Rationale for list of regulated substances under Canadian Environmental Protection Act: appendix A


Appendix A: NFPA 704 Standard System for the Indentification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response, 2001 Edition

Appendix A: NFPA 704 - Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response 15
Health Hazards Fire Hazards Instability Hazards
4

Materials that, under emergency conditions, can be lethal. The following criteria shall be considered when rating materials:

  • Gases whose LD50 for acute inhalation toxicity is less than or equal to 1,000 parts per million (ppm);
  • Any liquid whose saturated vapor concentration at 68°F (20°C) is equal to or greater than ten times its LD50 for acute inhalation toxicity, if its LD50 is less than or equal to 1,000 parts per million (ppm);
  • Dusts and mists whose LD50 for acute inhalation toxicity is less than or equal to 0.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L);
  • Materials whose LD50 for acute dermal toxicity is less than or equal to 40 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg);
  • Materials whose LD50 for acute oral toxicity is less than or equal to 5 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg).
4

Materials that will rapidly or completely vaporize at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature or that are readily dispersed in air, and which will burn readily. This includes:

  • Flammable gases; Flammable cryogenic materials;
  • Any liquid or gaseous material that is liquid while under pressure and has a flash point below 73°F (22.8°C) and a boiling point below 100°F (37.8°C) (i.e., Class IA liquids);
  • Materials that ignite spontaneously when exposed to air.
4

Materials that in themselves are readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive reaction at normal temperatures and pressures. This includes materials that are sensitive to localized thermal or mechanical shock at normal temperatures and pressures. Materials that have an instantaneous power density (product of heat of reaction and reaction rate) at 482°F (250°C) of 1,000 W/mL or greater.

3

Materials that, under emergency conditions, can cause serious or permanent injury. Gases whose LD50 for acute inhalation toxicity is greater than 1,000 ppm but less than or equal to 3,000 ppm. Any liquid whose saturated vapor concentration at 20°C (68°F) is equal to or greater than its LD50 for acute inhalation toxicity, if its LD50 is less than or equal to 3,000 ppm and that does not meet the criteria for degree of hazard 4. Dusts and mists whose LD50 for acute inhalation toxicity is greater than 0.5 mg/L but less than or equal to 2 mg/L. Materials whose LD50 for acute dermal toxicity is greater than 40 mg/kg but less than or equal to 200 mg/kg. Materials that are corrosive to the respiratory tract. Materials that are corrosive to the eye or cause irreversible corneal opacity. Materials that are corrosive to skin. Cryogenic gases that cause frostbite and irreversible tissue damage. Compressed liquefied gases with boiling points at or below -55°C (-66.5°F) that cause frostbite and irreversible tissue damage. Materials whose LD50 for acute oral toxicity is greater than 5 mg/kg but less than or equal to LD50 mg/kg.

3

Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Materials in this degree produce hazardous atmospheres with air under almost all ambient temperatures or, though unaffected by ambient temperatures, are readily ignited under almost all conditions. Liquids having a flash point below 22.8°C (73°F) and having a boiling point at or above 37.8°C (100°F) and those liquids having a flash point at or above 22.8°C (73°F) and below 37.8°C (100°F) (i.e., Class IB and Class IC liquids). Materials that on account of their physical form or environmental conditions can form explosive mixtures with air and that are readily dispersed in air.Flammable or combustible dusts with representative diameter less than 420 microns (40 mesh). Materials that burn with extreme rapidity, usually by reason of self-contained oxygen (e.g., dry nitrocellulose and many organic peroxides). Solids containing greater than 0.5 percent by weight of a flammable or combustible solvent are rated by the closed cup flash point of the solvent.

3

Materials that in themselves are capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive reaction, but that require a strong initiating source or that must be heated under confinement before initiation.Materials that have an instantaneous power density (product of heat of reaction and reaction rate) at 250°C (482°F) at or above 100 W/mL and below 1,000 W/mL. Materials that are sensitive to thermal or mechanical shock at elevated temperatures and pressures.

2

Materials that, under emergency conditions, can cause temporary incapacitation or residual injury. Gases whose LD50 for acute inhalation toxicity is greater than 3,000 ppm but less than or equal to 5,000 ppm. Any liquid whose saturated vapor concentration at 20°C (68°F) is equal to or greater than one-fifth its LD50 for acute inhalation toxicity, if its LD50 is less than or equal to 5,000 ppm and that does not meet the criteria for either degree of hazard 3 or degree of hazard 4. Dusts and mists whose LD50 for acute inhalation toxicity is greater than 2 mg/L but less than or equal to 10 mg/L. Materials whose LD50 for acute dermal toxicity is greater than 200 mg/kg but less than or equal to 1,000 mg/kg. Compressed liquefied gases with boiling points between -30°C (-22°F) and -55°C (-66.5°F) that can cause severe tissue damage, depending on duration of exposure. Materials that are respiratory irritants. Materials that cause severe but reversible irritation to the eyes or lacrimators. Materials that are primary skin irritants or sensitizers. Materials whose LD50 for acute oral toxicity is greater than 50 mg/kg but less than or equal to 500 mg/kg.

2

Materials that must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur. Materials in this degree would not under normal conditions form hazardous atmospheres with air, but under high ambient temperatures or under moderate heating could release vapor in sufficient quantities to produce hazardous atmospheres with air. Liquids having a flash point at or above 37.8°C (100°F) and below 93.4°C (200°F) (i.e., Class II and Class IIIA liquids). Solid materials in the form of powders or coarse dusts of representative diameter between 420 microns (40 mesh) and 2 mm (10 mesh) that burn rapidly but that generally do not form explosive mixtures with air. Solid materials in a fibrous or shredded form that burn rapidly and create flash fire hazards, such as cotton, sisal, and hemp. Solids and semisolids that readily give off flammable vapors. Solids containing greater than 0.5 percent by weight of a flammable or combustible solvent are rated by the closed cup flash point of the solvent.

2

Materials that readily undergo violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures. Materials that have an instantaneous power density (product of heat of reaction and reaction rate) at 250°C (482°F) at or above 10 W/mL and below 100 W/mL.

1

Materials that, under emergency conditions, can cause significant irritation. Gases and vapours whose LD50 for acute inhalation toxicity is greater than 5000 ppm but less than or equal to 10,000 ppm. Dusts and mists whose LD50 for acute inhalation toxicity is greater than 10 mg/L but less than or equal to 200 mg/L. Materials whose LD50 for acute dermal toxicity is greater than 1000 mg/kg but less than or equal to 2,000 mg/kg. Materials that cause slight to moderate irritation to the respiratory tract, eyes, and skin. Materials whose LD50 for acute oral toxicity is greater than 500 mg/kg but less than or equal to 2,000 mg/kg.

1

Materials that must be preheated before ignition can occur. Materials in this degree require considerable preheating, under all ambient temperature conditions, before ignition and combustion can occur. Liquids with a flash point greater than 35°C (95°F) that do not sustain combustion when tested using the Method of Testing for Sustained Combustibility, per 49 CFR 173, Appendix H or the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Model Regulations, 11th revised edition, and the related Manual of Tests and Criteria, 3rd revised edition. Liquids with a flash point greater than 35°C (95°F) in a water-miscible solution or dispersion with a water noncombustible liquid/solid content of more than 85 percent by weight. Liquids that have no fire point when tested by ASTM D 92, Standard Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup, up to the boiling point of the liquid or up to a temperature at which the sample being tested shows an obvious physical change. Combustible pellets with a representative diameter greater than 2 mm (10 mesh).Most ordinary combustible materials. Solids containing greater than 0.5 percent by weight of a flammable or combustible solvent are rated by the closed cup flash point of the solvent.

1

Materials that in themselves are normally stable, but that can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. Materials that have an instantaneous power density (product of heat of reaction and reaction rate) at 250°C (482°F) at or above 0.01 W/mL and below 10 W/mL.

0

Materials that, under emergency conditions, would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible materials.Gases and vapors whose LC50 for acute inhalation toxicity is greater than 10,000 ppm.Dusts and mists whose LC50 for acute inhalation toxicity is greater than 200 mg/L.Materials whose LD50 for acute dermal toxicity is greater than 2,000 mg/kg.Materials whose LD50 for acute oral toxicity is greater than 2,000 mg/kg.Materials that are essentially nonirritating to the respiratory tract, eyes, and skin.

0

Materials that will not burn under typical fire conditions, including intrinsically noncombustible materials such as concrete, stone, and sand. Materials that will not burn in air when exposed to a temperature of 816°C (1,500°F) for a period of 5 minutes.

0

Materials that in themselves are normally stable, even under fire conditions. Materials that have an instantaneous power density (product of heat of reaction and reaction rate) at 250°C (482°F) below 0.01 W/mL. Materials that do not exhibit an exotherm at temperatures less than or equal to 500°C (932°F) when tested by differential scanning calorimetry.

15 NFPA 704, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, U.S.A.

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