for calendar's legend

The legend provides the colour scheme for nesting calendars in zone C broken down into the following six categories: 0 percent, less than 5 percent, 6 to 10 percent, 11 to 20 percent, 21 to 40 percent, 41 to 60 percent and 61 to 100 percent. In addition, markers show extreme dates predicted for some atypical parts of the nesting zone where nesting could occur earlier or later. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

Nesting Calendars in zone D (Map of zone D), technical information for planning purposes covering Quebec-Labrador and Newfoundland sub-zones of Boreal Softwood Shield (BCR8) and of Taiga Shield and Hudson Plains (BCR7)

A set of calendars showing the proportion of species predicted to be actively nesting from mid-April to late August by habitat types and nesting zones within the larger nesting zone D.
Long description for nesting calendars in zone D

The figure presents a set of 12 calendars showing the proportion in percentages of federally protected species that are predicted to be actively nesting on a given date from March to September for three habitat types: wetlands, open and forest and for six nesting zones: D3-4, D5, D6 and D7. On each day, the percentage of species is shown according to one of the following six categories: 0 percent, less than 5 percent, 6 to 10 percent, 11 to 20 percent, 21 to 40 percent, 41 to 60 percent and 61 to 100 percent. In addition, markers show extreme dates predicted for some atypical parts of the nesting zone where nesting could occur earlier or later.

For nesting zone D3-4, within the species used, there are 44 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 21 to 22 and from August 9 to 10, 6 to 10 percent from April 23 to 24 and from August 7 to 8, 11 to 20 percent from April 25 to May 7 and from August 2 to 6, 21 to 40 percent from May 8 to 12 and from July 29 to August 1, 41 to 60 percent from May 13 to 21 and from July 23 to 28, 61 to 100 percent from May 22 to July 22. The markers are on April 14 and August 11. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone D3-4, within the species used, there are 42 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 19 to 20 and from August 13 to 18, 6 to 10 percent from April 21 to 29 and from August 1 to 12, 11 to 20 percent from April 30 to May 8 and from July 30 to 31, 21 to 40 percent from May 9 to 14 and from July 25 to 29, 41 to 60 percent from May 15 to 21 and from July 21 to 24, 61 to 100 percent from May 22 to July 20. The markers are on April 15 and August 19. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone D3-4, within the species used, there are 28 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 19 to 20 and from August 1 to 2, 6 to 10 percent from April 21 to 22 and on July 31, 11 to 20 percent from April 23 to 29 and on July 30, 21 to 40 percent from April 30 to May 12 and from July 25 to 29, 41 to 60 percent from May 13 to 17 and from July 20 to 24, 61 to 100 percent from May 18 to July 19. The markers are on April 14 and August 3. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone D5, within the species used, there are 56 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent on April 27 and from August 11 to 12, 6 to 10 percent from April 28 to 30 and from August 8 to 10, 11 to 20 percent from May 1 to 13 and from August 3 to 7, 21 to 40 percent from May 14 to 16 and from July 30 to August 2, 41 to 60 percent from May 17 to 25 and from July 25 to 29, 61 to 100 percent from May 26 to July 24. The markers are on April 21 and August 24. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone D5, within the species used, there are 56 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 26 to 27 and from August 8 to 14, 6 to 10 percent from April 28 to May 6 and from August 2 to 7, 11 to 20 percent from May 7 to 14 and on August 1, 21 to 40 percent from May 15 to 20 and from July 28 to 31, 41 to 60 percent from May 21 to 24 and from July 22 to 27, 61 to 100 percent from May 25 to July 21. The markers are on April 24 and August 24. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone D5, within the species used, there are 35 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from April 25 to 26 and on August 2, 6 to 10 percent from April 27 to 29, 11 to 20 percent from April 30 to May 5 and from July 31 to August 1, 21 to 40 percent from May 6 to 18 and from July 26 to 30, 41 to 60 percent from May 19 to 22 and from July 22 to 25, 61 to 100 percent from May 23 to July 21. The markers are on April 21 and August 3. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone D6, within the species used, there are 32 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from May 4 to 6, 6 to 10 percent from May 7 to 9 and from August 7 to 10, 11 to 20 percent from May 10 to 15 and from August 5 to 6, 21 to 40 percent from May 16 to 20 and from August 1 to 4, 41 to 60 percent from May 21 to 26 and from July 29 to 31, 61 to 100 percent from May 27 to July 28. The markers are on May 1 and August 13. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone D6, within the species used, there are 43 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from May 3 to 4 and from August 9 to 14, 6 to 10 percent from May 5 to 14 and from August 3 to 8, 11 to 20 percent from May 15 to 19 and from August 1 to 2, 21 to 40 percent from May 20 to 24 and from July 28 to 31, 41 to 60 percent from May 25 to 28 and from July 23 to 27, 61 to 100 percent from May 29 to July 22. The markers are on April 29 and August 15. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone D6, within the species used, there are 28 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent on May 5, 6 to 10 percent from May 6 to 7 and from August 4 to 4, 11 to 20 percent from May 8 to 12 and from August 2 to 3, 21 to 40 percent from May 13 to 24 and from July 28 to August 1, 41 to 60 percent from May 25 to 28 and from July 23 to 27, 61 to 100 percent from May 29 to July 22. The markers are on April 29 and August 5. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone D7, within the species used, there are 31 species known to nest in forest habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent on August 12, 6 to 10 percent from May 12 to 14 and from August 7 to 11, 11 to 20 percent from May 15 to 18 and on August 6, 21 to 40 percent from May 19 to 22 and from August 3 to 5, 41 to 60 percent from May 23 to 26 and from July 30 to August 2, 61 to 100 percent from May 27 to July 29. The markers are on May 4 and August 13. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone D7, within the species used, there are 44 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from May 10 to 11 and from August 11 to 15, 6 to 10 percent from May 12 to 18 and from August 4 to 10, 11 to 20 percent from May 19 to 24 and from August 2 to 3, 21 to 40 percent from May 25 to 27 and from July 27 to August 1, 41 to 60 percent from May 28 to 30 and from July 24 to 26, 61 to 100 percent from May 31 to July 23. The markers are on May 4 and August 16. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone D7, within the species used, there are 34 species known to nest in wetland habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from NA and from August 7 to 9, 6 to 10 percent from May 10 to 12 and from August 6 to 6, 11 to 20 percent from May 13 to 20 and from August 4 to 5, 21 to 40 percent from May 21 to 26 and from July 27 to August 3, 41 to 60 percent from May 27 to 29 and from July 21 to 26, 61 to 100 percent from May 30 to July 20. The markers are on May 7 and August 10. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

Legend for calendars: Number of species in percentage (Blue markers show extreme dates predicted for some atypical parts of the nesting zone where nesting could be earlier or later)

The legend provides the colour scheme for Figure 5.1 broken down into the following six categories: 0 percent, less than 5 percent, 6 to 10 percent, 11 to 20 percent, 21 to 40 percent, 41 to 60 percent and 61 to 100 percent. See long description below.
Long description for calendar's legend

The legend provides the colour scheme for nesting calendars in zone D broken down into the following six categories: 0 percent, less than 5 percent, 6 to 10 percent, 11 to 20 percent, 21 to 40 percent, 41 to 60 percent and 61 to 100 percent. In addition, markers show extreme dates predicted for some atypical parts of the nesting zone where nesting could occur earlier or later. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

Nesting Calendars in zone N (Map of zone N), technical information for planning purposes covering Arctic Plains and Mountains (BCR3)

A set of calendars showing the proportion of species predicted to be actively nesting from early May to mid-August by habitat types and nesting zones within the larger nesting zone N.
Long description for nesting calendars in zone N

The figure presents a set of 3 calendars showing the proportion in percentage of federally protected species that are predicted to be actively nesting on a given date from March to September for the arctic habitats for 3 nesting zones: N8, N9 and N10. On each day, the percentage of species is shown according to one of the following six categories: 0 percent, less than 5 percent, 6 to 10 percent, 11 to 20 percent, 21 to 40 percent, 41 to 60 percent and 61 to 100 percent. In addition, markers show extreme dates predicted for some atypical parts of the nesting zone where nesting could occur earlier or later.

For nesting zone N8, within the species used, there are 42 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from May 12 to 19 and from August 12 to 16, 6 to 10 percent from May 20 to 22 and from August 7 to 11, 11 to 20 percent from May 23 to 24 and from August 5 to 6, 21 to 40 percent from May 25 to 28 and from July 31 to August 4, 41 to 60 percent from May 29 to 31 and from July 26 to 30, 61 to 100 percent from June 1 to July 25. The markers are on May 6 and August 17. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone N9, within the species used, there are 89 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from May 20 to 21 and from August 11 to 17, 6 to 10 percent from May 22 to 23 and from August 8 to 10, 11 to 20 percent from May 24 to 30 and from August 4 to 7, 21 to 40 percent from May 31 to June 1 and from July 28 to August 3, 41 to 60 percent from June 2 to 4 and from July 25 to 27, 61 to 100 percent from June 5 to July 24. The markers are on May 15 and August 18. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

For nesting zone N10, within the species used, there are 38 species known to nest in open habitats. The percentages of species actively nesting are: less than 5 percent from May 26 to 27 and from August 8 to 18, 6 to 10 percent from May 28 to 30 and from August 6 to 7, 11 to 20 percent from May 31 to June 2 and from August 1 to 5, 21 to 40 percent from June 3 to 4 and from July 28 to 31, 41 to 60 percent from June 5 to 7 and from July 23 to 27, 61 to 100 percent from June 8 to July 22. The markers are on May 17 and August 19. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

Legend for catlendars: Number of species in percentage (Blue markers show extreme dates predicted for some atypical parts of the nesting zone where nesting could be earlier or later)

The legend provides the colour scheme for Figure 6.1 broken down into the following six categories: 0 percent, less than 5 percent, 6 to 10 percent, 11 to 20 percent, 21 to 40 percent, 41 to 60 percent and 61 to 100 percent. See long description below.
Long description for calendar's legend

The legend provides the colour scheme for nesting calendars in zone N broken down into the following six categories: 0 percent, less than 5 percent, 6 to 10 percent, 11 to 20 percent, 21 to 40 percent, 41 to 60 percent and 61 to 100 percent. In addition, markers show extreme dates predicted for some atypical parts of the nesting zone where nesting could occur earlier or later. The rest of the calendar dates are zero percent.

List of federally protected birds known to breed regularly in Canada

List of federally protected birds known to breed in Canada (364 species). The table shows the species included (In, 259 species) and those excluded (105 species) for the determination of the regional nesting period table and calendars, following three exclusion criteria: 1) insufficient nest records available (Ex 1, 87 species), 2) species that can breed any time conditions are right and/or very late or very early nesters (Ex 2, 6 species) and 3) unsuccessful modeling (Ex 3, 12 species). Species are ranked following a phylogenetic order with their associated broad types of habitat: forests (F), the wetlands (W) and the open fields (O).
English Name Scientific Name Status Habitat
Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons In W
Snow Goose Chen caerulescens In W
Ross's Goose Chen rossii Ex1 -
Brant Branta bernicla In W
Cackling Goose Branta hutchinsii Ex1 -
Canada Goose Branta canadensis Ex3 -
Mute Swan Cygnus olor In W
Trumpeter Swan Cygnus buccinator In W
Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus In W
Wood Duck Aix sponsa In F, W
Gadwall Anas strepera In W, O
American Wigeon Anas americana In W, O
American Black Duck Anas rubripes In F, W, O
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos In F, W, O
Blue-winged Teal Anas discors In W, O
Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera Ex1 -
Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata In W
Northern Pintail Anas acuta In W, O
Green-winged Teal Anas crecca In W
Canvasback Aythya valisineria In W
Redhead Aythya americana In W
Ring-necked Duck Aythya collaris In W
Greater Scaup Aythya marila In W, O
Lesser Scaup Aythya affinis In W
King Eider Somateria spectabilis In W
Common Eider Somateria mollissima In O
Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus Ex1 -
Surf Scoter Melanitta perspicillata In F, W
White-winged Scoter Melanitta fusca In F, W
Black Scoter Melanitta americana Ex1 -
Long-tailed Duck Clangula hyemalis In W
Bufflehead Bucephala albeola In F, W
Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula In F, W
Barrow's Goldeneye Bucephala islandica Ex1 -
Hooded Merganser Lophodytes cucullatus In F, W
Common Merganser Mergus merganser In F, W
Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator In F, W
Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis In W
Red-throated Loon Gavia stellata In W
Pacific Loon Gavia pacifica In W
Common Loon Gavia immer In W
Yellow-billed Loon Gavia adamsii Ex1 -
Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps In W
Horned Grebe Podiceps auritus In W
Red-necked Grebe Podiceps grisegena In W
Eared Grebe Podiceps nigricollis In W
Western Grebe Aechmophorus occidentalis Ex1 -
Clark's Grebe Aechmophorus clarkii Ex1 -
Northern Fulmar Fulmarus glacialis Ex1 -
Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus Ex1 -
Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma furcata Ex1 -
Leach's Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa Ex1 -
Northern Gannet Morus bassanus Ex1 -
American Bittern Botaurus lentiginosus In W
Least Bittern Ixobrychus exilis In W
Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias In F, W
Great Egret Ardea alba In F, W
Snowy Egret Egretta thula Ex1 W
Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis In W, O
Green Heron Butorides virescens In F, W
Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax In F, W
White-faced Ibis Plegadis chihi Ex1 W
Yellow Rail Coturnicops noveboracensis Ex1 -
King Rail Rallus elegans In W
Virginia Rail Rallus limicola In W
Sora Porzana carolina In W
Common Gallinule Gallinula galeata In W
American Coot Fulica americana In W
Sandhill Crane Grus canadensis In W
Whooping Crane Grus americana Ex1 -
Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus Ex1 -
American Avocet Recurvirostra americana In W
American Oystercatcher Haematopus palliates Ex1 W
Black Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani Ex1 -
Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola In O
American Golden-Plover Pluvialis dominica In O
Snowy Plover Charadrius nivosus Ex1 O
Common Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula Ex1 -
Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus In O
Piping Plover Charadrius melodus In W, O
Killdeer Charadrius vociferus In O
Mountain Plover Charadrius montanus Ex1 -
Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularius In W, O
Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria In F, W
Wandering Tattler Tringa incana Ex1 -
Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca Ex1 -
Willet Tringa semipalmata In W
Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes In F, W
Upland Sandpiper Bartramia longicauda In W, O
Eskimo Curlew Numenius borealis Ex1 O
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus In O
Long-billed Curlew Numenius americanus In O
Hudsonian Godwit Limosa haemastica In O
Marbled Godwit Limosa fedoa In W
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres In O
Red Knot Calidris canutus In W, O
Surfbird Calidris virgata Ex1 -
Stilt Sandpiper Calidris himantopus In W, O
Sanderling Calidris alba Ex1 -
Dunlin Calidris alpina In W, O
Purple Sandpiper Calidris maritima Ex1 -
Baird's Sandpiper Calidris bairdii In O
Least Sandpiper Calidris minutilla In W, O
White-rumped Sandpiper Calidris fuscicollis In O
Buff-breasted Sandpiper Calidris subruficollis Ex1 -
Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris melanotos In W, O
Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla In W, O
Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus griseus Ex1 -
Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus Ex1 -
Wilson's Snipe Gallinago delicata In W, O
American Woodcock Scolopax minor In F, W
Wilson's Phalarope Phalaropus tricolor In W, O
Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus In W, O
Red Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius In W, O
Pomarine Jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus Ex1 -
Parasitic Jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus Ex3 -
Long-tailed Jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus In O
Dovekie Alle alle Ex1 -
Common Murre Uria aalge Ex1 -
Thick-billed Murre Uria lomvia Ex1 -
Razorbill Alca torda Ex1 -
Black Guillemot Cepphus grylle Ex3 -
Pigeon Guillemot Cepphus columba Ex1 -
Marbled Murrelet Brachyramphus marmoratus Ex1 -
Ancient Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus Ex1 -
Cassin's Auklet Ptychoramphus aleuticus Ex1 -
Rhinoceros Auklet Cerorhinca monocerata Ex1 -
Atlantic Puffin Fratercula arctica Ex1 -
Horned Puffin Fratercula corniculata Ex1 -
Tufted Puffin Fratercula cirrhata Ex1 -
Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla Ex1 -
Ivory Gull Pagophila eburnea Ex1 -
Sabine's Gull Xema sabini Ex1 -
Bonaparte's Gull Chroicocephalus philadelphia In F, W
Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus Ex1 -
Little Gull Hydrocoloeus minutus In W, O
Ross's Gull Rhodostethia rosea Ex1 -
Laughing Gull Leucophaeus atricilla Ex1 -
Franklin's Gull Leucophaeus pipixcan In W
Mew Gull Larus canus In W
Ring-billed Gull Larus delawarensis In W, O
Western Gull Larus occidentalis Ex1 -
California Gull Larus californicus Ex3 -
Herring Gull Larus argentatus In W, O
Thayer's Gull Larus thayeri Ex1 -
Iceland Gull Larus glaucoides Ex1 -
Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens Ex1 -
Glaucous Gull Larus hyperboreus In O
Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus Ex3 -
Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia Ex1 -
Black Tern Chlidonias niger In W
Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii Ex1 -
Common Tern Sterna hirundo In W, O
Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea In O
Forster's Tern Sterna forsteri In W
Band-tailed Pigeon Patagioenas fasciata Ex1 -
Eurasian Collared-Dove Streptopelia decaocto Ex1 -
Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura In O
Yellow-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus americanus In F, O
Black-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus erythropthalmus In F, O
Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor In F, O
Common Poorwill Phalaenoptilus nuttallii Ex1 -
Chuck-will's-widow Antrostomus carolinensis Ex1 -
Eastern Whip-poor-will Antrostomus vociferus In F
Black Swift Cypseloides niger Ex1 -
Chimney Swift Chaetura pelagica In F, O
Vaux's Swift Chaetura vauxi Ex1 -
White-throated Swift Aeronautes saxatalis Ex1 -
Ruby-throated Hummingbird Archilochus colubris In F, O
Black-chinned Hummingbird Archilochus alexandri Ex1 -
Anna's Hummingbird Calypte anna Ex1 -
Rufous Hummingbird Selasphorus rufus Ex1 -
Calliope Hummingbird Selasphorus calliope Ex1 -
Lewis's Woodpecker Melanerpes lewis Ex1 -
Red-headed Woodpecker Melanerpes erythrocephalus In O, F
Red-bellied Woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus In F, O
Williamson's Sapsucker Sphyrapicus thyroideus Ex1 -
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius In F
Red-naped Sapsucker Sphyrapicus nuchalis In F
Red-breasted Sapsucker Sphyrapicus ruber Ex1 -
Downy Woodpecker Picoides pubescens In F, O
Hairy Woodpecker Picoides villosus In F, O
White-headed Woodpecker Picoides albolarvatus Ex1 -
American Three-toed Woodpecker Picoides dorsalis In F, O
Black-backed Woodpecker Picoides arcticus In F, O
Northern Flicker Colaptes auratus In F, O
Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus In O, F
Olive-sided Flycatcher Contopus cooperi In F
Western Wood-Pewee Contopus sordidulus In F
Eastern Wood-Pewee Contopus virens In F
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher Empidonax flaviventris In F
Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens In F, W
Alder Flycatcher Empidonax alnorum In W, O
Willow Flycatcher Empidonax traillii In W, O
Least Flycatcher Empidonax minimus In F
Hammond's Flycatcher Empidonax hammondii Ex3 -
Gray Flycatcher Empidonax wrightii In O
Dusky Flycatcher Empidonax oberholseri In O
Cordilleran/Pacific-slope Flycatcher Empidonax occidentalis In F
Eastern Phoebe Sayornis phoebe In O
Say's Phoebe Sayornis saya In O
Great Crested Flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus In F, O
Western Kingbird Tyrannus verticalis In O
Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus In O
Loggerhead Shrike Lanius ludovicianus In O
Northern Shrike Lanius excubitor Ex1 -
White-eyed Vireo Vireo griseus Ex1 -
Yellow-throated Vireo Vireo flavifrons In F
Cassin's Vireo Vireo cassinii Ex1 -
Blue-headed Vireo Vireo solitarius In F
Hutton's Vireo Vireo huttoni In F
Warbling Vireo Vireo gilvus In F, O
Philadelphia Vireo Vireo philadelphicus In F
Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus In F
Sky Lark Alauda arvensis Ex1 -
Horned Lark Eremophila alpestris Ex3 -
Purple Martin Progne subis In O
Tree Swallow Tachycineta bicolor In O
Violet-green Swallow Tachycineta thalassina In O
Northern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx serripennis In O
Bank Swallow Riparia riparia In O
Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonota In O
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica In O
Black-capped Chickadee Poecile atricapillus In F, O
Mountain Chickadee Poecile gambeli In F
Chestnut-backed Chickadee Poecile rufescens In F
Boreal Chickadee Poecile hudsonicus In F
Gray-headed Chickadee Poecile cinctus Ex1 -
Tufted Titmouse Baeolophus bicolor Ex1 -
Bushtit Psaltriparus minimus In F, O
Red-breasted Nuthatch Sitta canadensis In F
White-breasted Nuthatch Sitta carolinensis In O, F
Pygmy Nuthatch Sitta pygmaea In F
Brown Creeper Certhia americana In F
Rock Wren Salpinctes obsoletus In O
Canyon Wren Catherpes mexicanus In O
House Wren Troglodytes aedon In O
Winter / Pacific Wren Troglodytes troglodytes In F
Sedge Wren Cistothorus platensis In O
Marsh Wren Cistothorus palustris In O
Carolina Wren Thryothorus ludovicianus In F, O
Bewick's Wren Thryomanes bewickii In O
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher Polioptila caerulea In F
American Dipper Cinclus mexicanus Ex3 -
Golden-crowned Kinglet Regulus satrapa In F
Ruby-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula In F
Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe Ex1 -
Eastern Bluebird Sialia sialis In O
Western Bluebird Sialia mexicana In O
Mountain Bluebird Sialia currucoides In O
Townsend's Solitaire Myadestes townsendi In O
Veery Catharus fuscescens In F
Gray-cheeked Thrush Catharus minimus In O
Bicknell's Thrush Catharus bicknelli In F
Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus In F
Hermit Thrush Catharus guttatus In F
Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina In F
American Robin Turdus migratorius In F, O
Varied Thrush Ixoreus naevius In F
Gray Catbird Dumetella carolinensis In O
Brown Thrasher Toxostoma rufum In O
Sage Thrasher Oreoscoptes montanus Ex1 -
Northern Mockingbird Mimus polyglottos In O
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis Ex1 -
American Pipit Anthus rubescens In O
Sprague's Pipit Anthus spragueii In O
Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus Ex2 -
Cedar Waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum Ex2 -
Lapland Longspur Calcarius lapponicus In O
Chestnut-collared Longspur Calcarius ornatus In O
Smith's Longspur Calcarius pictus In O
McCown's Longspur Rhynchophanes mccownii In O
Snow Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis In O
Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapilla In F
Louisiana Waterthrush Parkesia motacilla In F
Northern Waterthrush Parkesia noveboracensis In F, O
Golden-winged Warbler Vermivora chrysoptera In O
Blue-winged Warbler Vermivora cyanoptera In F
Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia In F
Prothonotary Warbler Protonotaria citrea In F
Tennessee Warbler Oreothlypis peregrina In F
Orange-crowned Warbler Oreothlypis celata In O
Nashville Warbler Oreothlypis ruficapilla In F
Connecticut Warbler Oporornis agilis In F
MacGillivray's Warbler Geothlypis tolmiei In F
Mourning Warbler Geothlypis philadelphia In O
Common Yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas In W, O
Hooded Warbler Setophaga citrina In F
American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla In F, O
Kirtland’s Warbler Setophaga kirtlandii Ex1 F
Cape May Warbler Setophaga tigrina In F
Cerulean Warbler Setophaga cerulea In F
Northern Parula Setophaga americana In F
Magnolia Warbler Setophaga magnolia In F
Bay-breasted Warbler Setophaga castanea In F
Blackburnian Warbler Setophaga fusca In F
Yellow Warbler Setophaga petechia In W, O
Chestnut-sided Warbler Setophaga pensylvanica In F, O
Blackpoll Warbler Setophaga striata In F
Black-throated Blue Warbler Setophaga caerulescens In F
Palm Warbler Setophaga palmarum In W, O
Pine Warbler Setophaga pinus In F
Yellow-rumped Warbler Setophaga coronata In F
Prairie Warbler Setophaga discolor In O
Black-throated Gray Warbler Setophaga nigrescens In F
Townsend's Warbler Setophaga townsendi Ex3 -
Black-throated Green Warbler Setophaga virens In F
Canada Warbler Cardellina canadensis In F, W
Wilson's Warbler Cardellina pusilla In W, O
Yellow-breasted Chat Icteria virens In O
Spotted Towhee Pipilo maculatus In O
Eastern Towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus In O
American Tree Sparrow Spizella arborea In O
Chipping Sparrow Spizella passerina In O
Clay-colored Sparrow Spizella pallida In O
Brewer's Sparrow Spizella breweri In O
Field Sparrow Spizella pusilla In O
Vesper Sparrow Pooecetes gramineus In O
Lark Sparrow Chondestes grammacus In O
Lark Bunting Calamospiza melanocorys In O
Savannah Sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis In O
Grasshopper Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum In O
Baird's Sparrow Ammodramus bairdii In O
Henslow's Sparrow Ammodramus henslowii In O
Le Conte's Sparrow Ammodramus leconteii In O
Nelson's Sparrow Ammodramus nelsoni In W
Fox Sparrow Passerella iliaca In F
Song Sparrow Melospiza melodia In W, O
Lincoln's Sparrow Melospiza lincolnii In W, O
Swamp Sparrow Melospiza georgiana In W, O
White-throated Sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis In F, O
Harris's Sparrow Zonotrichia querula In F, O
White-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys In O
Golden-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia atricapilla In O
Dark-eyed Junco Junco hyemalis In F, O
Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea In F
Western Tanager Piranga ludoviciana Ex3 -
Northern Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis In F, O
Rose-breasted Grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus In F
Black-headed Grosbeak Pheucticus melanocephalus In F, O
Lazuli Bunting Passerina amoena In O
Indigo Bunting Passerina cyanea In O
Dickcissel Spiza americana Ex1 -
Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus In O
Eastern Meadowlark Sturnella magna In O
Western Meadowlark Sturnella neglecta In O
Orchard Oriole Icterus spurius In O
Bullock's Oriole Icterus bullockii In F, O
Baltimore Oriole Icterus galbula In O
Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch Leucosticte tephrocotis Ex3 -
Pine Grosbeak Pinicola enucleator In F
House Finch Haemorhous mexicanus In O
Purple Finch Haemorhous purpureus In F
Cassin's Finch Haemorhous cassinii In F
Red Crossbill Loxia curvirostra Ex2 -
White-winged Crossbill Loxia leucoptera Ex2 -
Common Redpoll Acanthis flammea In O
Hoary Redpoll Acanthis hornemanni In O
Pine Siskin Spinus pinus Ex2 -
American Goldfinch Spinus tristis Ex2 -
Evening Grosbeak Coccothraustes vespertinus Ex3 -
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