Big Creek National Wildlife Area

Notice

Big Creek National Wildlife Area is open to the public for day-use only. While most trails will be opened from June 1st, some trails and visitor facilities may remain closed until such time that they can be safely re-opened.

Please respect social distancing measures. Respect the environment and leave no trace.

Remember, you are responsible for your own safety.

We hope to provide visitors with additional access to services and facilities in the near future as conditions allow, and subject to the direction from federal and provincial health authorities.

For more information, please consult our Q&A page

Big Creek National Wildlife Area (NWA) is located on the north shore of Lake Erie. The NWA has great ecological and social value. Every year, tens of thousands of migratory birds visit Long Point NWA during migration.

Description

Big Creek NWA is on the north shore of Lake Erie, 3 kilometers (km) southwest of Port Rowan, Ontario. The NWA is at the base of the Long Point peninsula. It is home to awealth of wildlife, including:

  • birds
  • frogs
  • turtles
  • amphibians
  • insects
  • other species

This wildlife relies on wetland habitats. The extensive marshes at the mouth of Big Creek are undisturbed compared to other Great Lakes coastal wetlands. These marshes are a major staging area for waterfowl and more than 200 bird species. These species use the area during their spring and fall migrations.

Wetland within Big Creek National Wildlife Area, with water lilies in the foreground

Big Creek NWA is 771 hectares (ha). It consists of two units - Big Creek Unit (615 ha), and Hahn Marsh Unit (156 ha). The wetlands of Big Creek NWA are located along the northshore of Lake Erie, at the base of the Long Point peninsula. This is also the location of the largest sandspit-marsh complex of the Great Lakes.

Worldwide, many recognize Big Creek NWA for its extraordinary ecological and social value. The Ramsar Convention recognizes it as a wetland of international importance. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry designate it as a provincially significant wetland. The NWA is part of the Long Point Peninsula and Marshes Important Bird Area. It is also part of the Long Point World Biosphere Reserve buffer zone.

Every spring and fall, tens of thousands of waterfowl visit the Long Point region during annual migration. You can often find up to 100 000 waterfowl (ducks, geese, and swans) resting and feeding at Long Point and its marshes during the peak of fall migration. Over 200 species of birds have been observed at the Big Creek NWA. More than 80 of those species breed at the NWA.

Big Creek NWA also shelters a number of species at risk. Endangered species include the king rail and prothonotary warbler. Threatened species include:

Species of special concern include:

Seasonal highlights within the NWA include:

  • waterfowl migration (spring and fall)
  • turtle nesting (June)
  • monarch migration (August and September)

The water levels within some sections of the wetlands at Big Creek are artificially controlled using an impoundment technique. A system of pumps and dykes mimics the natural rise and fall of water levels. This triggers a diversity of plant growth. As aresult, a greater diversity of wildlife is able to survive and thrive.

The practice of controlling water levels can also be helpful in controlling the growth and spread of invasive plant species. This includes the non-native invasive European common reed (phragmites australis) often referred to as non-native phragmites. The water-level variation has vastly improved the habitats at Big Creek NWA.

Find more informationon Big Creek NWA in the summary table below.

Management

Under the Canada Wildlife Act, NWAs are protected and managed in accordance with the Wildlife Area Regulations. The primary purpose of NWAs is to protect and conserve wildlife and their habitat. For this purpose and according to the legislation, all activities in a NWA that could interfere with the conservation of wildlife can be prohibited. Consequently, most NWAs are not accessible to the public and all activities are prohibited. However, some activities may be authorized through public notice or the issuance of permits as long as they are consistent with the management plan goals for the NWA. For more information, consult the NWAs Management and Activities section.

Planning your visit

Lovely views of wildlife and wildlife habitats await you atop one of the two viewing towers inthe Big Creek Unit of this NWA. One of these viewing towers can be accessed directly from the public parking lot on Highway 59 (Causeway). The second tower is down a short trail. The trail is open year-round. It runs from the parking lot, through the marsh and along the top of the dyke.

For parts of the year, this trail extends another 1.5 km into the marsh interior. This trail is closed, however, during the fall bird migration to prevent from disturbing the animals while they gain strength for their long journeys.

Wetland within Big Creek National Wildlife Area

The NWA is open from May to September for:

  • bird-watching
  • hiking and photography on designated trails and dyke-tops
  • recreational boating and fishing (no lead sinkers)

There are some limited opportunities for public waterfowl hunting at the Big Creek and Hahn Marsh Units. Federal and provincial regulations and permits apply to all activities at the NWA.

Access to Big Creek NWA is seasonally restricted and activities are permitted in accordance with the conservation goals of the NWA management plan. Public notices listing the authorized activities are posted at access points.

Location

The entrance to the Big Creek Unit of the Big Creek NWA (42.593701,-80.448457) is located on Highway 59 (Causeway). It is southwest of Port Rowan. There is a parking area and signage at the entrance. This will be on your right when heading south towards Long Point.

The entrance to the Hahn Marsh Unit of the BigCreek NWA (42.583441,-80.520648) is located on Lakeshore Road (County Road 42), west of Highway 59. There is signage at the entrance on Lakeshore Road (County Road 42). A laneleads to a public parking lot. There are no designated trails at this site.

You can obtain more information on access and permitting for Big Creek NWA by contacting the Environment and Climate Change Canada regional office.

Map of the area

Map of Big Creek NWA
Long description

This map shows the area of Port Royal on the north shore of Lake Erie in Ontario. The boundaries of the Big Creek Unit, and the Hahn Marsh Unit, of Big Creek NWA are indicated. The Big Creek Unit covers land and water southeast of Port Royal and north of Lake Erie. It is adjacent to Coletta Bay.The Hahn Marsh Unit lies west of the Big Creek Unit. The scale on the map is in kilometers. Permanent water and roads are indicated on the map. A small insetnational map shows the NWA’s location in Canada.

This map is for illustrative purposes only and should not be used to define legal boundaries.

Summary table

Summary table
Category Information
Protected area designation NWA
Province/territory Ontario
Latitude/longitude Big Creek Unit: 42°59' North (N) / 80°46' West (W)
Hahn Marsh Unit: 42°58' N / 80°53' West
Size 771 ha
Reason for creation of protected area
  • important area for waterfowl staging during spring and autumn migration
  • presence of species at risk
Date created (Gazetted) 1977 - Legal description
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Management Category IV - Habitat/Species Management Area
Additional designations
Keystone or flagship species
Listed species under the Species at Risk Act (SARA)

Endangered species:

Threatened species:

Species of special concern:

Main habitat type
  • 95% wetland
  • 5% woodland
Faunistic and floristic importance The wetlands at Big Creek provide essential habitat for an astounding assortment and rare:

  • wild plants
  • animals
  • insects
  • fish
  • reptiles
  • amphibians

The Hahn Woods, a woody swamp, provides nesting habitat for 31 known species of birds.

Invasive species
  • common reed (phragmites australis)
  • mute swan
  • European frog-bit
  • alder
Main threats and challenges Controlling exotic invasive species including:

  • phragmites australis
  • mute swans
  • European frog bit
Management Agency Environment and Climate Change Canada (Canadian Wildlife Service)
Public access and usage The NWA is open to the public mid-May to mid-September, on designated trails and dyke tops, for:

  • Bird watching
  • Hiking
  • Photography

Note: If there is a discrepancy between the information presented on this web page and any notice posted at the NWA site, the notice prevails, as it is the legal instrument authorizing the activity.

Contact us

Environment and Climate Change Canada - Ontario Region
Canadian Wildlife Service
Protected Areas Program
4905 Dufferin Street
Toronto ON
M3H 5T4

Toll-free: 1-800-668-6767 (in Canada only)
Email: ec.enviroinfo.ec@canada.ca

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