Code of Practice to eliminate halocarbon emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning systems: chapter 2

Part 1 - Stationary Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Systems (Stationary Cooling Systems)

2.0 Design

The term “cooling” is used throughout the document and refers to both refrigeration and air conditioning.

Good design includes a load calculation, the consideration of environmental impacts and energy efficiency, a life-cycle analysis, and the selection of the most efficient cooling system required for the task. Incorporating the input of all the major disciplines involved in a project into the design concepts will improve the overall project.

Load Calculation

A load calculation is an estimate of the amount of cooling that will be needed. The information input into the calculation dictates how precise the calculation will be. The appropriate refrigerant and associated cooling system should be selected to meet the calculated design cooling load.

Environmental Impacts

Additional factors to consider in the selection of the appropriate cooling system include the system's environmental impacts. The selection of a refrigerant with low ozone-depleting potential and/or low global-warming potential can be considered at the design phase.

Energy Efficiency

The integration of energy efficiency and conservation into decision making, as well as knowledge about the different energy efficiency ratings and programs such as ENERGY STAR®, will positively affect the whole life cycle of a cooling system. The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)® program requires high levels of energy efficiency that should allow a reduction in the environmental footprint of a building. Many of these efficiencies will have an effect on reducing the cooling requirements of the building.

Life-Cycle Costing/Analysis

Life-cycle costing is a financial analysis tool that looks at the total costs of constructing, operating and servicing a system. The analysis is usually carried out very early in the conceptual stages of a design while there is the greatest opportunity for cost savings, and can reduce under- or over-designing.

General Considerations in the Selection of a Cooling System

The designer should consult the equipment manufacturers' and refrigerant manufacturers' specifications to select the appropriate system for the client's needs. A cooling system should be designed with safety in mind and operate within applicable jurisdictional requirements. It should be reliable, easy to inspect and service, and have readily available replacement parts. The material should also be compatible with the installed environment (for example, the material will not rust). To maximize the benefit of monitoring systems, the designer should inform the client that resources will be needed over the life of the system to collect, compile and analyze the data necessary for monitoring the system's performance and environmental impacts.

Manufacturers should ensure that the design of a cooling system includes a series of proven features that will minimize refrigerant leaks and premature failure; plant designers should select systems with such features. Consider incorporating the following components into a cooling system:

System Owner Manual

A manual should be prepared for the system and all its associated components including the alarms and the control instruments. The manual should be a compilation of all the manufacturers' manuals with explanations of how the pieces fit together.

Basic Requirements in System Design by Manufacturers of Cooling Systems

Manufacturers of cooling systems should perform the following activities:

Page details

Date modified: