Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change second annual report: section 9


2.0 Carbon pollution pricing


In 2018, Canada continued the implementation of the pan-Canadian approach to pricing carbon pollution through the:

  • Issuance of letters from the Canadian Ministers of Environment and Climate Change and Finance to provinces and territories outlining next steps in pricing carbon pollution (December 2017);
  • Release of Supplementary Benchmark Guidance of the Pan-Canadian Approach to Pricing Carbon Pollution (December 2017);
  • Release of draft legislative proposals related to the proposed federal carbon pollution pricing system (January 2018);
  • Release of the Regulatory Framework for the Output-Based Pricing System for comment (January 2018) and creation of technical sector working groups;
  • Introduction of the federal carbon pollution pricing bill (C-74) in the House of Commons (March 2018);
  • Release of the Estimated Impacts of the Federal Carbon Pollution Pricing System (April 2018);
  • Release of federal Compliance Options paper under the Federal Output-Based Pricing System for comment (May 2018);
  • Receipt of Royal Assent of the Greenhouse Gas Pollution Pricing Act (June 2018);
  • Publication of the Technical Backgrounder Update on the Output-Based Pricing System (July 2018);
  • Assessment of provincial and territorial carbon pollution pricing plans vis-à-vis federal benchmark requirements, including stringency (September/October 2018);
  • Announcement of where the federal carbon pollution pricing system will apply and how direct proceeds will be returned (October 2018);
  • Release of Fall 2018 Update on Estimated Impacts of the Federal Pollution Pricing System (October 2018);
  • Launch of consultations related to proposed relief from the fuel charge for greenhouse operators and power plant operators that generate electricity in remote communities (October 2018);
  • Publication of Draft Amendments to the Greenhouse Gas Pollution Pricing Act and Draft Regulations (October 2018);
  • Announcement of details around the Climate Action Incentive. In Ontario, New Brunswick, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, the Government of Canada will return 90% of direct proceeds generated under the fuel charge to individuals and households through Climate Action Incentive payments. The remaining 10% of direct fuel charge proceeds in those jurisdictions will be returned to small and medium-sized businesses, municipalities, universities, schools and colleges, hospitals, non-profits and Indigenous communities (October 2018);
  • Publication of regulatory instruments on the federal Output-Based Pricing System in the Canada Gazette, Part II (October 2018) and opening registration for the federal OBPS (November 2018); and,
  • Publication of draft regulations for the federal Output-Based Pricing System for public comment (December 2018).

On October 23, 2018 the Government of Canada announced that:

  • British Columbia’s pollution pricing system meets the federal benchmark stringency requirements. Therefore, the federal system will not apply in the province.
  • Alberta’s Output-Based Pricing System and carbon levy on fuels meets the federal benchmark stringency requirements. Therefore, the federal system will not apply in the province.
  • Saskatchewan’s proposed system is on track to partially meet the benchmark stringency requirements. Therefore, the federal carbon pollution pricing system will apply to the emission sources not covered by Saskatchewan’s system, namely electricity generation and natural gas transmission pipelines, beginning in January 2019. The federal fuel charge will start applying in April 2019.
  • In Manitoba, the federal Output-Based Pricing System for emissions-intensive trade-exposed industries will start applying in January 2019. The federal fuel charge will start applying in April 2019.
  • In Ontario, the federal carbon pollution pricing system will apply. The federal Output-Based Pricing System for emissions-intensive trade-exposed industries will start applying in January 2019. The federal fuel charge will start applying in April 2019.
  • Québec’s cap-and-trade program meets the federal benchmark stringency requirements. Therefore, the federal system will not apply in the province.
  • Nova Scotia’s planned cap-and-trade system is on track to meet the federal benchmark stringency requirements.
  • In New Brunswick, the federal carbon pollution pricing system will apply in the province. The federal Output-Based Pricing System for emissions-intensive trade-exposed industries will start applying in January 2019. The federal fuel charge will start applying in April 2019.
  • Prince Edward Island’s approach—a proposed carbon charge on fossil fuels and a request for the federal backstop on large industry—is on track to meet the federal benchmark stringency requirements. The federal Output-Based Pricing System for emissions-intensive trade-exposed industries will start applying in January 2019.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador’s planned carbon pollution pricing system is on track to meet the federal benchmark stringency requirements.
  • With the support of the Government of the Yukon, the federal carbon pollution pricing system will be implemented on July 1, 2019. The July 2019 start date is one of several solutions to address the unique circumstances of the territories, others include relief from the fuel charge for fuels used for aviation in the territories and diesel-fired electricity generation in remote communities.
  • The Northwest Territories’ planned carbon pollution pricing system is on track to meet the federal benchmark stringency requirements.
  • With the support of the Government of Nunavut, the federal carbon pollution pricing system will be implemented on July 1, 2019. The July 2019 start date is one of several solutions to address the unique circumstances of the territories, others include relief from the fuel charge for fuels used for aviation in the territories and diesel-fired electricity generation in remote communities.

British Columbia

  • British Columbia’s pollution pricing system has been in place since 2008. Its carbon tax rate was increased to $35 per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent on April 1, 2018. The tax will increase to $40 in April 2019, and continue to increase by $5 per tonne per year until it reaches $50 per tonne, in April 2021.


  • Alberta’s carbon pollution pricing system includes an Output-Based Pricing System in place since 2007 and a carbon levy on fuel in place since 2017. Its carbon levy on fuels increased to $30/tonne on January 1, 2018. In addition, Alberta’s updated approach to carbon pollution pricing on large industrial emitters, the Carbon Competitiveness Incentive Regulation (CCIR), replaced the Specified Gas Emitters Regulation on January 1, 2018. The CCIR uses output- based allocations to protect the competitiveness of Alberta’s emissions-intensive and trade- exposed sectors, while encouraging emissions performance by pricing carbon emissions at $30/ tonne in 2018. No changes to either the carbon levy rate or CCIR carbon price are expected in 2019.Footnote 20


  • Saskatchewan committed in its climate change strategy “Prairie Resilience,” released December 2017, to require large industrial emitters to meet an output-based performance standard. Facilities will be allowed to make a payment into a provincial technology fund or use credits to comply with their performance standards. Parts of the province’s The Management and Reduction of Greenhouse Gases Act came into effect on January 1, 2018, including provisions that allow for the creation of a technology fund. Further amendments to the act were proclaimed on December 5, 2018 to support a new emissions management framework.
  • The Management and Reduction of Greenhouse Gases (Standards and Compliance) Regulations, and amendments to the Management and Reduction of Greenhouse Gases Act will be implemented on January 1, 2019.Footnote 21


  • On October 3, 2018, the Government of Manitoba announced that it no longer intends to establish and implement a carbon pollution pricing system. Therefore, the federal carbon- pollution pricing system will apply in Manitoba.


  • On November 29, 2018, Ontario released “Preserving and Protecting our Environment for Future Generations: A Made-in-Ontario Environment Plan”, which encompasses the province’s new climate change plan. The plan adopts Canada’s Paris Agreement emissions reduction target of 30% below 2005 emissions levels by 2030 for the province. Ontario’s new plan will establish emission performance standards and a compliance regime to achieve greenhouse gas emissions reductions from large emitters. The program may include compliance flexibility mechanisms such as offset credits and/or payment of an amount to achieve compliance.21


  • Québec’s cap-and-trade system has been in place since 2013. Its second compliance period under its cap-and-trade system, which began on January 1, 2015, ended on December 31, 2017. Members of the system had until November 1, 2018 to cover their emissions. All regulated entities have met their compliance obligation. The third compliance period is now ongoing, which began on January 1, 2018 and will end on December 31, 2020. Members of the system have until November 1, 2021 to cover their emissions.
  • In 2017 Québec announced the rules of its post-2020 compliance period, which allow companies to participate in the cap and trade system on a voluntary basis (starting in 2019), and set an emission cap for 2021 to 2030. By the end of 2018, Québec will have held 17 joint auctions with California (including two auctions with Ontario).
  • In 2019, Québec anticipates four joint auctions with California, and intends to announce the rules for the allocation of emission allowances for the 2024-2029 compliance period.

Nova Scotia

  • In 2018, Nova Scotia passed legislation enabling the creation of a cap-and-trade program. Reporting regulations were passed in February 2018 and the final regulatory package for the cap-and-trade program was released in November 2018 and will come into force January 2019.
  • Nova Scotia announced the details of its cap and trade program on October 23, 2018. The program will cover approximately 80% of all emissions in the province including emissions from large facilities and petroleum product suppliers to the province. Details of the program can be found at Climate Change in Nova Scotia.

New Brunswick

  • In 2018, New Brunswick passed new legislation, enabling the implementation of its approach to carbon pricing. The new Climate Change Act 2018 enables: the transfer of a portion of net revenues from existing provincial taxes on gasoline and diesel fuels to a Climate Change Fund to be invested in measures to reduce, limit, avoid or capture GHG emissions and related activities; the adoption of the federal Output-Based Pricing System with limits on large industrial facilities with emissions over 50,000 tonnes of GHG annually; and provincial carbon offsets regulations. The Act also includes provincial GHG targets, requirements for action plans for GHG reduction and climate change adaptation, authority for industrial emissions limits and accountability for progress.

Prince Edward Island

  • In May 2018, Prince Edward Island released a Climate Change Action Plan, which highlighted that the province will opt into the federal Output-Based Pricing System for large industrial emitters and provide incentives for cleaner energy sources including electricity, propane, wood pellets, and firewood for residential use.

Newfoundland and Labrador

  • The Government of Newfoundland and Labrador announced it would implement its own carbon tax on fossil fuels and a separate performance standards system for large industrial emitters on January 1, 2019, and introduced legislative amendments and regulations in fall 2018 to give effect to its carbon pricing approach.


  • Yukon released a report undertaken by the Government of Canada in January 2018 which provided an analysis of potential impacts of carbon pollution pricing in Yukon. This report will help to inform the recycling of carbon levy revenues within the territory. At Yukon’s request, the federal system will apply in the territory; it will begin in July 2019.

Northwest Territories

  • In July 2018, the Northwest Territories announced its intention to introduce a carbon tax, starting at $20 per tonne of greenhouse gas emissions in July 2019, increasing annually by $10 per tonne until it reaches $50 per tonne in 2022. The Northwest Territories’ planned approach includes a 100% point of purchase rebate on heating fuels for most residents, businesses and government operations, and annual rebate on non-motive diesel purchased for producing electricity by the Northwest Territories Power Corporation (NTPC) for residential and business use but not for large emitters (over 50Kt CO2e). Entities emitting more than 50 Kt of CO2e annually will receive an annual rebate of 75% of the carbon tax paid on non-motive and heating fuel and the remaining 25% put into individual accounts to be used for projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The planned pollution pricing system is expected to come into effect on July 1, 2019.


  • In May 2018, Nunavut released a report undertaken by the Government of Canada which provided an analysis of the potential impacts of carbon pollution pricing in Nunavut.

3.0 Complementary actions to reduce emissions

3.1 Electricity

Increasing renewable and non-emitting sources
  • Canada published draft amendments for coal-fired electricity generation in Canada Gazette I in February 2018, and final regulations in Canada Gazette II in December 2018.
  • Canada published draft regulations for natural gas-fired electricity generation in Canada Gazette I in February 2018, and final regulations in Canada Gazette II in December 2018.
  • Canada launched the $200 million Emerging Renewable Power Program in February 2018 to support the deployment of emerging renewable energy technologies nearing commercialization. Under this program, Canada announced in September a $30 million funding agreement to support an in-stream tidal energy project in Nova Scotia.
  • British Columbia continues construction of the Site C Clean Energy Project and plans are underway to supply hydroelectricity to natural gas processing facilities in the northeast.
  • Alberta launched new competitions to fund large-scale renewable electricity generation projects under the Renewable Electricity Program and successful projects will be announced in December 2018.
  • Alberta continued to develop a framework to enable renewables and alternative energy and prepared to procure solar electricity.
  • Saskatchewan continued to deploy Carbon Capture Use and Storage technology, and a feasibility study is underway for application of the technology to SaskPower’s Shand power plant.
  • Saskatchewan’s Management and Reduction of Greenhouse Gases (General and Electricity Producer) Regulations came into force on Jan 1, 2018, which impose a GHG emissions limit on coal and gas-fired electricity generators in the province.
  • Manitoba continued construction of the hydroelectric Keeysak Generating Station, completed construction of Bipole III to deliver renewable electricity to southern Manitoba and the United States, and continued to provide incentives for the installation of Green Heat equipment in homes and businesses.
  • Ontario is developing a market-based approach for securing electricity system capacity needs.
  • Ontario provided support for a microgrid demonstration project in the Gull Bay First Nation in Ontario.
  • Québec continued efforts to increase renewable energy production.
  • New Brunswick is working on the research and development of small modular reactor technology. New Brunswick also continued to implement its renewable energy programs (e.g., Renewable Portfolio Standard, Locally Owned Renewable Energy Small Scale Program, and Embedded Generation).
  • Nova Scotia proclaimed the Marine Renewable-energy Act and Regulations on January 23, 2018, which allows for the development of grid marine renewable energy in Nova Scotia.
  • Nova Scotia is working with Canada to advance opportunities for renewable energy wind, tidal and solar, as well as enabling renewable energy transmission and storage infrastructure. The SolarHomes program offering solar electricity installation rebates launched in August.
  • Prince Edward Island is currently undertaking wind regime studies for a new wind farm, and is also studying the electricity grid to maximize benefits from renewable sources of electricity and the future electrification of the transportation system.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador is developing a renewable energy strategy, continuing development of the Muskrat Falls hydroelectricity project, and released wind studies for select sites in Labrador.
  • Yukon is finalizing the implementation of a policy for independent power production.
  • Nunavut launched the Net Metering Program in April 2018 to encourage residential renewable energy systems installation. Nunavut’s Qulliq Energy Corporation partnered with Yukon College to analyze renewable energy possibilities within existing power plants.
Connecting clean power with places that need it
  • Canada published final reports of Regional Electricity Cooperation and Strategic Infrastructure (RECSI) in summer of 2018 to identify and assess the best regional electricity infrastructure projects that can significantly reduce GHG emissions in the west, north and Atlantic Canada. Promising projects identified included: restoration of an existing British Columbia-Alberta intertie and reinforcement of a Nova Scotia-New Brunswick electricity interconnection. Governments and utilities are working together to advance these projects.
  • Manitoba completed its Bipole III transmission project in 2018 and completed hearings on a transmission line project with Minnesota.
  • Manitoba and Saskatchewan have signed an agreement that would see 215 MW of renewable electricity available for Saskatchewan customers.
  • Québec is developing draft regulations regarding the renewable natural gas content to be incorporated into natural gas, as well as regulations concerning the minimum renewable content that must be blended into fossil-fuels for distribution.
Modernizing electricity systems
  • In January, Canada launched a $100 million program to fund next-generation smart grid, storage, and clean electricity technology demonstration and deployment projects. 24 projects were identified for funding.
  • In October, Canada, in partnership with the UK, launched the $20 million Power Forward Challenge to accelerate innovation to improve power grid flexibility, stability and reliability.
  • Ontario and Canada collaborated to develop smart grid programming.
  • British Columbia worked on marine electrification, distributed energy storage pilot projects, and grid automation technologies.
Reducing reliance on diesel working with indigenous peoples and northern and remote communities
  • In February, Canada launched the $220 million Clean Energy for Rural and Remote Communities Program to reduce diesel reliance, support sustainable and renewable energy, encourage energy efficiency, and build capacity. 43 deployment and demonstration (including 40 in indigenous communities) and 12 capacity building projects were identified for funding in Round 1.
  • Canada continued with the Northern Responsible Energy Approach for Community Heat and Electricity program (Northern REACHE) with 18 approved clean energy projects.
  • In June 2018, the Government of Canada, QUEST, and the governments of Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Yukon, and British Columbia partnered to deliver the Supporting the Energy Transition in Northern and Remote Communities workshop involving FPT governments and more than 60 First Nations.
  • In March, Ontario and Canada announced funding to connect remote First Nations in northwestern Ontario to the provincial power grid.
  • British Columbia, Alberta, Newfoundland and Labrador worked on options to assist remote, off- grid, northern and Indigenous communities to reduce diesel use and develop renewable energy solutions.
  • Ontario, New Brunswick, Alberta and Northwest Territories are participating in the Canadian Roadmap for Small Modular Reactors, chaired by Canada, along with interested utilities and industry stakeholders, including those from Nunavut and Saskatchewan. The Small Modular Reactor Roadmap is scheduled to be published in fall 2018.
  • Yukon is engaging in a program to replace existing streetlights in remote communities with energy efficient LED lighting, and continues to support the development of renewable energy projects.
  • This year the Northwest Territories commissioned a variable speed generator and a high penetration solar array in Aklavik, conducted feasibility and design work for megawatt-scale wind in Inuvik and wind monitoring for smaller-scale wind in two communities. The Northwest Territories is investigating the technical and economic feasibility of using liquid biofuels in the territory, as well as long-term storage requirements for remote communities.
  • Nunavut received a report on the potential of geothermal energy in Nunavut and the Qulliq Energy Corporation will continue to explore funding options for wind energy in Nunavut communities in 2019. Nunavut plans to replace or upgrade a number of diesel power plants.

3.2 Built environment

Making new buildings more energy efficient
  • Canada launched the National Housing Co-investment Fund in April; new construction under the Fund must achieve at least a 25% reduction in energy consumption over national building codes.
  • Canada is investing $64.1 million in the research, development, and demonstration of net- zero energy ready technologies and practices. In 2018, a call for proposals was launched and projects have been selected.
  • Following the release of Canada’s Buildings Strategy, implementation is underway to make new homes and buildings more efficient, to retrofit existing homes and buildings and to improve the energy efficiency of appliances and equipment. In August 2018, updated FPT Action Plans for 2018-2019 and a report on the accomplishments to date were released.
  • Canada supports the new Net Zero Challenge, developed by BOMA Canada (Building Owners and Managers Association Canada) to encourage net-zero energy building practices in new and existing buildings. The first recipients of the BOMA Net Zero Awards were recognized in October 2018.
  • Canada’s $182 million Energy Efficient Buildings Program launched in 2018 and will increase energy efficiency by improving how buildings are designed, renovated, and constructed.
  • The Canadian Commission on Building and Fire Codes and its partners established a strategy for creating a tiered net-zero energy ready code, and the Commission held its first meeting of a new Standing Committee on Energy Efficiency in August 2018.
  • British Columbia is proposing to increase the building code requirements and has developed the Better Buildings BC Program.
  • In May 2018, Manitoba Crown Services announced the board of directors for Efficiency Manitoba and regulations development, information technology and website assessment, and location scoping are underway.
  • Ontario continues to implement its residential and commercial energy conservation programs.
  • In June, Transition énergétique Québec unveiled its 2018-2023 Energy Transition, Innovation, and Efficiency Master Plan to direct actions in these fields.
  • This year Efficiency Nova Scotia expanded its energy efficiency and conservation programs and also announced the Energy Efficiency Upgrades program in 2018.
  • Prince Edward Island plans to develop regulations for building codes, began to offer a voluntary building code training course in the spring of 2018, and in early 2018 launched the New Home Construction Program to incentivize homeowners to build to ENERGY STAR. The province is also exploring new renewable energy, energy storage, and energy conservation and efficiency opportunities.
  • To date, over 60 provincially-funded buildings have been LEED registered, in Newfoundland and Labrador, 19 of which have achieved some level of LEED certification.
  • Yukon’s Residential Incentive for New Homes program continues to transform the way houses are built in Yukon.
  • The Northwest Territories committed funding to provide energy efficiency programs and services to residents, businesses, and communities.
Retrofitting existing buildings
  • The National Research Council is developing a stand-alone guide document for energy efficiency improvements in existing buildings in order to support training in advance of the future code requirements.
  • To advance labeling of building energy use, an FPT working group has been meeting regularly to develop a national framework and the launch of an online platform is expected in March 2019. Additionally, a Model National Labelling and Disclosure Framework with guidelines for commercial and institutional buildings is currently being developed for publication in 2019.
  • Canada continues to expand the ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager benchmarking tool.
  • A report from the Canadian Commission on Building and Fire Codes Joint Task Group on Alterations to Existing Buildings will be presented to the Canadian Commission on Building and Fire Code for consideration in December 2018.
  • Canada is also completing a provincial and territorial needs assessment for an online platform to disclose building energy use, and a Model National Labelling and Disclosure Framework guidelines for commercial and institutional building is currently being developed for publication in spring 2019.
  • Canada completed four stakeholder needs assessment studies in March 2018 on building energy code training and is working with provinces, territories, industries, and professional associations to develop new and updated code training materials by spring 2020.
  • Canada worked with the Nunatsiavut Government in Labrador to install 26 high-efficiency woodstoves in five communities.
  • British Columbia launched the EfficiencyBC Program to provide financial incentives and services to drive building retrofits in fall 2018.
  • In spring 2018, Alberta announced two new energy-saving programs: Custom Energy Solutions and Indigenous Green Loan Guarantee-Round 2 programs. Alberta plans to adopt the 2017 National Energy Code of Canada for Buildings and the 2015 National Building Code energy efficiency for housing/small buildings in fall 2018. Alberta also announced a grant to enable the Municipal Climate Change Action Center to deliver multi-year funding for small-scale community generation, energy efficiency upgrades for buildings, bus electrification, and solar energy for schools, and also passed new legislation to enable municipalities to establish a program that will help private property owners make energy efficiency upgrades.
  • Alberta passed An Act to Enable Clean Energy Improvements on June 6, 2018 to let municipalities establish Clean Energy Improvement (CEI) programs that enable property owners to pay for clean energy upgrades through their property taxes. Alberta is also developing a guiding regulation for the Act, which is planned for approval in fall of 2018. In addition, Alberta is working with its energy efficiency agency, Energy Efficiency Alberta, to design a specific CEI program, including tools to assist municipalities.
  • Ontario saw its first building reporting deadline under the regulation for energy and water reporting and continues to offer energy conservation programs.
  • New Brunswick plans to increase investment in energy efficiency programs.
  • Applications for the second round of programs were accepted in June for Nova Scotia’s Solar Electricity for Community Buildings program, which provides rebates for residential solar projects. The new SolarHomes program will offer rebates on pre-approved solar voltaic systems.
  • Prince Edward Island and Canada completed the construction of a district heating system that will use a hot water boiler fueled by wood chips to generate and deliver heat for 10 commercial buildings in the Tignish core.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador continued to provide support for building retrofits through its Energy Efficiency Loan Program and Home Energy Savings Program, which provide low-interest financing and grants, respectively, for energy efficiency retrofits. Yukon offers energy audits and incentives for existing home retrofits.
  • Nunavut’s Energy Management Program began to implement energy efficiency measures in government-owned buildings in eight communities of the Kivalliq region in June 2018.
  • Nunavut Housing Corporation’s Accelerated Modernization and Improvement Project will begin receiving funding in fiscal year 2018/2019 to oversee energy efficiency upgrades and retrofits to public housing units built before the year 2000. Housing retrofits will include insulation, weather stripping, window and door replacement, and water tank and furnace upgrades. The project will result in the improvements in air quality, reduce maintenance costs, and extend the life of up to 1000 housing units.
Improving energy efficiency for appliances and equipment
  • In 2018, Canada released three major updates to the Energy Efficiency Regulations covering about 40 product standards.
  • Canada has committed to set new standards for heating equipment and other key technologies to the highest level of efficiency that is economically and technically achievable. On October 20, 2018, Canada pre-published in Canada Gazette, Part I proposed new standards for twelve heating products, initiating a 70-day comment period.
  • In August 2018, at the federal, provincial and territorial Energy and Mines Ministers’ Conference, Ministers released market transformation roadmaps for energy-using equipment to outline goals for minimum energy performance in windows, space heating, and water heating. Implementation teams are currently being established and will be launched in late December 2018.
  • British Columbia completed field tests of heat pump water heaters and updated efficiency standards for air source heat pumps and gas fireplaces, and announced it will be updating standards for boilers and residential windows.
  • In January 2018, an amendment to Ontario’s energy and water efficiency regulation became effective and included new and updated efficiency standards for 12 products.
  • Nova Scotia, EfficiencyNS and NSPower have contributed to the development of a voluntary variable capacity heat pump standard.
  • In fall of 2018, efficiencyPEI will launch its Instant Savings program to deliver point-of-sale rebates on select energy efficient products at local retailers.
  • In 2018, Yukon received an ENERGY STAR® Canada award and was named Energy Efficiency Program Administrator of the Year for its role in promoting energy-efficient ENERGY STAR appliances and heating systems.
Supporting building codes and energy efficient housing indigenous communities
  • In spring 2018, the National Research Council began consultations with stakeholders, such as the First Nations National Building Officials Association, on the development of a building and an alteration to existing buildings guide that will leverage Indigenous Knowledge and support sustainable housing on reserve.
  • British Columbia is working on a pilot with the Heiltsuk First Nations in Bella Bella to install 40 air-source heat pumps in homes that are currently using oil for heating.

3.3 Transportation

Setting standards and improving efficiency
  • Canada continued to implement emissions standards for both new heavy-duty and light-duty vehicles through two regulations. Annual submissions for both regulations were reviewed for completeness and compliance was verified against regulations. The corresponding annual performance report for light-duty vehicles for model year 2016 was published on August 20, 2018 and the final regulatory amendments to the heavy-duty regulations were published in Canada Gazette Part II in May 30, 2018.
  • Canada is researching market and emissions reduction opportunities to support the identification of regulatory options under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act.
  • In order to inform the development of fuel-efficient tire standards, Canada is analyzing the results of the tire testing that was completed in 2018.
  • Canada is negotiating agreements with provincial and territorial trucking associations with a focus on low carbon transportation and fuel management options including benchmarking, driver training, and fleet assessment programming. Activities are currently underway in Atlantic Canada, British Columbia, Yukon, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Manitoba.
  • Canada played a leadership role in the development of a strategy on the reduction of GHG emissions from ships, which was agreed to at the International Maritime Organization in spring 2018, and compiled an inventory of technologies and operational measures that reduce fuel consumption that are compatible with ships operating on the west and east coast and in the great lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway.
  • Canada continues to achieve and report annual fuel efficiency improvements through measures under Canada’s Action Plan to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation. The 2017 Annual Report under the Action Plan was publicly released in fall 2018.
  • Canada played a leadership role at the International Civil Aviation Organization towards the implementation of the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA), and will finalize Phase 1 of the regulations relating to the domestic implementation of CORSIA in 2018.
  • Canada’s Biojet Supply Chain Initiative is a three year collaborative project between fourteen stakeholder organizations and funded by the Green Aviation Research and Development Network and the Government of Canada’s Network of Centres of Excellence. Twenty-two domestic Air Canada flights were fueled with biojet fuel in 2018. Canada has also launched the $14 million Sky’s the Limit Challenge to support the development of biojet fuels in Canada.
  • The 2016 Locomotive Emissions Monitoring report was published by the Railway Association of Canada in fall 2018.
  • Canada compiled an inventory of existing technologies and operational practices to reduce fuel consumption of the marine domestic fleet, and plans further assessment of opportunities.
  • In 2018, an FPT Working Group on Heavy-Duty Vehicle retrofits was established to support the commitment in the PCF to develop new requirements for existing heavy-duty trucks to install fuel-saving devices.
  • British Columbia is continuing work to develop a deep decarbonisation strategy for the heavy duty vehicles, marine, aviation, and rail subsectors, implemented new environmental processes for trucks and continued to explore zero or low emission options for ferries.
  • Saskatchewan started preliminary work towards the development of a freight strategy and drafted regulations for tractors that are expected to result in fuel savings.
  • Québec continues to implement its “Programme Écocamionnage”.
  • NB Power commissioned a study on the opportunities for energy efficiency in the transportation sector. New Brunswick participated on the FPT committee to identify programs to encourage the adoption of fuel saving/emission reduction devices in the trucking industry.
  • Nova Scotia is working to support fuel switching for marine fleets.
  • Prince Edward Island is assessing reductions and efficiency opportunities for its local fishing industry.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador continues to ensure that ferries are energy efficient.
  • Northwest Territories released the 2030 Energy Strategy with actions to address heavy equipment fuel use.
Putting more Zero-Emission Vehicles on the road
  • The Canada-wide Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Strategy is expected to be finalized in the coming months.
  • Construction is ongoing on electric vehicle charging and alternative fuel infrastructure though the federal Electric Vehicle and Alternative Fuel Infrastructure program ($182.5 million) resulting in 102 Electric Vehicle fast-chargers; seven natural gas refueling stations; three hydrogen refueling stations; and demonstration projects for next-generation charging technologies in 2018. Phase two is targeting an additional 900 new charging stations, 15 natural gas and 12 hydrogen refuelling stations; more innovative charging technology demonstrations; and binational codes and standards.
  • The Global Electric Vehicle Pilot Cities Program was launched in May co-chaired between Canada and China. To date, seven Canadian cities are participating (Surrey, Richmond, Calgary, Winnipeg, Montreal, Halifax, and Stratford).
  • In July 2018 British Columbia initiated public consultations on measures to increase zero- emission vehicles in the province. On November 20, 2018 the province announced a new ZEV mandate.
  • British Columbia continues to invest in EV fast charging stations in communities across B.C. under British Columbia’s Clean Energy Vehicle Program, implemented a multi-year electric vehicle charging infrastructure project at highway rest stops and launched a public-sector procurement initiative for electric vehicle charging stations.
  • In August, Alberta committed funding for investments in low and zero-emission transit vehicles, and to increase transit ridership, and is implementing a LED Provincial Highway Lighting project.
  • In early 2018, Manitoba released a report that identified the feasibility of deploying 12- 20 electric buses in Winnipeg, and is wrapping up its light-duty battery electric vehicle performance testing project.
  • In 2017-2018, Ontario supported the uptake of electric vehicles.
  • Québec’s Zero-Emission Vehicles Act came into force in January 2018. The ZEV standard implements obligations to automakers to earn credits through the sale of ZEV and low-emission motor vehicles starting with model year 2018.
  • New Brunswick launched an electric vehicle school bus pilot program, installed an electric vehicle fast charging corridor, is developing an electric vehicle strategy, and 10 DC Fast Chargers and 21 Level 2 electric vehicle charging stations were installed.
  • Nova Scotia is undertaking work to support the adoption of ZEVs in the province, and has installed an electric vehicle fast-charging network throughout the province.
  • Prince Edward Island is working on a transportation strategy which will include actions centred on the adoption of electric vehicles. PEI added its first electric vehicle to the Government’s fleet, completed an electric vehicle education program across the province, and developed a proposal for the installation of a high-speed electric vehicle charging network across the province.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador is exploring the opportunities associated with more zero-emission vehicles and is also participating in the national Zero-Emissions Vehicle Strategy.
  • The Northwest Territories committed to introducing rebate programs from low or zero-emission vehicles and participated in the development of a draft national Zero-Emissions Vehicle Strategy as part of its 2030 Energy Strategy released in 2018.
Shifting from higher-to lower-emitting modes and investing in infrastructure
  • As of October 2018, Canada had announced funding for 34 projects to improve transportation efficiency and resilience across the country, under the National Trade Corridors Fund. These projects will strengthen the efficiency, reliability and resilience to climate change of trade corridors, for example through addressing road and rail bottlenecks and supporting adaptation projects. A second call for proposals was launched in fall 2018 to support projects in Canada’s territorial North.
  • As of April 2018, Canada and Alberta have committed $495.1 million to Alberta transit projects.
  • In 2018, British Columbia continued to offer its suite of Clean Energy Vehicle (CEV) incentive programs, including home and workplace charging station incentives, public outreach campaigns, the CEVforBC point-of-sale purchase incentives on zero-emission light-duty vehicles, and the Speciality Use Vehicle Incentive for medium-, heavy-duty, bus, airport, port, and other types of zero-emission vehicles. In April 2018 the BC Clean Transportation Trade Corridors Advisory Council was created to further advance clean transportation in B.C.’s multi-modal trade corridors.
  • Alberta is investing in a new park-and-ride transit facility, electric buses and improved public transportation services through the Rural Transportation Pilot program which launched June 2018.
  • Alberta is developing its Public Transportation Strategy.
  • Saskatchewan is utilizing traffic data to identify areas of traffic congestion and to mitigate emissions from congestion and idling.
  • In 2017-2018 Ontario made investments to modernize transit and active transportation.
  • Québec is continuing the implementation of its Transportation Electrification Action Plan 2015-2020. In 2018, Québec launched a sustainable mobility policy and announced the construction of a multi-energy (gasoline, biofuels, natural gas, propane, electricity, and hydrogen) service station to allow the general public to have access to a variety of fuels from points of sale.
  • Prince Edward Island began work on its Sustainable Transportation Strategy.
  • The Northwest Territories is planning for the construction of three more key transportation corridors to allow for a decrease in higher-emitting air transportation.
Using cleaner fuels
  • A Multi-Stakeholder Consultative Committee and a Technical Working Group were established following the December 2017 release of a regulatory framework on the Clean Fuel Standard. Canada is planning further engagement on the design of the standard. In July 2018 Canada announced an adjusted phased approach for developing the Clean Fuel Standard, starting with liquid fuels regulations and with gaseous and solid fuels regulations to be subsequently developed. Proposed liquid fuel stream regulations are targeted for publication in the Canada Gazette I in spring-summer 2019.
  • B.C. has indicated its intent to further reduce the carbon intensity targets in its clean fuel standard.
  • Alberta continues to maintain the Renewable Fuels Standard Regulation and continued engagement on the federal Clean Fuel Standard development.
  • Ontario has biofuel content requirements for gasoline and diesel and continues to engage on federal Clean Fuel Standard.
  • Québec’s regulation on renewable fuel content in fuel and diesel is under development.
  • The Government of Nunavut sources only high-quality fuel products for distribution in the territory, including Ultra-Low Sulphur Diesel.

3.4 Industry

Reducing methane and hydrofluorocarbons emissions
  • The final regulations to phase down the consumption of HFCs entered into force in April 2018.
  • Final regulations to reduce methane from the oil and gas sector were published in the Canada Gazette II in April 2018. Canada continues to work with interested provinces on equivalency agreements.
  • Canada and Newfoundland and Labrador are jointly developing regulations to regulate methane emissions for the offshore petroleum industry.
  • Canada and Alberta co-hosted a Stakeholder Engagement Workshop in April 2018 to explore a national approach to emissions management (including methane and other pollutants).
  • Canada hosted Canada-China and Canada-Mexico collaborations between government, industry and private sector partners to demonstrate and validate Canadian clean technologies for the oil and gas sector.
  • In 2018 Canada continued to support research, development and demonstrations projects that will: improve environmental performance and help reduce GHG emissions in the oil and gas sector; better detect, measure, and verify reporting of volatile organic compound emissions, and other short-lived climate pollutants; develop and demonstrate carbon capture, use, and storage technologies; and improve oil spill safety and remediation processes.
  • British Columbia is developing regulations to reduce methane emissions from upstream oil and gas development and is undertaking an independent scientific review of hydraulic fracturing and the potential for associated fugitive methane emissions from well drilling and completions.
  • Alberta released draft methane directive requirements for public comment in April 2018, with final directives planned for the end of 2018. Alberta has also developed carbon offset protocols for methane reductions in the oil and gas industry, and prices methane emissions in its Carbon Competitiveness Incentive Regulation.
  • Saskatchewan has committed to reduce methane emissions and work has progressed on implementing a results-based system. In 2018 Saskatchewan conducted engagement with large emitters to implement sector-specific output-based performance standards on large industrial emitters. Oil and gas emissions management regulations are currently in development, with implementation anticipated by January 1, 2019.
  • In 2018, SaskPower announced a partnership with the First Nations Power Authority to secure 20 megawatts of flare gas projects from First Nations‐led businesses, helping reduce the carbon footprint of oil and gas operations.
  • Manitoba continues to apply its Ozone Depleting Substances Act and Ozone Depleting Substances and Other Halocarbons Regulation.
  • Manitoba is adopting Petrinex, a reporting system that will allow the province to measure methane emissions in the oil industry.
  • Ontario introduced legislation to require the government to set greenhouse gas emissions targets, develop a climate change plan and report on progress to the public. The plan was released on November 29, 2018 as part of the province’s environment plan. It includes adoption of Canada’s Paris Agreement emissions reduction target of 30% below 2005 emissions levels by 2030. As part of the plan, Ontario will create and establish emission performance standards to achieve greenhouse gas emissions reductions from large emitters. Each large industrial emitter will be required to demonstrate compliance on a regular basis. The program may include compliance flexibility mechanisms such as offset credits and/or payment of an amount to achieve compliance.
  • Over 60% of Ontario’s food and organic waste is sent to landfills. In a landfill, it breaks down to create methane, a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change. As part of its new environment plan, Ontario will work with partners on ways to make it easier for residents and businesses to waste less food or reuse it for beneficial purposes such as compost
  • Québec is developing a technical version of a regulation to amend its Regulation Respecting Halocarbons in order to limit the use of certain HFCs.
Improving industrial energy efficiency
  • In 2018, Canada’s ISO 50001 program expanded to include commercial and institutional sectors to offer support for energy management system implementation.
  • In 2018-2019, the Commission for Environmental Cooperation will launch a pilot implementation of ISO 50001 in manufacturing supply chains.
  • On May 30-31, 2018 the ENERGY SUMMIT 2018 was held and attracted over 425 industry and government leaders across Canada to exchange energy efficiency solutions aimed at improving competitiveness and reducing emissions.
  • British Columbia and Canada continue to jointly fund the implementation of ISO 50001 energy management systems to lower GHG emissions and operating costs, increase competitiveness, and create clean technology jobs.
  • British Columbia is continuing its Technology Strategy, Tech Fund, and a Cement Low Carbon Fuel Program.
  • In May Alberta announced a new program to boost energy efficiency at industrial facilities.
  • Québec continues to implement its “Programme ÉcoPerformance” targeting GHG emissions reductions with energy efficiency and fuel switch projects in the industry.
  • efficiencyPEI will begin to offer efficiency programs in 2018 to offer incentives for energy assessments, product installation assistance, and capital updates that reduce energy consumption.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador plan to implement regulations under the Management of Greenhouse Gas Act by 2019.
  • The Northwest Territories is engaging with industrial emitters to understand the potential for GHG reductions and efficiency improvements. The Northwest Territories 2030 Energy Strategy includes support for industry to reduce GHG emissions.
Investing in technology
  • Canada continues to invest in technologies that will reduce GHG emissions from the oil and gas sector, and so far eight contribution agreements have been signed.
  • In 2018, British Columbia introduced a new Clean Growth Program for Industry, to be funded from incremental industry carbon tax payments, that aims to reduce carbon leakage and support industry’s transition to cleaner operations.
  • In July 2018, Emissions Reduction Alberta launched the BEST Challenge, under which innovators in biotechnology, electricity and sustainable transportation – which account for up to 40% of Alberta’s annual GHG emissions – were invited to apply for government funding to develop new clean technologies that reduce GHGs.
  • Yukon is working with industry to promote the use of clean energy technology and the connection of remote mining operations to the Yukon’s renewable electrical grid.

3.5 Forestry, agriculture, waste

Increasing stored carbon
  • The Canadian Agricultural Partnership launched farm environmental stewardship programs and the AgriScience program to support research in farm sustainability, soil health and carbon sequestration.
  • Canada currently has more than 30 on-going research projects related to carbon sequestration and GHG emissions in agriculture.
  • Under Canada’s $40 million Green Construction through Wood (GCWood) program, a second call for low-rise commercial building was launched in September, 2018. A third expression of interest call for timber bridges was launched in late 2018.
  • British Columbia’s Forest Carbon Initiative continued in 2018 and will restore forests impacted by the mountain pine beetle infestation and wildfires.
  • Alberta continued to apply its Mountain Pine Beetle Strategy and saw the addition of new protected land in the boreal region in 2018. Alberta also consulted on emission offset opportunities for forest carbon management in 2018.
  • The Ag Action Manitoba program was launched in 2018 and agri-environmental practices supported by the program provide both climate change mitigation and adaptation benefits. In 2018, four projects related to climate change/carbon sequestration were implemented under the Manitoba Beef and Forage Initiative. In 2018 Manitoba also completed a guidebook on assessing carbon stocks in wetlands.
  • Saskatchewan’s Farm Stewardship Program provides financial assistance for producers to implement management practices that benefit the environment. Approximately 642 beneficial management practices were funded through the Program in 2017-2018.
  • Québec’s National Wood Production Strategy, which includes an objective to increase carbon sequestration, is expected to be released in December 2018.
  • New Brunswick continued to implement its Spruce Budworm Early Intervention Strategy and renewed a five-year funding partnership to protect forest habitats, forest carbon sequestration, and forest-dependent economy from the impacts of an outbreak of spruce budworm. New Brunswick has also assisted with several agriculture-related GHG research projects.
  • In Prince Edward Island, the Alternative Land Use Services program launched in April 2018 and aims to prevent soil erosion and siltation of water courses and wetlands, improve water quality, and enhance wildlife habitat in targeted areas. The Agriculture Stewardship Program also launched in April 2018 and aims to support environmental protection and sustainable use of resources.
  • The Northwest Territories has begun working on a Forest Industry Development Strategy.
Increasing the use of wood for construction
  • Under Canada’s Green Construction through Wood Program, negotiation of tall wood demonstration project agreements was ongoing in 2018, and calls for Expressions of Interest for low-rise commercial building and bridge demonstration projects were launched in fall 2018.
  • Canada recently supported an Amendment to Bill C-354 which will recognize wood and other sustainable building materials that reduce GHG emissions in federal government procurement. This Bill has passed through the House of Commons and is now with the Senate for a second reading.
  • The Increasing Stored Carbon program is investing $2.5 million in a four-year wood education roadmap initiative lead by the Canadian Wood Council.
  • British Columbia is currently developing recommendations to increase the use of low carbon and renewable materials in all public sector infrastructure.
  • New Brunswick’s Wood First Policy is increasing the use of structural and appearance wood products in publicly funded building construction and renovation. Alberta is in the process of adopting similar policies.
  • Nova Scotia has renewed support for the Atlantic WoodWORKS Initiative.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador has renewed its partnership with the Atlantic WoodWORKS! Program and is committed to exploring new wood use applications to increase the amount of wood that is used in non-residential construction.
Generating bioenergy and bio products
  • The Canadian Agricultural Partnership launched programs including the AgriInnovate program to increase sector sustainability and the AgriScience program to support priority areas such as transforming agricultural products into biofuels and farm sustainability, soil health, resiliency and crop adaptation to climate change.
  • The Agricultural Clean Technology Program was announced on March 19, 2018 to support the research, development and adoption of clean technologies through investments in, and promotion of precision agriculture and agri-based bioproducts.
  • The BioHeat stream of the Clean Energy for Rural and Remote Communities program supports transitions from fossil fuel heating to wood-based bioheating and anticipates funding about 25 communities to undertake projects.
  • In 2017/2018, Canada and B.C. invested in bio-products and clean technology for the agriculture and agri-foods sector.
  • Alberta continues to work with biomass proponents to utilize forest biomass to help reduce GHG emissions from use of hydrocarbons. Alberta’s Bioenergy Producer Program supports bioelectricity and biofuel production. Emissions offset protocols are also in place for biofuel and bioelectricity generation.
  • Manitoba has developed a Bioproduct Roadmap outlining various actions and activities to advance the overall bioproduct sector in the province.
  • Ontario continues to examine projects with First Nations communities to replace diesel power generation using bioenergy.
  • Québec announced its development strategy for the forest products industry in June 2018, and an updated framework for the Residual Forest Biomass Program came into effect in January, 2018. Québec continues to implement a number of wood and pulp and paper programs.
  • New Brunswick co-hosted the Atlantic BIOCON 2018 Conference in May which showcased the best bioeconomy projects from inside and outside the Atlantic Canada region.
  • New Brunswick’s Forest Biomass Policy continues to progress, with three large-scale projects under consideration for bioenergy and/or bioproduct generation. All New Brunswick solid waste facilities have waste gas capture, and all but one is producing electricity.
  • Nova Scotia is supporting the investigation of the potential to heat government buildings with woodchip-based heating systems.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador is investigating the feasibility of converting publicly owned buildings to biomass heating.
  • Yukon’s Biomass Energy Strategy provided funding in 2017-2018 for a number of First Nations to explore biomass opportunities.
Advancing innovation in GHG-efficient management practices in forestry and agriculture
  • The Canadian Agricultural Partnership launched the Living Laboratories Initiative to increase knowledge about sustainable farming practices.
  • In 2017-2018, 361 Environmental Farm Plans were completed in British Columbia, many of which include the assessment of opportunities for GHG reductions. British Columbia is also exploring funding opportunities to support clean technology and reduced GHG emissions in the agricultural sector.
  • In Alberta, the Environmental Stewardship and Climate Change program was launched in April 2018 to support producers in reducing negative impacts on the environment. Alberta also achieves significant reductions of GHG emissions in forestry and agriculture through the implementation of the Alberta emission offset system.
  • In Saskatchewan, funding was announced in January 2018 for crop-related research and fire insurance was added under the Forage Rainfall Insurance Program to help producers to be even more financially resilient to a changing climate. In August 2018, Saskatchewan hosted an irrigation and drainage conference which focused on climate change adaptation. Saskatchewan continues to conduct research on drought-resistant cropping and has partnered with Canada to fund research on clean technologies.
  • Ontario invests in environmental stewardship activities through programs offered under the Canadian Agricultural Partnership. These programs support on-farm soil and water quality activities and collaboration with partners to increase adoption of best management practices that improve the agriculture and food sector’s resiliency to climate change risks, such as droughts and flooding, extreme weather, and new pests and diseases.
  • Ontario also continues to support climate-related research connected to priorities such as: climate change adaptation, soil health, water quality, pollinator health, resilient municipal infrastructure, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions in order to address challenges facing our agri-food sector and rural communities.
  • Québec’s Biofood Policy was announced in April 2018 and encourages concerted approaches to protect health and the environment especially for fighting climate change, promoting energy efficiency and access to renewable energies. Québec also supported a number of new projects related to knowledge building of GHG emission on farms, animal waste and biogas treatment, and fertilization trials.
  • Digitized maps were produced in 2018 for agricultural marshland in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, illustrating the extent of flooding impacted by dyke breach or failure, sea-level rise, and extreme flood scenarios.
  • In 2017-2018, Nova Scotia’s Homegrown Success Program funded a number of projects related to energy efficiency and alternative energy projects on the farm, and the Technologies for Value-Added Agriculture program opened in 2018.
  • Yukon launched a new collaborative project with Canada in 2017-2018 to explore the relationship between climate change, traditional foods, and local food production in Yukon communities.

3.6 Government leadership

Setting ambitious targets
  • Canada is implementing its Greening Government Strategy, which has resulted in a 28% reduction in GHGs to date.
  • The Centre for Greening Government supported, along with provinces and territories, a compendium of best practices for greening government that was published in July 2018.
  • British Columbia continued its requirement for a carbon neutral government and has achieved carbon neutrality across the provincial public sector for the eighth consecutive year.
  • Alberta is exploring the procurement of solar power to provide electricity for government operations and completed an analysis and recommendations to prioritize the reduction of emissions in government-owned facilities.
  • Saskatchewan is increasing the number of government buildings with sustainability certifications and plans to exceed the national standards.
  • Manitoba expanded participation in its energy and emissions tracking pilot and is now piloting standard procedures for water utility uploading.
  • Québec conducted a survey to determine the travel habits of public service employees to promote sustainable mobility and also unveiled its Vision Immobilière, the government’s commitment to sustainable buildings, and has committed to build the first net-zero energy building of its real estate.
  • In 2017-2018, New Brunswick continued to fund Energy Efficiency and Energy Retrofit programs, purchased electric school buses, and is leasing electric vehicles for government travel. New Brunswick is also updating and strengthening its 2010 Provincial Green Building Policy for New Construction and Major Renovations.
  • Prince Edward Island issued a request for proposals in July 2018 for the provision and operation of biomass heating systems and is developing a GHG emissions inventory for its government operations to be completed in 2019.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador continued to implement its greening government action plan, including the development of a green procurement guide, completion of waste audits, continued implementation of the Build Better Buildings Policy, and the completion of employee surveys and training.
  • In May 2018, the Northwest Territories released its 2030 Energy Strategy that includes actions to improve the efficiency of government fleets and reinvests energy retrofits savings into more upgrades and biomass heating projects.
Cutting emissions from government buildings and fleets
  • In 2018 Canada’s Energy ministers released the Greening Government Fleets best practice guide for adopting lower emitting vehicles.
  • FPT governments collaborated through the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment to produce Lights on the Path: A Compendium of Best and Promising Practices for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Building Resilience in Government Operations, released in July 2018.
  • In 2017-2018, Canada purchased over 180 zero-emission vehicles or hybrid vehicles.
  • British Columbia established the BC Corporate Supply Arrangements for the purchase and installation of electric vehicle charging stations for access by all Government ministries and public sector organizations.
  • In 2017-2018, Alberta invested in several energy efficiency projects including LED lighting retrofits and power factor correction. Three of Alberta’s buildings were recognized as having achieved excellence in energy performance in 2018. To date, Alberta has installed solar photovoltaics on 11 government-owned buildings and as of May 2018, there are 150 LEED- certified projects and 123 projects pending certification. Existing government-owned buildings are certified under the Building Owners and Managers Association Building Environmental Standards (BOMA BEST).
  • Québec plans to reduce emissions from government fleets and buildings.
  • New Brunswick allocated funding in 2018-2019 for investment in efficiency retrofits and renewable energy initiatives in schools and hospitals.
  • Prince Edward Island is creating a government operations GHG emissions inventory. A Sustainable Transportation Strategy is also being developed which will likely propose actions regarding the government’s vehicle fleet. Prince Edward Island is improving the efficiency of its heavy fleet by upgrading the Automatic Vehicle Locator system.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador is considering opportunities to convert oil-heated provincial government buildings to renewable sources of heat.
  • Yukon continued exploration of biomass heating in government buildings.
  • The Northwest Territories has set a target that all new government buildings be built to exceed the National Energy Code of Canada for Buildings 2011 by 10%. The Northwest Territories has also allocated funding this year to undertake energy conservation retrofits on existing government buildings through its Capital Asset Retrofit Fund.
  • Nunavut continues to identify options that will increase energy efficiency in new and existing government buildings and infrastructure.
Scaling up clean procurement
  • Newfoundland and Labrador proclaimed a new Public Procurement Act on March 24, 2018 to modernize procurement by provincial public bodies. The Act includes a provision to integrate environmental considerations into the development of general procurement policies, and the provincial government is in the early stages of identifying potential options. In 2019, the province will commence the development of the environmental guidelines.

3.7 International leadership

Delivering on Canada’s international climate finance commitments
  • As of May 2018, Canada has announced over $1.2 billion in climate financing contributions that will support developing countries take action on climate change. So far, $430 million has disbursed to projects over fiscal year 2015-2016 and fiscal year 2016-2017. Canada is continuing to work with international partners, including project delivery partners, to support programming of new initiatives in future years.
  • Québec’s International Climate Cooperation Program supports cooperation projects between Québec’s academic, research, international cooperation and private sector communities and Francophone countries that are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.
Acquiring internationally transferred mitigation outcomes
  • Canada continues to participate in discussions on the development of the guidance on Article 6.
  • Canada continued engaging Chile on reducing short lived climate pollutants, co-chairing the Declaration on Carbon Pricing in the Americas and collaborated with California, EU, World Bank and International Emissions Trading Association to help organize a carbon pricing day at the Global Climate Action Summit in September 2018.
  • Québec and California are working on the development of an accounting methodology under the Western Climate Initiative’s Partner Relationship Agreement, signed in September 2017.
  • Numerous jurisdictions (AB, B.C., CA, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, and SK) participated in the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment International Mitigation Project Team to assess options and provide recommendations related to international transfers and the potential use of Article 6 provisions within the PCF and to inform, along with other inputs, Canada’s negotiating position on Article 6.
  • Saskatchewan continues to explore opportunities for offsets and considerations related to Internationally Transferred Mitigation Outcomes (ITMOs) and to contribute to the development of Carbon Capture and Storage international standards.
Engaging in trade and climate policy
  • Canada participated in the OECD Joint Working Party on Trade and Environment meeting in June 2018, including contributing to discussions on potential work on trade and climate change. Canada also took the opportunities to underline interest in formally discussing the intersection between trade and climate change at the World Trade Organization Committee on Trade and Environment held in June 2018.
  • Canada incorporated climate change references in a final outcome on the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), as part of the CPTPP Declaration on Progressive and Inclusive Trade endorsed by Chile, Canada and New Zealand.

4.0 Adaptation

4.1 Translating scientific information and traditional knowledge into action

Providing authoritative climate information
  • Canada launched the Canadian Centre for Climate Services (CCCS) in October 2018, including a website and support desk to enable users to access and visualize climate data to support adaptation decision-making. Governments continued working together throughout 2018 to establish regional climate services centres in the Atlantic and Prairie regions.
  • Canada is working with Indigenous Peoples to find ways to respectfully include Traditional and Indigenous Knowledge into adaptation planning and decision-making through the Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program for First Nations and Inuit, First Nation Adapt, Climate Change Preparedness in the North and Indigenous Community-Based Climate Monitoring programs.
  • Canada’s delegation at IPCC-48, where the IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C was approved in fall 2018, included representatives from the Assembly of First Nations, the Métis National Council, and the Native Women’s Association of Canada who worked together in stressing the importance of Indigenous Knowledge as they relate to climate change. Ongoing engagement with Indigenous people will ensure that Canada’s climate actions are responsive to the needs and considerations of Indigenous peoples, and contribute to better social, economic, and environmental outcomes for Indigenous peoples, northern communities, and Canadians at large
  • Canada is supporting Indigenous Peoples in gathering and incorporating Traditional and Indigenous Knowledge into adaptation planning and decision-making through the Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program for First Nations and Inuit, First Nation Adapt, Climate Change Preparedness in the North and Indigenous Community-Based Climate Monitoring programs. Canada is creating an inventory of existing weather data monitoring networks to support a standardized approach to data collection, monitoring, and usage and will continue to deliver climate science and data to partners to inform PCF implementation, including through the sharing of the 2018/2019 Canada’s Changing Climate Report. In 2018, Canada also identified activities in the Targeted Federal Climate Change Science Plan to support increased collaboration on climate change science.
  • British Columbia is working closely with the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium, has renewed its Agreement on Management of Meteorological Networks, and is conducting a strategic provincial climate risk assessment that will produce a framework for, and a strategic assessment of, provincially significant climate-related risks that can be used to prioritize adaptation responses.
  • In 2017-2018, Alberta held 77 formal community information workshops as part of the Indigenous Climate Leadership Initiative.
  • Alberta hosted sessions as part of the IPCC Cities and Climate Change Conference in spring 2018 to advance dialogue between Indigenous Knowledge Holders and scientists. Alberta also continued to work with governments to better understand climate information and service needs across the Prairie Provinces and is currently reviewing a proposal to establish a Prairies Regional Climate Services Centre.
  • In 2018, Alberta developed a number of climate change models, and commissioned a study of key temperature and precipitation indicators throughout the province.
  • Saskatchewan announced a new Climate Resilience Measurement Framework on November 29, 2018. This government-wide action plan includes 25 measures to monitor and enhance provincial resilience to climate change. Saskatchewan will report on these measures annually, beginning in 2019.
  • On April 20, 2018, Manitoba launched a new section of the Climate Atlas of Canada on agriculture.
  • Ontario completed a regional climate modelling project – “Developing a common set of high resolution regional climate projections using a large ensemble of GCM and RCM projections – in June 2018, providing visualization and extensive data downloading of climate data available free of charge at the Ontario Climate Data Portal.
  • Québec continues to produce and disseminate climate data. In addition, Québec has developed and will be launching the Power Analytics and Visualization for Climate Science (PAVICS) platform in partnership with Ouranos.
  • In 2018, New Brunswick increased publicly available LiDAR landscape information by 28% (a total of 67% provincial coverage) which can be used for planning and developing adaptation plans.
  • In 2018, Nova Scotia completed a risk assessment pilot project on the Province’s grape and wine industry, which included climate risks vulnerabilities. A Climate Tool was developed as a way for users to explore current and future climate conditions.
  • Prince Edward Island is preparing to release the second edition of the Coastal Property Guide in late 2018 or early 2019. The province also continues to support municipalities through sharing of adaptation resources, such as the Coastal Community Adaptation Toolkit, and is planning to expand its tide gauge network by installing four permanent tide gauges in key estuaries.
  • In 2018, Newfoundland and Labrador updated its 2013 provincial climate projections, updated and continued to operate the Climate Data Information Portal to provide historical climate data to the public, continued to operate the Coastal Erosion and Monitoring Program, has continued to advance climate change flood risk mapping studies and forecasting, including the development of a flood risk map for the Waterford River catchment area, and began flood risk mapping studies for the Humber River Valley and Exploits River Valley.
  • In 2018, Yukon collaborated with partners on the Collaborative Monitoring Initiative and the Climate Change Information Mainstreaming Program to offer support and expertise to decision and policy makers and ensure climate change consideration is integrated into projects and planning, and developed an Indicator Report that synthesizes current scientific knowledge around climate change in Yukon.
  • In 2018, the Northwest Territories initiated a two-year partnership with the CCCS to advance efforts on climate services and monitoring in the North, and is collaborating with academic institutions and other governments to establish research objectives and fund projects to better understand the effects of permafrost thaw on built and natural environments.
  • In March 2018, Nunavut and CCCS co-hosted a workshop to bring together data users and discuss data needs and current gaps.
Building regional adaptation capacity and expertise
  • In 2018, Canada worked in direct partnership with all provinces to identify capacity building priority areas for regional Building Regional Adaptation and Capacity Expertise (BRACE) programming and to develop projects. The first round of regional capacity building projects were approved and have agreements in place.
  • Canada is leading the national knowledge assessment process, ‘Canada in a Changing Climate: Advancing our Knowledge for Action’. This includes a ‘Regional Perspectives’ volume, which examines the impacts of climate change and how Canadians are adapting to reduce risks in six regions of Canada. Key activities in 2018 included: forming writing teams; holding engagement activities; and drafting chapter outlines.
  • British Columbia completed the development and implementation of regional adaptation strategies in key agricultural regions in 2018, with additional funding made available for 2019.
  • In 2018, Alberta passed City Charter Regulations that require Edmonton and Calgary to establish climate change adaptation plans. In addition, Alberta is supporting municipalities by providing workshops to build capacity among community practitioners.
  • Alberta is developing the Indigenous Climate Change Observation Network, with a feasibility project currently underway to assess applicability and scalability of tools to inform Indigenous Knowledge and adaptation planning. Alberta is also implementing the Indigenous Climate Leadership Initiative that supported 45 workshops in 2017/2018 and invested $3.7 million to support programs designed to respond to Indigenous community needs and priorities.
  • Saskatchewan is using Emergency Service Officers to guide emergency planning in communities to develop appropriate plans and preparedness to respond to and recover from extreme weather events.
  • In 2018, Manitoba engaged with Indigenous organizations to gain insight on climate resiliency capacity building issues, gaps and opportunities, and the Prairie Climate Centre, with support from the Government of Manitoba, developed videos documenting climate change knowledge exploring Inuit knowledge regarding ice, wildlife, and the future of the Arctic. A film has been produced using these videos and was featured in major film festivals, academic conferences, and news media globally in 2018.
  • On November 29, 2018, Ontario released “Preserving and Protecting our Environment for Future Generations: A Made-in-Ontario Environment Plan” to build a resilient Ontario that protects waters and air, cleans up communities and encourages conservation. As part of the plan Ontario will undertake a provincial impact assessment to identify where and how climate change is likely to impact Ontario’s communities, critical infrastructure, economies and natural environment. The assessment would provide risk-based evidence to government, municipalities, businesses, Indigenous communities and Ontarians and guide future decision making. Ontario will also undertake impact and vulnerability assessments for key sectors, such as transportation, water, agriculture and energy distribution.
  • Québec has launched the Phase 2 of the programme Climat municipalités in 2018 to implement innovative projects to reduce GHG emissions and adapt to climate change.
  • New Brunswick is continuing to support community-based adaptation projects through the Environmental Trust Fund. Mapping of coastal areas is anticipated to be completed in 2019, while mapping of inland areas is to be completed by 2020.
  • In 2018, New Brunswick also completed numerous climate change vulnerability assessments for communities, and the completion of Action items identified in New Brunswick’s Climate Change Action Plan will result in all cities and highest risk municipalities having completed Adaptation plans by 2020.
  • Nova Scotia is continuing to build climate change adaptation capacity across provincial departments to integrate adaptation into government policy and planning, facilitate a process to assist risk assessments, and develop and implement adaptation plans. In 2018, the Province completed a climate readiness scan of the Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture and developed an adaptation plan with a series of short and medium-term actions.
  • Prince Edward Island is developing province-wide flood risk mapping and will conduct a coastal hazard assessment of public infrastructure. Hazard mapping and risk assessments will be completed by 2019.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador is working with partners to build technical adaptation capacity with practitioners to integrate climate change considerations into decision-making processes and investments for adaptation and resilience of infrastructure, including by hosting a two-day technical training workshop in 2018.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador built municipal capacity by supporting a several projects in 2018 including: the Engaging and Supporting Municipalities to Build Capacity to Adapt to the Impacts of Climate Change project and a project to identify and characterize the risks associated with Orphaned and Abandoned Mines, including by determining a long-term management and remediation plan that considers climate impacts.
  • Yukon is leading an assessment of government vulnerabilities to climate change, including assessing the capacity of government departments to deliver services, with adaptation steps and opportunities, and released a State of Play report in 2018.
  • In 2018, the Northwest Territories released its 2030 NWT Climate Change Strategic Framework to guide efforts on climate change, including building regional adaptation capacity and expertise.
  • Nunavut is currently offering an annual climate change adaptation course for decision-makers to help mainstream adaptation into government actions, with a focus on climate change impacts and infrastructure in Nunavut.

4.2 Building climate resilience through infrastructure

Investing in infrastructure to build climate resilience
  • Canada launched The Disaster Mitigation and Adaptation Fund (DMAF)’s first intake, with projects currently being assessed. Announced in June 2018, Canada and Manitoba supported the first project under DMAF, the construction of Lake Manitoba and Lake St. Martin outlet channels to allow the province of Manitoba to regulate lake levels and provide flood protection to individuals, businesses, communities and farmland.
  • In the transportation sector, the Government of Canada has approved over $3.1 million in projects under the Transportation Assets Risk Assessment initiative to better understand the climate risks to federal transportation assets and potential adaptation solutions that could be employed. Climate resilience is being further enhanced through green infrastructure funding for provinces and territories delivered through Integrated Bilateral Agreements (IBA) under the Investing in Canada Infrastructure Program. IBAs between Canada and all 13 provinces and territories have been signed.
  • Climate LensFootnote 22  guidance was released in 2018. The Climate Lens assessment is a requirement of the Investing in Canada plan bilateral agreements signed between the Government of Canada and the provinces and territories. It applies to projects with a total estimated cost of over $10 million, as well as any project that deals with climate change resilience or greenhouse gas mitigation. The Lens also applies to all projects under the recently launched Disaster Mitigation and Adaptation Fund and certain Smart Cities Challenge winning proposals. It will help infrastructure owners design better projects by assessing their opportunities to reduce carbon pollution and identify when they should be adapting project design to better withstand impacts of climate change.
  • In 2018, Saskatchewan continued to fund dam operation and maintenance as part of Saskatchewan’s 25-year Water Security Plan, and is also delivering funding for the Farm and Ranch Water Infrastructure Program to support the development of secure and sustainable water sources for agriculture. The 2018-2019 budget also included $61 million to replace and rehabilitate bridges and culverts, as well as $82 million for rural highway upgrades which will aid in restoration and upgrades as a result of flood damage.
  • Manitoba is currently undertaking work to increase the resilience of the PTH75 Corridor from Winnipeg to Emerson from Red River flood events. This includes raising the finished road elevation using both pavement reconstruction and at site-specific locations via supplemental raising of the grade.
  • Ontario continues to apply the Infrastructure for Jobs and Prosperity Act (2015), which supports strategic evidence-based and long-term infrastructure planning with climate change adaptation as a key principle. This legislation also includes opportunities to manage vulnerabilities and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Québec is currently funding research on the performance of green stormwater management infrastructure to protect drinking water sources in current and future climate scenarios.
  • Québec supports municipalities in the implementation of sustainable stormwater management infrastructure at source, in the context of climate change. The program will promote the establishment and sharing of innovative solutions, including natural infrastructure. An amount of $10 million is allocated to this program.
  • New Brunswick continues to invest in dyke maintenance to ensure the necessary protection from storm events and sea level rise. In addition, climate change is a consideration in all business case proposals put forward for federal cost-shared funding.
  • In 2018, Nova Scotia developed and revised standards for agricultural dyke construction and maintenance based on updated and projected sea level rise scenarios, and approved plans for a salt marsh restoration project.
  • Prince Edward Island completed construction of two inter-tidal reefs to improve coastline stabilization in 2018.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador advanced several adaptation-related municipal projects under existing federal and provincial programs.
  • Yukon is currently administering projects for climate change and infrastructure. This includes conducting vulnerability assessments of buildings and the Alaska and Dempster highways, creating permafrost maps, and improving the understanding of how climate change impacts are impacting government infrastructure. It is also experimenting with innovative technologies to better manage current and future costs of climate change.
  • In 2017, the Yukon government also completed foundation assessments of all government buildings located on permafrost, and continues to work with local communities to provide information and carry out further foundation assessments of non-government buildings.
Developing climate-resilient codes and standards
  • In 2018, Canada produced climate datasets for several variables to inform the development of climate resilient codes and standards for building and bridge design; and provided science advice and review for the update of Canadian Standards Association standards and technical guidelines.
  • In addition, work is underway to integrate climate adaptation into standards for buildings and infrastructure through the Standards to Support Resilience in Infrastructure program. As of 2018, this program has completed seven foundational reports, established two advisory committees, supported an international committee, and has initiated the development of five new standards, the update of two standards, and the update of two guidance documents. To support this work, Canada is continuing to engage other government departments on the Advisory Committee on Codes.
  • In 2018, Canada formed three technical committees to address flooding-resilience in buildings, climate data and loads, and wildland-urban interface design.
  • In 2018, Alberta conducted a study evaluating infrastructure technical design requirements to ensure public buildings are resilient to future climate changes, and is considering the recommendations from the study.
  • In 2018, Saskatchewan adopted the National Building Code 2015 and 2015 National Energy Code for Buildings and is implementing these standards. To raise awareness, the Province is also conducting workshops for building owners, industry, and municipal building officials.
  • Manitoba continues to support the development and adoption of the 2015 National Model Codes (Building Code, Fire Code, Plumbing Code and Energy Code for Buildings) for Manitoba.
  • Prince Edward Island is developing voluntary, coastal flood construction guidance that will minimize exposure of new developments to flooding from sea level rise and storm surge. The province is also working with Canada and regional organizations to develop a proposal to update guidance on water and wastewater systems.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador revised its project review and procurement processes for municipal infrastructure projects to better incorporate climate change considerations into planning and design in 2018. In addition, the province has modified its standard Request for Proposal documents to include plans for integrating climate information and data into proposal submission requirements and proposal evaluation.
  • Alberta and British Columbia continued to advise and support Canada in its ongoing work to develop climate-resilient codes and standards in 2018, and the Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon are participating in the development of the Northern Infrastructure Standardization Initiative.

4.3 Protecting and improving human health and well-being

Addressing climate change-related health risks
  • In 2018, Canada supported ongoing work to ensure that 73% of health regions have implemented evidence-based adaptation measures to protect health from extreme heat, exceeding the initial target of 50% of health regions in Canada by 2019. Canada also convened two meetings of the National Heat Health Community of Practice that included representation from 7 provinces/territories to discuss heat warnings and summer temperature outlook for 2018 ahead of the heat season and initiated research on safe indoor temperatures.
  • As part of Canada’s new grants and contributions fund under the Infectious Disease and Climate Change Program in 2018, $2.3 million supported 15 projects and the cycle two solicitation for funding has been launched. Canada is also continuing its work to implement the Framework on Lyme Disease in Canada, which includes enhanced research and surveillance, risk assessments, and the creation of new Lyme disease risk area maps, increasing Canadians’ awareness of infectious disease risks associated with climate change through the distribution of educational materials. The results of the Lyme Disease Research Network Request for Application was made public in 2018.
  • Canada launched the $3 million federal Climate Change and Health Adaptation Capacity Building Contribution program in June 2018 to support the health sector to prepare for and adapt to the impacts of climate change, and is working on the development of a Pan-Canadian monitoring and surveillance approach to address the health impacts of climate change.
  • Canada also launched the Food Security and Climate Change in the Canadian North Program to enhance research on climate impacts on food supply.
  • In February 2018, Canada held an Expert Meeting to identify priorities towards the development of a pan-Canadian approach to monitoring and surveillance of the health impacts of climate change. A stakeholder engagement strategy is in progress to further guide the development and implementation of this initiative.
  • In 2018, Saskatchewan worked with government partners to monitor and plan for extreme heat, and participates in various bodies, such as the Public Health Network Council, to address a wide variety of public health and health promotion issues.
  • In 2018, Manitoba continues to implement the Heat Alert and Response System, is working with counterparts to monitor vector species, and delivered public-health communications on climate-infectious diseases in 2018. In 2018, the province has also expanded its’ extreme heat and extreme cold response capacities, is better managing and safeguarding drinking water resources, working to ensure the safety and security of recreational water activities to climate impacts, and is protecting the health and well-being of communities during extreme weather and climate-related emergencies including by facilitating the delivery of psychosocial support to persons affected by climate change (e.g., evacuation of home communities due to flooding, wildfire, extreme events).
  • Québec continues to maintain the SUPREME system to trigger warnings for extreme weather events including heat waves, has recalculated and integrated heat thresholds following the 2018 heat events, and piloted a telephone alert in 2018. In 2018, Québec undertook research to better inform surveillance and prevention activities.
  • New Brunswick continues to implement the Heat Alert and Response System (HARS). Additionally, in 2018, the HARS Level 1 Heat Alert criteria have been aligned with the new Canada/New Brunswick-specific heat alert criteria based on health evidence and region- specific weather patterns.
  • In 2018, Nova Scotia released a Tick Borne Disease Response Plan including efforts for surveillance and education.
  • In 2017-2018, Newfoundland and Labrador is working with government partners to monitor and plan for extreme heat, and with support from the Infectious Diseases and Climate Change Fund is advancing a project for “Determining the Environmental Burden of Lyme Disease in Newfoundland and Labrador”.
  • In 2018, Yukon led the development of a clean air cooling centre system to deploy during wildland fire across the territory.
  • The Northwest Territories is currently conducting risk assessment work and developing educational materials to respond to infectious disease risks, and is identifying clean air and shelter facilities to assist with emergency response.
Supporting healthy indigenous communities
  • Canada supported projects in 2017-2018 through the Climate Change Health Adaptation Program for First Nations and Inuit (CCHAP) to build capacity for community-designed and driven projects to address health vulnerabilities. Territory-specific committees have also been established in each territory for review and recommendation of proposals under the CCHAP.
  • Canada has engaged with the Métis Nation to discuss how to best support and address the health effects of climate change in Metis populations and communities. In 2018, Canada and the Métis Nation agreed to funding re-allocation.
  • Saskatchewan’s Medical Health Officers are currently engaging with officials from the Northern Inter-Tribal Health Authority and Canada to support efforts to reduce climate-related health risks for Indigenous Peoples.
  • Manitoba continues to work with local Indigenous organizations and Peoples to identify areas for collaboration to advance healthcare facilities.
  • In 2018, Yukon launched two projects in partnership with Yukon First Nations to assess the effects of climate change on food security.
  • Nunavut continues to participate as a member in the Nunavut Committee on Climate Change Adaptation (N3CA). The committee members provide expertise and guidance to ensure funded projects are aligned with local, regional, and territorial priorities.

4.4 Supporting particularly vulnerable regions

Investing in resilient infrastructure to protect vulnerable regions
  • Seven federally-funded projects were completed in spring 2018 and engagement with partners is ongoing under the Northern Transportation Adaptation Initiative.
  • In 2018, Alberta, through the Indigenous Climate Leadership Initiative provided $3 million to support the purchase and installation of solar panels on Indigenous community-owned buildings to support energy security and resiliency in Indigenous communities that may be isolated due to extreme weather events or climate-related disasters.
  • In 2018, Nunavut identified permafrost risks in several locations across the territory and is implementing adaptation measures for river erosion to support community resilience.
Building climate resilience in the north
  • In 2017-2018, Climate Change Preparedness in the North program funded 77 projects. To date, in 2018-2019, 82 projects were approved to receive new or continuing funding.
  • Canada is working with provinces, territories, northern governments and Indigenous Peoples to develop a strategic approach to strengthen northern capacity for climate change impacts, expected in late December 2018.
  • In 2018, through the Northern Infrastructure Standardization Initiative (under the Standards to Support Resilience in Infrastructure program), five new or updated standards and guidance are being developed to mitigate the impacts of climate change on, and increase the resilience of, infrastructure in the Canadian North. These projects are selected by engaging with northern stakeholders through the program’s Northern Advisory Committee.
  • In 2018, British Columbia continued to support work with local governments in the north east of the province to co-develop a regional climate projection report, undertake local risk assessments, and support adaptation efforts.
  • Manitoba’s Northern Healthy Foods Initiative is working with northern communities to enhance food security and to decrease dependence on air and road freight, reduce GHG emissions, and waste.
  • Ontario funded a project for 40 Indigenous communities through the Green Investment Fund for a partnership between the Ontario Centre for Climate Impacts and Adaptation Resources and the Ontario First Nations Technical Services Corporation. The project helped Indigenous communities to collect local community traditional ecological knowledge, and lead the assessment of their community vulnerabilities, in order to build capacity and develop local adaptation plans. This investment will also help create a Northern Ontario climate change impact study.
  • Québec is continuing to increase the resilience of transportation networks in Nord-du-Québec. In addition, knowledge transfer activities are regularly undertaken to share challenges and best practices to integrate climate change into road infrastructure management and maintenance design and practices.
  • The Northwest Territories launched a Community Adaptation Program to support community adaptation projects and initiatives. The Northwest Territories continues to participate in the development of a strategic approach.
Supporting community-based monitoring by indigenous peoples
  • Canada is supporting Indigenous Peoples to monitor climate and the impacts of climate change in their communities and traditional territories through the Indigenous Community- Based Climate Monitoring Program. In 2017-2018, the program funded 38 projects and in 2018-2019 funded 50 new projects. Canada also provided funding for SmartICE which provides near real-time sea ice monitoring and information services by blending Inuit Traditional Knowledge with state-of-the-art technology to improve sea-ice safety and better inform decision-making.
  • Canada is working closely with the Assembly of First Nations and other National Indigenous Organizations to co-develop an inventory of Emergency Management capabilities in Indigenous communities across Canada. The inventory will enable risk-informed decision-making based on improved understanding of existing capabilities and resources in Indigenous communities.
  • British Columbia is continuing to develop and expand the Local Environmental Observation (LEO) Network partnership to better understand the environmental changes that Indigenous communities are observing.
  • Alberta is currently building the capacity of Indigenous organizations to undertake community- based monitoring activities. As of 2018, data gathering is underway, and project results will be used to better inform and support future community-based monitoring initiatives across the province.
  • Saskatchewan is conducting engagement with First Nation and Métis communities in 2018 to maintain and enhance partnerships to better support community-based monitoring. Outcomes from this engagement will help inform a longer-term approach.
  • Manitoba is working with the Centre for Indigenous and Environmental Resources to deliver training and workshops.
  • New Brunswick is currently working with Indigenous groups to share climate change impact information, and is partnering with communities to complete vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning projects to help build capacity.
  • In 2018, Newfoundland and Labrador provided $235,000 in funding to support the SmartICE Sea Ice Monitoring and Information project. Through this investment, SmartICE will commercialize its SmartBUOY prototype instrumentation for measuring sea-ice thickness and establish a technology production centre in Nain to be operated by trained Inuit youth. Newfoundland and Labrador is also supporting local river monitoring and implementation of a community safety plan in Mud Lake and Happy Valley-Goose Bay.
  • Yukon is currently conducting projects in partnership with Indigenous communities that focus on areas of food security, ecological changes, and climate change capacity building.
  • Nunavut is identifying permafrost risks and implementing adaptation measures for river erosion, including a field program conducted in 2018 to perform scientific monitoring, physical relocation of ATV trails, and outreach activities to engage community members. Nunavut is also providing funding and support to the SmartICE project.
Supporting adaptation in coastal regions
  • Canada continues to conduct scientific research and monitoring in vulnerable coastal, marine areas and Arctic ecosystems to identify climate change impacts and vulnerabilities. This includes efforts over the last year to implement two working groups in partnership with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to accelerate collaborative research and monitoring activities in ocean acidification and fisheries climate vulnerability. Additionally, Canada’s Aquatic Climate Change Adaptation Services Program funded science activities in all of Canada’s regions in 2018 to support monitoring and research on the impacts of ocean acidification and hypoxia; vulnerability assessments of fisheries and small craft harbours to the impacts of climate change; and refinement of ocean models to improve forecasting of ocean conditions.
  • In 2018, British Columbia updated flood plain maps for the lower mainland and funding has been provided in several regions for LIDAR projects to aid in the development of coastal flood maps.
  • Québec continues to implement the Coastal Resilience Project to reduce the vulnerability of coastal communities and ecosystems to coastal erosion. In 2018, workshops were held to identify needs and develop tools. Seventeen regional county municipalities have benefited from action plans to improve coastal planning and adaptation.
  • Nova Scotia is developing coastal protection legislation that will define a coastal zone in which new development will be managed to reduce vulnerability to the impacts of sea level rise and storm surge, and will help protect sensitive coastal ecosystems.
  • Prince Edward Island is developing voluntary, coastal flood construction guidance that will minimize exposure of new developments to flooding from sea level rise and storm surge.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador continues to participate in the Coastal Management Working Group of the Federal Adaptation Platform, and is conducting ongoing work under the Coastal Erosion and Monitoring Program to identify coastal erosional and accretionary rates, to determine coastal change processes, and delineate areas at high risk from flooding, erosion, and slope movement. As of 2018, data is available for 120 sites across the province.
  • In 2018, the Northwest Territories launched a project to identify and assess coastal erosion hazards affecting the community of Tuktoyaktuk and develop a coastal erosion mitigation plan.
  • Nunavut continues to work with both government and academic researchers and communities to identify coastal priorities, and is exploring options to address the impacts on coastlines, including implications on built and natural infrastructure.

4.5 Reducing climate-related hazards and disaster risks

Investing in infrastructure to reduce disaster risks
  • In 2018, Canada launched The Disaster Mitigation and Adaptation Fund (DMAF) and climate resilience is being enhanced through the Integrated Bilateral Agreements (IBA) (See Section 4.2 for more details).
  • In 2018, Canada through the Standards to Support Resilience in Infrastructure program included several projects related to risks from flooding, fire, and high winds. For example, in partnership with the Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction, the program is supporting the development of seed documents addressing wind resilience for non-engineered residential buildings in Canada. This document will be the basis of a new National Standard of Canada on wind.
  • British Columbia has committed $72 million over three years for wildfire recovery and to build communities’ resilience to wildfires. This includes $50 million over the next three years under the new Community Resiliency Investment program to reduce wildfire risks around First Nations and communities. British Columbia also continues to administer and provide funding through the National Disaster Mitigation program and the Community Emergency Preparedness Fund. Through these funding mechanisms, the Province has funded 99 flood mitigation infrastructure projects, totaling $22.5 million in funding. Outside of these funding programs, since 2016, the Province through Emergency Management B.C. has funded 37 flood mitigation projects, totalling $46.2 million.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador has advanced adaptation-related municipal projects while also planning for upcoming federal programming, including the Adaptation, Resilience and Disaster Mitigation outcomes under the Investing in Canada Infrastructure Program.
  • Yukon continues to reduce risk to infrastructure from forest fires through the FireSmart program.
  • The Northwest Territories is currently working with the community of Tuktoyaktuk to relocate houses threated by coastal erosion.
  • In 2018, Nunavut hosted a pan-northern meeting on permafrost hazard mapping to share and improve information and decision-making best practices. The Territory is developing a workshop report, and the results of the workshop will be used to create a new standard on hazard mapping.
Advancing efforts to protect against floods
  • In 2018, Governments are continuing to develop and modernize flood maps, and to assess and address flood risks, through the National Disaster Mitigation program.
  • In 2018, Canada continued to support research in a number of areas including: Flood Risk Assessments, developing Floodplain Mapping Guidelines, and Case-Studies in Climate Change Flood Mapping.
  • Canada hosted a National Roundtable on Flood on November 17, 2018 in Regina to foster dialogue and move forward on a whole-of-society approach to addressing the complex issue of flood risk.
  • British Columbia continues to advance non-structural flood mitigation projects through an $80 million commitment to emergency preparedness and public safety. This includes flood risk assessments, floodplain mapping, and flood mitigation planning.
  • Alberta continued to leverage National Disaster Mitigation Program (NDMP) in 2018 to update Provincial Flood Damage Assessment Tool and to develop community flood-damage assessment models. Nine community models are currently in development. The province is also using NDMP funding to produce 782 kilometers of new or updated maps over the next several years. When combined with mapping not funded by NDMP, 548 kilometers will be technically complete in 2018. These projects include inundation maps for thirteen different flood sizes.
  • In 2018, Saskatchewan conducted flood mapping and assessment of vulnerable provincial culverts, and has increasing funding available for dam operations and maintenance.
  • In 2018, Manitoba identified and applied for funding to retrofit or replace a number of bridges, dams, dykes and pump sites to increase public safety and enhance flood protection. The province is also developing flood mapping of priority watersheds and has been implementing the 1:100 flood protection level for provincial water control infrastructure, is reviewing the design of electrical, mechanical and structural deficiencies for infrastructure to identify retrofit needs, and providing engineering support for the Community Flood Protection program to develop permanent flood protection for communities, with ten projects completed in 2018.
  • Ontario is developing a report to support homeowners in assessing flood risks and developing a home action plan through the Home Adaptation Assessment Program. This report is anticipated to be finalized in 2018.
  • In 2018, Québec made several investments to update floodplain maps, as well as to conduct comprehensive research and climate change risk assessments of public and municipal dams and is implementing the Flood Action Plan, and is improving municipal stormwater drainage through sustainable management practices.
  • In 2018, Nova Scotia updated municipal flood risk mapping guidelines to include climate change projects, will complete flood risk mapping for three to five of the highest risk municipalities, and is renewing its Flood Risk Mitigation Funding program to support municipalities in assessing and reducing flood risk.
  • Prince Edward Island is developing province-wide flood risk mapping and will conduct a coastal hazard assessment of public infrastructure, with hazard mapping and risk assessments to be completed by 2019.
  • In 2017/2018, Newfoundland and Labrador has undertaken work to develop flood risk maps for the Waterford River, Humber River Valley and Exploits River Valley, has developed a Local River Watch Monitoring Committee as part of the implementation of a Community Safety Plan in consultation with residents of Mud Lake and Happy Valley-Goose Bay, and has activated seven new water level and climate monitoring stations to monitor water and ice levels. The data will be used for flood forecasting and alerts. The Province also continues to implement the Hurricane Season Flood Alert System to provide advanced notice of precipitation and flooding.
  • The Northwest Territories is currently developing a business case for floodplain mapping for communities.
Supporting adaptation in indigenous communities
  • Canada funded 49 projects in 2017-2018 under the First Nation Adapt program. To date, in 2018-2019, 46 projects were approved to receive new or continuing funding.
  • In 2018, British Columbia supported flood hazard mitigation through six projects targeted to assist Indigenous Peoples across the province.
  • With a $230,000 grant in 2018, Alberta is supporting the Kainai First Nation to hire a community climate change coordinator, undertake several information sharing activities and workshops, and to develop a community adaptation plan.
  • Saskatchewan continues to maintain and enhance partnerships with Indigenous communities to address and adapt to climate risks through actions guided by Indigenous Knowledge. In 2018, the province engaged with Indigenous governments and leadership groups to inform a long-term approach.
  • In 2018, Québec developed climate scenarios for the Nunavik region to raise awareness and build capacity in northern Indigenous communities. In addition, climate vulnerabilities were communicated to communities through a series of workshops and maps, which will be available online.
  • New Brunswick is currently working with Indigenous groups to share information and partner to support vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador is currently engaging and collaborating with the Nunatsiavut Climate Change Committee on Adaptation and is working with partners to build technical adaptation capacity by building awareness and capacity among practitioners to integrate climate change considerations into decision-making processes and investments for adaptation and resilience of infrastructure. In 2018, a two-day technical training workshop was conducted with participants from government, industry, and Indigenous organizations and governments.
  • Yukon is continuing its ongoing partnership between Indigenous groups and communities, governments, and community organizations to bolster adaptation efforts and allow for information sharing.
  • In 2018, the Northwest Territories worked to provide guidance towards the development of hazard maps for communities. The province also funded the consolidation of geotechnical data, and is developing new standards and best practices for Community Wildfire Protection Plans.

5.0 Clean technology, innovation and jobs

5.1 building early-stage innovation

Supporting early-stage technology development
  • In 2019, a call for proposals for core clean energy innovation programming under the Energy Innovation Program will be launched.
  • The Clean Growth Program launched on November 30, 2017, was significantly oversubscribed with 761 applications requesting more than 15 times the available funding. After a screening and review of applications, 104 semi-finalists were invited to submit full proposals. Final project selection will be complete by fall 2018.
  • As part of the Impact Canada Initiative, Canada launched four clean technology challenges in 2018: Women in Cleantech Challenge, Sky’s the Limit Challenge (biojet fuel), Power Forward Challenge (smart grids). And Crush It! Challenge (mining).
  • Canada is working with industry and provincial governments to reduce the cost of carbon capture and test new ways to make marketable products out of carbon dioxide, further improving the economics of carbon capture, use, and storage.
  • British Columbia’s Clean Tech Venture Capital program continues to provide a 30% tax credit to British Columbia’s resident investors.
  • In July 2018, Alberta committed funding to the BOMA Biotechnology, Electricity and Sustainable Transportation (BEST) Challenge and announced the Industrial Efficiency Challenge to help energy-intensive industries cut emissions. Alberta is committing funding to the Climate Change Innovation and Technology Framework’s Clean Technology Development Program to support the development of novel clean technologies, and funding decisions will be announced by December 2018. The Alberta Carbon Conversion Technology Centre opened in May 2018 and fills a gap in large-scale infrastructure in the innovation chain that allows for potential CO2 utilization and conversion technologies to be tested at near commercial scale.
  • Québec’s Innovation program to spark development and marketing of new clean technologies will be launched in fall 2018.
  • In 2018, Nova Scotia announced a new venture capital fund for priority projects including clean technology and also reviewed submissions to the Spark Innovation Challenge which provides funding to successful applicants in support of the development of innovative products, particularly in clean technology, information technology, life sciences, and ocean technology. Nova Scotia also continues to support start-up green technology companies through the CleanTech Accelerate Program, which in 2018 supported six Nova Scotia companies.
Mission-oriented research and development
  • Canada has already made significant progress on its Mission Innovation objectives, including on doubling federal clean energy research, development, and demonstration expenditures. In May 2019, Canada will be hosting the 4th annual Mission Innovation Ministerial meeting in Vancouver to position itself as a global leader on clean energy and innovation by showcasing “made-in-Canada” clean energy solutions and provincial and territorial clean energy accomplishments, and by highlighting clean energy businesses and investment opportunities to our international partners.
  • In December 2018, funding announcements will be completed for three challenges launched by Emission Reduction Alberta: Sands Innovation Challenge, Industrial Efficiency Challenge and the BEST challenge which focuses on supporting technologies that demonstrate the potential to reduce GHG emissions.
  • Ontario approved funding for new projects under the Ontario Research Fund – Research Excellence program and in April 2018, approved funding for five clean technology projects. In 2017-2018, Ontario supported research and innovation by committing to provide financial incentives for clean technology initiatives.
  • Québec funded several research and development projects in transportation electrification in 2017-2018 and continues to work on a number of other research and development initiatives. In 2019, Québec will launch work on the green economy (Observatoire sur l’economie verte) to define concepts such as clean growth, clean technology industry, circular economy, and green jobs.
  • In the summer of 2018, the New Brunswick Energy Solutions Corporation partnered with Moltex Energy and Advanced Reactor Concepts to further develop the research cluster in the province and build on the existing work at the University of New Brunswick at the Centre for Nuclear Energy Research. Both companies will invest $5 million in operations and research in the province.
  • Nova Scotia provided funding to the Research Nova Scotia Trust which supports research projects, including in the area of clean technology.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador will launch its first innovation challenge in 2018-2019 which will aim to develop innovative solutions to current problems while stimulating the clean technology industry.

5.2 Accelerating commercialization and growth

Access to government programs
  • Canada’s Clean Growth Hub launched in January 2018 to leverage existing knowledge, expertise and relationships across the Government of Canada while providing an easy, single point of contact for clean technology users and producers. Sixteen departments and agencies are official members of the Hub, with staff from ten departments co-located. In 2018, the Hub established a central office and continue to work to improve client service, tracking results and clean technology coordination. Over 650 companies have engaged with the Hub since its launch.
  • British Columbia launched the B.C. Smart Communities pilot program, to help local governments use data and connected technology to improve services and address community challenges.
  • To encourage private investment in clean technology solutions, Ontario, as part of its new environment plan released on November 29, 2018, will establish a $350-million emission reduction fund (“The Ontario Carbon Trust”) to support and encourage investments across the province for initiatives that reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Ontario will also launch a $50-million Ontario Reverse Auction, allowing bidders to send proposals for emissions reduction projects and compete for contracts based on the lowest cost greenhouse gas emission reductions.
  • In its 2018-2019 budget, the Government of Québec announced that it will invest up to $50 million to improve access to funding by Québec companies in clean technology.
Increasing support to advance and commercialize innovative technologies
  • In 2017-2018, Sustainable Development Technology Canada approved 24 new projects and signed 28 contracts. Export Development Canada has supported over 250 cleantech companies in the last year. Canada continued to implement Innovative Solutions Canada to strengthen support for small businesses, which launched 31 challenges since being publicly announced on December 14, 2017.
  • British Columbia and Canada continue to manage the $40 million partnership between British Columbia’s Innovative Clean Energy Fund and Sustainable Development Technology Canada’s SD Tech Fund to support the development of pre-commercial clean energy projects and technologies.
  • Alberta launched the Climate Change Innovation and Technology Framework programs in March 2018.
  • In February 2018, Newfoundland and Labrador launched the Technology Sector Work Plan which outlined 27 actions to grow the provincial technology industry. In 2018-2019 the province will introduce seed capital funding to help address the difficulty that new firms have obtaining their first financing, and will continue to implement its five Regional Innovation Systems pilot projects.
Strengthening support for skills development and business leadership
  • Canada’s Student Work Integrated Learning Program launched in February 2018 and has created 57 student work placements in the electricity sector.
  • Alberta’s Growth and Diversification Act, passed June 5, 2018, will stimulate growth across sectors to create more jobs, more economic diversification and more training for the high-tech sector by leveraging existing programs and introducing new programs. In 2017-2018, Alberta funded 11 projects under the Alberta Indigenous Green Employment Program, 16 projects under the Alberta Indigenous Climate Capacity Program and 26 projects under the Alberta Indigenous Climate Planning Program.
  • In 2017-2018, Québec funded a number of sustainable economic development projects. In May 2018 Québec launched its National Workforce Strategy which recognizes “the transition to a greener economy” as one of the four major areas of economic transformation to which the labor market must adapt.
  • Nova Scotia’s Energy Training Program develops the energy workforce in Nova Scotia by encouraging private sector employers to hire post-secondary students for career-related work terms. In 2018, Nova Scotia’s Pengrowth-Nova Scotia Energy Scholarship Program provided 17 students with new scholarship funding to pursue energy-related studies, and the CleanTech Development Program awarded funding to five clean technology start-ups.
  • Yukon is working on an Innovation Hub which will offer a dynamic space that promotes an entrepreneurial culture of innovation and commercialization.
Expedite immigration of highly qualified personnel
  • Québec continues to work with Canada to attract highly skilled workers through the Global Talent Stream and in 2017-2018, 12 Researcher Certificates and three Expert Certificates have been awarded to projects related to clean technologies or the fight against climate change.
  • In 2018-2019, Newfoundland and Labrador is working with provincial and federal partners to explore the creation of new immigration entrepreneurship categories under the Provincial Nominee Program.
Promoting exports of clean technology goods and services
  • British Columbia is investing in the Alacrity Foundation of B.C.’s Cleantech Scale-Up program to guide growing companies in generating new international business opportunities, and promotes investment in B.C. clean technology companies
  • In 2017-2018, Québec organized 22 activities which promoted Québec clean technology companies
  • The Standards Council of Canada successfully advanced six standardization proposals between April, 2017 and March, 2018 which will grow Canadian exports and create jobs, targeting key areas including clean technologies.

5.3 Fostering adoption

Leading by example: greening government operations
  • Canada released a Greening Government Strategy in 2017 which includes green procurement and clean technology adoption provisions; sub-targets to green real property (net-zero carbon ready buildings), fleet (purchase of hybrid and electric vehicles) and electricity (purchase of 100% clean electricity) have been set that will result in departments procuring clean technologies to meet their targets.
  • The Government of Canada is exploring opportunities to purchase sustainable biojet fuel for future use in federal aviation fleets once it is commercially available at a competitive price.
  • The Government of British Columbia is streamlining the procurement of priority clean technologies for municipalities and other public sector organizations through the Carbon Neutral Government program. The Government of British Columbia is creating a procurement concierge service to connect commercial-ready vendors to government buyers.
  • In 2018, Alberta completed a study that assessed a variety of green technologies for capital projects to evaluate emissions aversion and a return on investment. Additionally, Alberta is installing solar photovoltaic on all roof replacement projects of its government-owned buildings.
  • Manitoba has a Green Building Policy, which outlines green building requirements for buildings funded by the Manitoba government, and plans to renew and expand the program in 2019.
  • Québec has launched a call for proposals for projects that reduce GHG emissions and increase energy efficiency at educational institutions.
  • Prince Edward Island has embarked on an energy efficiency and fuel-switching initiative in government owned facilities. Light fuel oil-fired heating systems are being replaced with biomass heating systems (20 systems within the next 5 years). Each year, 5-10 energy efficiency projects will also be completed over the next 4 years.
  • In 2018-2019, Newfoundland and Labrador will provide opportunities for firms to introduce and demonstrate their new and innovative product, service, or technology in the public sector.
Supporting Indigenous peoples and northern and remote communities adopt and adapt clean technologies
  • In June 2018, Alberta increased the funding to the Indigenous Climate Leadership Initiative’s Alberta Indigenous Green Energy Development Program, (AIGEDP) which assists Alberta’s Indigenous communities and organizations acquire an ownership stake in Alberta’s rapidly- expanding renewable energy sector. In 2017-2018, through the AIGEDP, the Government of Alberta supported 26 different projects related to commercial scale community-owned renewable energy generation projects.
  • Two Mi’kmaq communities were successful applicants in the 2017-2018 round of Nova Scotia’s Solar Electricity for Community Buildings Program. Nova Scotia’s First Nations Home Energy Efficiency Project provided significant energy efficiency updates to 100 on-reserve Mi’kmaq homes in 2018.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador is exploring opportunities to pursue alternative energy generation in its electricity-isolated diesel systems by working with communities and renewable energy proponents to identify renewable energy solutions.
  • Yukon worked with Canada to assess the impact of adding significant amounts of solar- and wind-generated electricity to a micro-grid in Yukon, and through the Northern REACHE program which supports the deployment of community-scale clean technology projects with the goal of reducing the North’s reliance on diesel. Yukon provides funding for First Nation Governments to develop clean energy projects which lead to community ownership of clean energy assets.
  • Nunavut’s Climate Change Secretariat recently submitted a project application to the Government of Canada to start developing Community Energy Planning in the territory.
Consumer and industry adoption
  • So far this year Canada’s Fisheries and Aquaculture Clean Technology Adoption Program has provided over $2.6 million to support 26 projects improving the environmental performance of Canada’s fisheries, aquaculture and fish processing sectors.
  • In 2018, Québec launched a call for proposals for projects to acquire, install and market clean equipment, processes and technologies that enable Québec companies to reduce their GHG emissions. In 2017-2018, 116 companies were supported in the development of green sectors and energy efficiency in companies.

5.4 Strengthening collaboration and metrics for success

Enhance alignment between federal, provincial and territorial actions
  • Canada, through the Program of Energy Research and Development, continues to invest in R&D on highly energy efficient, culturally-appropriate housing in each of the territories in collaboration with territorial governments and housing providers.
  • In 2018, the Atlantic Growth Strategy supported efforts to meet emissions reduction targets, grow the economy, and build resilience to a changing climate.
Establishing a clean technology data strategy
  • Canada has been working to advance the Clean Technology Data Strategy and in June 2018 released quarterly national data on natural resources sectors, as well as provincial and territorial data.
  • The Clean Growth Hub held a series of workshops with federal clean technology and innovation programs in summer and fall 2018 as a first step to identify a standard set of program and project data that can be used for whole of government reporting.
  • Under the Ontario-Québec Joint Work Plan on Economic Development Through Climate Change Innovation, the two provinces partnered with Statistics Canada and the Subcommittee on the Federal Clean Technology Data Strategy to identify issues related to definitions in clean technology.

Cross cutting


  • In 2017, the Government of Canada launched the Generation Energy initiative, a national dialogue which engaged over 380,000 people on the future of energy in Canada. The Council’s report, released in June 2018, rests on four pathways: energy efficiency, electrification, renewable fuels, and cleaner oil and gas production.

British Columbia

  • In December 2018, the Government of British Columbia released its CleanBC plan aimed at reducing climate pollution, while creating more jobs and economic opportunities for people, businesses and communities.
  • The plan prioritizes:
    • reducing climate pollution by shifting homes, vehicles, industry and business off burning fossil fuels and toward greater use of clean B.C. electricity and other renewable energies
    • boosting energy-efficient solutions, like zero-emission vehicles and home heat pumps, by making them more affordable and available for British Columbians
    • becoming a destination for new investment and industry looking to meet the growing global demand for low-carbon products, services and pollution-reducing technologies
  • British Columbia participates in the Pacific Coast Collaborative, where in partnership with Washington, Oregon, California and key, west coast cities, the province made a number of new commitments in September 2018 in the areas of transportation, buildings, waste, and infrastructure resilience.
  • On December 4, 2017, Saskatchewan released Prairie Resilience: A Made-in-Saskatchewan Climate Change Strategy. Focused on enhancing the overall resilience of the province to climate change, the strategy includes commitments to: reduce greenhouse gas emissions from large emitters, from the upstream oil and gas sector, and from electricity generation; to improve the efficiency of buildings and transportation systems; and to ensure communities are prepared for a changing climate.
  • Ontario joined Canada and other jurisdictions in the Power Past Coal Alliance Declaration to commit to accelerate the phase-out of traditional coal power in a sustainable and economic inclusive way. Ontario’s shutting down of all coal-fired generation plants in the province (completed in 2014) has been the largest single greenhouse gas emissions reduction, not just in Ontario but Canada, since 1990.
  • Ontario demonstrated leadership and commitment to climate change action through international engagement and participation in international initiatives such as the Under2 Coalition, a subnational government climate action network.
  • On October 31, 2018, Ontario passed legislation that provides a framework for the wind down of its cap and trade program, including compensation framework. The legislation also requires Ontario to prepare and publish a climate change plan and to set targets for reducing the amount of greenhouse gas emissions in the province. On November 29, 2018, Ontario released “Preserving and Protecting our Environment for Future Generations: A Made-in-Ontario Environment Plan” to build a resilient Ontario that protects waters and air, cleans up communities and encourages conservation. The plan includes Ontario’s new climate change plan and adopts Canada’s Paris Agreement emissions reduction target of 30% below 2005 emissions levels by 2030.
Prince Edward Island
  • The Government of Prince Edward Island released a new, 5-year Climate Change Action Plan in May 2018. The Climate Change Action Plan will guide Prince Edward Island’s efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 30% (below 2005 levels) by 2030 and adapt to a changing climate. This Action Plan will contribute to the goals and objectives of the PCF and address local challenges and opportunities to build a more sustainable and innovative future for the province.
Northwest Territories
  • The Northwest Territories released its 2030 Energy Strategy in May 2018. The Strategy focuses on creating a secure, affordable and sustainable energy system. The long-term vision is to develop the energy potential of the Northwest Territories and support Canada’s climate change objectives. The Strategy will see over $180 million in investments over the first three years. As part of the Strategy, the Territory will advance the Taltson hydroelectricity expansion project to connect clean power to industrial customers and to the North American electricity system.
Atlantic provinces
  • The Conference of the New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers approved the 2017 Update of the Regional Climate Change Action Plan - Building on Solid Foundations. Inter-jurisdictional working groups have been formed and collaborative discussions are underway.
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