Enhanced Fujita scale damage indicators and degrees of damage, chapter 29

C-4 Solid Masonry Houses (C-SMH)

Typical Construction:

  • Asphalt shingles, tile, slate or metal roof covering
  • Flat, gable, hip, mansard or mono-sloped roof or combinations thereof
  • Plywood/OSB or wood plank roof deck
  • All exterior walls are solid masonry construction (e.g. double brick)
  • Roof is wood joist and rafter construction


  • With hip roof, increase toward upper-bound wind speed for Degree of Damage 4 (DODx) and DOD5
Table 29. Degree of Damage (DOD) for Expected (EXP), Lower Bound (LB) and Upper Bound (UB)
DOD Damage Description EXP* LB* UB*
1 Threshold of visible damage 105 85 130
2 Loss of roof covering material (up to 20%), gutters and/or awning; loss of vinyl or metal siding 125 100 155
3 Broken glass in doors and windows 155 125 185
4 Uplift of roof deck and loss of significant roof covering material (more than 20%); collapse of chimney; garage doors collapse inward; failure of porch or carport 155 130 185
5 Large sections of roof structure removed (more than 50%); most walls remain standing 195 165 240
6 Exterior walls collapsed 245 210 285
7 Most walls collapsed, except small interior rooms 285 245 325
8 Complete destruction of building 315 275 355

*All wind speeds in km/h

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