Pulp and paper technical guidance: questions and answers to assist mills, chapter 3

What is a confirmed effect?

A confirmed effect is an observed effect that is detected in consecutive biological monitoring studies and indicates that the effect is related to the mill rather than artifacts of the testing process. Specific biological endpoints (e.g., fish liver size, taxon density) are assessed statistically to determine if there are any effects on the fish population, benthic invertebrate community or fish tissue. For the regulatory definition of "effect," see the Pulp and Paper Effluent Regulations (section 1 of Schedule IV).

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