Aluminum salts final content: appendix A
Appendix A: search methodology, Priority substances list assessment of aluminum salts
Toxicological and epidemiological data
A comprehensive search of the toxicological and epidemiological literature in relation to the health effects of aluminum was carried out in preparation of the SOS report published in 2000 (Environment Canada and Health Canada 2000). Since publication of this report, literature searches were conducted using the databases Toxline, Pubmed, and Current Contents as well as the organizational Web sites from the standard Existing Substances Division literature search list (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (Australian Government Department of Health and Aging) (NICNAS), Health Canada, National Toxicology Program, World Health Organization (WHO)/Air, WHO/Water). The keywords (in truncated forms) included "aluminum" plus "toxicity", "neurotoxicity", "epidemiology", "bioavailability", "mode of action", "reproductive" and "developmental". For databases functioning on the basis of CAS registration numbers, the CAS RN of aluminum chloride (7446-70-0), aluminum nitrate (13473-90-0) and aluminum sulphate (10043-01-3) were used.
The comprehensive literature search was conducted through 2007. Some articles published in 2008 may also be included.
In addition to evaluating original study reports in the peer-reviewed literature, Health Canada consulted four recent comprehensive reviews of the literature on the toxic effects of aluminum: ATSDR (2006); InVS-Afssa-Afssaps (2003); JECFA (2006); and Krewski et al. (2007). These reviews were used primarily to supplement the literature search and are also cited as sources for some toxicological and exposure information, where appropriate. However, for all issues central to Health Canada's evaluation of human health risks, the original articles were consulted and cited.
(see text for sources of data for exposure estimates).
Data relevant to the risk characterization of aluminum chloride, aluminum nitrate and aluminum sulphate to the environment were identified from existing review documents, published reference texts and online searches of the following databases: Aqualine, ASFA (Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts, Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; 1996), BIOSIS (Biosciences Information Services; 1990-1996), CAB (Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux), CESARS (Chemical Evaluation Search and Retrieval System, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Michigan Department of Natural Resources; 1996), Chemical Abstracts (Chemical Abstracts Service, Columbus, Ohio), CHRIS (Chemical Hazard Release Information System; 1964-1985), Current Contents (Institute for Scientific Information; 1993-1996), ELIAS (Environmental Library Integrated Automated System, Environment Canada library; January 1996), Enviroline (R.R. Bowker Publishing Co.; November 1995-June 1996), Environmental Abstracts (1975-February 1996), Environmental Bibliography (Environmental Studies Institute, International Academy at Santa Barbara; 1990-1996), GEOREF (Geo Reference Information System, American Geological Institute; 1990-1996), HSDB (Hazardous Substances Data Bank, U.S. National Library of Medicine; 1990-1996), Life Sciences (Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; 1990-1996), NTIS (National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce), Pollution Abstracts (Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, U.S. National Library of Medicine), POLTOX (Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, U.S. National Library of Medicine; 1990-1995), RTECS (Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; 1996), Toxline (U.S. National Library of Medicine; 1990-1996), TRI93 (Toxic Chemical Release Inventory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Toxic Substances; 1993), USEPA-ASTER (Assessment Tools for the Evaluation of Risk, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; up to December 21, 1994), WASTEINFO (Waste Management Information Bureau of the American Energy Agency; 1973-September 1995) and Water Resources Abstracts (U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior; 1990-1996). A further search of the scientific literature was conducted in 2007 using SciFinder, an electronic interface that allows access to six databases: CA Plus (Literature from journals, patents, books, conferences, etc.), Registry (substances), Chemlist (regulatory listing), ChemCats (commercial chemical suppliers), CASReact (reaction database) and Medline.
As well as retrieving references from literature database searches, direct contacts were made with researchers, academics and other government agencies. In addition, a survey of Canadian industry was carried out under authority of section 16 of CEPA (Environment Canada 1997b), and a second review aimed at identifying changes in use trends and quantities was conducted in 2007 (Cheminfo Services Inc. 2008). Companies were required to provide information on uses, releases, environmental concentrations, effects or other data that were available to them and related to aluminum salts. Ongoing scans were conducted of the open literature, conference proceedings and the Internet for relevant information. Data obtained to August 2008 were considered in this assessment report.
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