Enhanced Fujita scale damage indicators and degrees of damage, chapter 27

C-2 Trees (C-T)

Typical Species:

  • Hardwood: Oak, Maple, Birch, Ash, Beech, Cherry, Hickory, Walnut, Aspen, Elm, Poplar
  • Softwood: Pine, Spruce, Fir, Hemlock, Cedar, Larch, Redwood, Cypress


  • General differences in the responses of softwood and hardwood species are less important than other factors
  • Decrease toward lower-bound wind speed if trees show evidence of significant rot, or if uprooting occurs with saturated ground or very shallow soil
  • In urban / suburban areas, trees broken at base of trunk were likely planted too deeply, had mechanical injury or had girdling roots - decrease toward lower-bound wind speed
  • For forests and woodlots composed of even-aged monoculture plantations, decrease toward lower-bound wind speed; for forests or woodlots composed of mature, deep-rooted red oak, red maple, beech, hemlock or white cedar, increase toward upper-bound wind speed
  • Increase toward upper-bound wind speed if there are no leaves on trees (e.g., spring or fall)
Table 27. Degree of Damage (DOD) for Expected (EXP), Lower Bound (LB) and Upper Bound (UB)
DOD Damage Description EXP* LB* UB*
1 Small limbs broken  (less than 2 cm diameter) 70 55 85
2 Large branches broken  (2-8 cm diameter) 90 65 110
3 Up to 20% of mature trees snapped and/or uprooted 115 80 150
4 More than 20% of mature trees snapped and/or uprooted 150 105 190
5 More than 50% of mature trees snapped and/or uprooted 190 145 230
6 More than 80% of mature trees snapped and/or uprooted; numerous trees may be denuded/debarked by missiles with only stubs of largest branches remaining 235 190 275

*All wind speeds in km/h

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