Consultation on Amending the List of Species under the Species at Risk Act: Terrestrial Species – January 2018
- Table of contents
- Addition of species to the Species at Risk Act
- Questions to guide your comments
- The Species at Risk Act and the List of Wildlife Species at Risk
- COSEWIC and the assessment process for identifying species at risk
- Terms used to define the degree of risk to a species
- Terrestrial and aquatic species eligible for Schedule 1 amendments
- Comments solicited on the proposed amendment of Schedule 1
- The Species at Risk Act Listing Process and Consultation
- The purpose of consultations on amendments to the List
- Legislative context of the consultations: the Minister’s recommendation to the Governor in Council
- Figure 1: The species listing process under SARA
- The Minister of the Environment’s response to the COSEWIC assessment: the response statement
- Normal and extended consultation periods
- Who is consulted, and how
- Role and impact of public consultations in the listing process
- Significance of the Addition of a Species to Schedule 1
- The List of Species Eligible for an Amendment to Schedule 1
- Status of the recently assessed species and consultation paths
- Providing comments
- Table 1: Terrestrial species recently assessed by COSEWIC eligible for addition to Schedule 1 or reclassification
- Table 2: Terrestrial species recently reassessed by COSEWIC (no consultations – species status confirmation)
- The COSEWIC Summaries of Terrestrial Species Eligible for Addition or Reclassification on Schedule 1
Please submit your comments by
May 22, 2018, for terrestrial species undergoing normal consultations
October 22, 2018, for terrestrial species undergoing extended consultations.
For a description of the consultation paths these species will undergo, please visit the Species at Risk Public Registry (SAR) website.
Please email your comments to the Species at Risk Public Registry.
Comments may also be mailed to:
Canadian Wildlife Service
Environment and Climate Change Canada
Ottawa ON K1A 0H3
For more information on the Species at Risk Act, please visit the Species at Risk Public Registry website.
The following questions are intended to assist you in providing comments on the proposed amendments to the List of Wildlife Species at Risk (see Table 1 for the list of species under consultation). They are not limiting, and any other comments you may have are welcome. We also encourage you to share descriptions and estimates of costs or benefits to you or your organization where possible, as well as to propose actions that could be taken for the conservation of these species.
1. Are you responding as:
- an individual or;
- representing a community, business or organization (please specify)?
2. Do any or all of the species provide benefits to you or Canada’s ecosystems? If so, please describe these benefits. If possible please provide a monetary or quantitative estimate of their values to you.
- Do any or all of the species provide benefits by supporting your livelihood, for example, through harvesting, subsistence or medicine? If yes, can you estimate the extent of these benefits, for example, how often the harvest takes place, the quantity harvested, and the uses of the harvested species (e.g., medicine, food, clothes, etc.)?
- Do any or all of the species provide cultural or spiritual benefits, for example, recreation, sense of place or tradition? If yes, how?
- Do any or all of the species provide environmental benefits, for example, pollination, pest control or flood control? If yes, how?
3. Based on what you know about SARA and the information presented in this document, do you think that amending the List of Wildlife Species at Risk with the proposed listing (Table 1) would have:
- no impact on your activities or the species;
- a positive impact on your activities or the species; or
- a negative impact on your activities or the species.
Please explain your choice above, specifically:
4. Do you think that listing the species would result in cultural, social, or economic costs or benefits to you, your community or your organization?
5. Do you think that listing the species would result in any costs or benefits to the environment or Canada's ecosystems?
6. Based on the maps provided in this document, do any of your current or planned activities overlap with any of the species ranges or occurrences?
7. Do any current or planned activities that you are aware of (e.g., land conversion for natural resource, industrial, commercial, or residential development) have the potential to kill, harm, or harass the species and/or destroy any part of its habitat?
- If yes, what are these activities, how would they affect the species, and/or destroy any part of its habitat?
- If yes, what is being done, planned to be done, or could be done to avoid killing, harming, or harassing the species, or destroying its habitat? Please describe what implications and/or costs may be involved (qualitative or quantitative). Would you personally have to adjust or cease any activities?
If you are responding for a small business, please provide the following details to help Environment and Climate Change Canada gather information to contribute to the required Small Business Lens analysis that forms part of the Regulatory Impact Analysis Statement that will accompany any future listing recommendation.
- Are you an enterprise that operates in Canada?
- Do you engage in commercial activities related to the supply of services or property (which includes goods)?
- Are you an organization that engages in activities for a public purpose (e.g., social welfare or civic improvement), such as a provincial or municipal government, school, college/university, hospital or charity?
- Is your enterprise owned by a First Nations community?
- How many employees do you have?
- 100 or more
- What was your annual gross revenue in the last year?
- Less than $30,000
- Between $30,000 and $5 million
- More than $5 million
To ensure that your comments are considered in time, they should be submitted before the following deadlines.
For terrestrial species undergoing normal consultations, comments should be submitted by May 22, 2018.
For terrestrial species undergoing extended consultations, comments should be submitted by October 22, 2018.
To find out which consultation paths these species will undergo (extended or normal), please visit the Species at Risk Public Registry.
Comments received by these deadlines will be considered in the development of the listing proposal.
Please email your comments to the Species at Risk Public Registry.
By regular mail, please address your comments to:
Canadian Wildlife Service
Environment and Climate Change Canada
The Government of Canada is committed to preventing the disappearance of wildlife species at risk from our lands. As part of its strategy for realizing that commitment, on June 5, 2003, the Government of Canada proclaimed the Species at Risk Act (SARA). Attached to the Act is Schedule 1, the list of the species provided for under SARA, also called the List of Wildlife Species at Risk. Extirpated, Endangered and Threatened species on Schedule 1 benefit from the protection afforded by the prohibitions and from recovery planning requirements under SARA. Special Concern species benefit from its management planning requirements. Schedule 1 has grown from the original 233 to 555 wildlife species at risk. In 2017, final listing decisions were made for 44 terrestrial species and 15 aquatic species. Of these 59 species, 35 were new additions, sixteen were reclassifications, three had a change made to how they are defined, two were removed from Schedule 1, one was referred back to COSEWIC for further evaluation and two were the object of ‘do not list’ decisions. In 2017, on the recommendation of the Minister of the Environment, the Governor in Council approved listing proposals for 45 wildlife species. It is proposed that 21 species be added to Schedule 1, 11 be reclassified, 12 would have a change made to how they are defined, and one would be referred back to COSEWIC for further evaluation. The listing proposals were published in Canada Gazette, part I for a 30-day public comment period and final listing decisions for all 45 species are expected by August of 2018.
The complete list of species currently on Schedule 1 can be viewed at: Schedule 1.
Species become eligible for addition to Schedule 1 once they have been assessed as being at risk by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). The decision to add a species to Schedule 1 is made by the Governor in Council further to a recommendation from The Minister of the Environment. The Governor in Council is the formal executive body that gives legal effect to decisions that then have the force of law.
COSEWIC is recognized under SARA as the authority for assessing the status of wildlife species at risk. COSEWIC comprises experts on wildlife species at risk. Its members have backgrounds in the fields of biology, ecology, genetics, Indigenous traditional knowledge and other relevant fields. They come from various communities, including academia, Indigenous organizations, governments and non-governmental organizations.
COSEWIC gives priority to those species more likely to become extinct, and then commissions a status report for the evaluation of the species’ status. To be accepted, status reports must be peer-reviewed and approved by a subcommittee of species specialists. In special circumstances, assessments can be done on an emergency basis. When the status report is complete, COSEWIC meets to examine it and discuss the species. COSEWIC then determines whether the species is at risk, and, if so, it then assesses the level of risk and assigns a conservation status.
The conservation status defines the degree of risk to a species. The terms used under SARA are Extirpated, Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern. Extirpated species are wildlife species that no longer occur in the wild in Canada but still exist elsewhere. Endangered species are wildlife species that are likely to soon become extirpated or extinct. Threatened species are likely to become endangered if nothing is done to reverse the factors leading to their extirpation or extinction. The term Special Concern is used for wildlife species that may become threatened or endangered due to a combination of biological characteristics and threats. Once COSEWIC has assessed a species as Extirpated, Endangered, Threatened or Special Concern, it is eligible for inclusion on Schedule 1.
For more information on COSEWIC, visit the COSEWIC website.
On October 24, 2017, COSEWIC sent to The Minister of the Environment its newest assessments of species at risk. Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) is now consulting on changes to Schedule 1 to reflect these new designations for these terrestrial species. To see the list of the terrestrial species and their status, please refer to tables 1 and 2.
The Minister of Fisheries and Oceans conducts separate consultations for the aquatic species. For more information on the consultations for aquatic species, visit the Fisheries and Oceans Canada website.
The Minister of the Environment is conducting the consultations for all other species at risk.
Approximately 67% of the recently assessed terrestrial species at risk also occur in national parks or other lands administered by Parks Canada; Parks Canada shares responsibility for these species with ECCC.
The conservation of wildlife is a joint legal responsibility: one that is shared among the governments of Canada. But biodiversity will not be conserved by governments that act alone. The best way to secure the survival of species at risk and their habitats is through the active participation of all those concerned. SARA recognizes this, and that all Indigenous peoples and Canadians have a role to play in preventing the disappearance of wildlife species from our lands. The Government of Canada is inviting and encouraging you to become involved. One way that you can do so is by sharing your comments concerning the addition or reclassification of these terrestrial species.
Your comments are considered in relation to the potential consequences of whether or not a species is included on Schedule 1, and they are then used to inform the drafting of the Minister’s proposed listing recommendations for each of these species.
Questions to guide your comments are included at the beginning of the document.
The addition of a wildlife species at risk to Schedule 1 of Species at Risk Act (SARA) facilitates providing for its protection and conservation. To be effective, the listing process must be transparent and open. The species listing process under SARA is summarized in Figure 1.
When COSEWIC assesses a wildlife species, it does so solely on the basis of the best available information relevant to the biological status of the species. COSEWIC then submits the assessment to The Minister of the Environment, who considers it when making the listing recommendation to the Governor in Council. The purpose of these consultations is to provide the Minister with a better understanding of the potential social and economic impacts of the proposed change to the List of Wildlife Species at Risk, and of the potential consequences of not adding a species to the List.
The comments collected during the consultations inform the Governor in Council’s consideration of the Minister’s recommendations for listing species at risk. The Minister must recommend one of three courses of action. These are for the Governor in Council to accept the species assessment and modify Schedule 1 accordingly, not to add the species to Schedule 1, or to refer the species assessment back to COSEWIC for its further consideration (Figure 1).
After COSEWIC has completed its assessment of a species, it provides it to The Minister of the Environment. The Minister of the Environment then has 90 days to post a response on the Species at Risk Public Registry, known as the response statement. The response statement provides information on the scope of any consultations and the timelines for action, to the extent possible. It identifies how long the consultations will be (whether they are “normal” or “extended”) by stating when the Minister will forward the assessment to the Governor in Council. Consultations for a group of species are launched with the posting of their response statements.
Normal consultations meet the consultation needs for the listing of most species at risk. They usually take two to three months to complete, while extended consultations may take one year or more.
The extent of consultations needs to be proportional to the expected impact of a listing decision and the time that may be needed to consult. Under some circumstances, whether or not a species will be included on Schedule 1 could have significant and widespread impacts on the activities of some groups of people. It is essential that such stakeholders have the opportunity to inform the pending decision and, to the extent possible, to provide input on its potential consequences and to share ideas on how best to approach threats to the species. A longer period may also be required to consult appropriately with some groups. For example, consultations can take longer for groups that meet infrequently but that must be engaged on several occasions. For such reasons, extended consultations may be undertaken.
For both normal and extended consultations, once they are complete, The Minister of the Environment forwards the species assessments to the Governor in Council for the government’s formal receipt of the assessment. The Governor in Council then has nine months to come to a listing decision.
The consultation paths (normal or extended) for the terrestrial species listed in Table 1 will be announced when the Minister publishes the response statements. These will be posted by January 22, 2018, on the Species at Risk Public Registry.
No consultations will be undertaken for those species already on Schedule 1 and for which no change in status is being proposed (Table 2).
It is most important to consult with those who would be most affected by the proposed changes. There is protection that is immediately in place when a species that is Extirpated, Endangered or Threatened is added to Schedule 1 (for more details, see below, “Protection for listed Extirpated, Endangered and Threatened species”). This immediate protection does not apply to species of Special Concern. The nature of protection depends on the type of species, its conservation status, and where the species is found. Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) takes this into account during the consultations; those who may be affected by the impacts of the automatic protections are contacted directly, others are encouraged to contribute through a variety of approaches.
Indigenous peoples known to have species at risk on their lands, for which changes to Schedule 1 are being considered, will be contacted. Their engagement is of particular significance, acknowledging their role in the management of the extensive traditional territories and the reserve and settlement lands.
A Wildlife Management Board is a group that has been established under a land claims agreement and is authorized by the agreement to perform functions in respect of wildlife species. Some eligible species at risk are found on lands where existing land claims agreements apply that give specific authority to a Wildlife Management Board. In such cases, The Minister of the Environment will consult with the relevant board.
To encourage others to contribute and make the necessary information readily available, this document is distributed to known stakeholders and posted on the Species at Risk Public Registry. More extensive consultations may also be done through regional or community meetings or through a more targeted approach.
ECCC also sends notice of this consultation to identified concerned groups and individuals who have made their interests known. These include, but are not limited to, industries, resource users, landowners and environmental non-governmental organizations.
In most cases, it is difficult for ECCC to fully examine the potential impacts of recovery actions when species are being considered for listing. Recovery actions for terrestrial species usually have not yet been comprehensively defined at the time of listing, so their impact cannot be fully understood. Once they are better understood, efforts are made to minimize adverse social and economic impacts of listing and to maximize the benefits. SARA requires that recovery measures be prepared in consultation with those considered to be directly affected by them.
In addition to the public, ECCC consults on listing with the governments of the provinces and territories with lead responsibility for the conservation and management of these wildlife species. ECCC also consults with other federal departments and agencies.
The results of the public consultations are of great significance to informing the process of listing species at risk. ECCC carefully reviews the comments it receives to gain a better understanding of the benefits and costs of changing the List.
The comments are then used to inform the Regulatory Impact Analysis Statement (RIAS). The RIAS is a report that summarizes the impact of a proposed regulatory change. It includes a description of the proposed change and an analysis of its expected impact, which takes into account the results of the public consultations. In developing the RIAS, the Government of Canada recognizes that Canada’s natural heritage is an integral part of our national identity and history and that wildlife in all its forms has value in and of itself. The Government of Canada also recognizes that the absence of full scientific certainty is not a reason to postpone decisions to protect the environment.
A draft Order (see Glossary) is then prepared, providing notice that a decision is being taken by the Governor in Council. The draft Order proposing to list all or some of the species under consideration is then published, along with the RIAS, in the Canada Gazette, Part I, for a comment period of 30 days.
The Minister of the Environment will take into consideration comments and any additional information received following publication of the draft Order and the RIAS in the Canada Gazette, Part I. The Minister then makes a final listing recommendation for each species to the Governor in Council. The Governor in Council next decides either to accept the species assessment and amend Schedule 1 accordingly; or not to add the species to Schedule 1; or to refer the species assessment back to COSEWIC for further information or consideration. The final decision is published in the Canada Gazette, Part II, and on the Species at Risk Public Registry. If the Governor in Council decides to list a species, it is at this point that it becomes legally included on Schedule 1.
The protection that comes into effect following the addition of a species to Schedule 1 depends upon a number of factors. These include the species’ status under SARA, the type of species and where it occurs.
Responsibility for the conservation of wildlife is shared among the governments of Canada. SARA establishes legal protection for individuals as soon as a species is listed as Threatened, Endangered or Extirpated, and, in the case of Threatened and Endangered species, for their residences. This applies to species considered federal species or if they are found on federal land.
Federal species include migratory birds, as defined by the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994, and aquatic species covered by the Fisheries Act. Federal land means land that belongs to the federal government, and the internal waters and territorial sea of Canada. It also means land set apart for the use and benefit of a band under the Indian Act (such as reserves). In the territories, the protection for species at risk on federal lands applies only where they are on lands under the authority of the Minister of the Environment or the Parks Canada Agency.
Migratory birds are protected by the Migratory Birds Regulations, under the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994, which strictly prohibits the harming of migratory birds and the disturbance or destruction of their nests and eggs.
SARA’s protection for individuals makes it an offence to kill, harm, harass, capture or take an individual of a species listed as Extirpated, Endangered or Threatened. It is also an offence to damage or destroy the residence of one or more individuals of an Endangered or Threatened species or an Extirpated species whose reintroduction has been recommended by a recovery strategy. The Act also makes it an offence to possess, collect, buy, sell or trade an individual of a species that is Extirpated, Endangered or Threatened.
Species at risk that are neither aquatic nor protected under the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994, nor on federal lands, do not receive immediate protection upon listing under SARA. Instead, in most cases, the protection of terrestrial species on non-federal lands is the responsibility of the provinces and territories where they are found. The application of protections under SARA to a species at risk on non-federal lands requires that the Governor in Council make an order defining those lands. This can only occur when the Minister is of the opinion that the laws of the province or territory do not effectively protect the species. To put such an order in place, the Minister would then need to recommend the order be made to the Governor in Council. If the Governor in Council agrees to make the order, the prohibitions of SARA would then apply to the provincial or territorial lands specified by the order. The federal government would consult before making such an order.
Recovery planning results in the development of recovery strategies and action plans for Extirpated, Endangered or Threatened species. It involves the different levels of government responsible for the management of the species, depending on what type of species it is and where it occurs. These include federal, provincial and territorial governments as well as Wildlife Management Boards. Recovery strategies and action plans are also prepared in cooperation with directly affected Indigenous organizations. Landowners and other stakeholders directly affected by the recovery strategy are consulted to the extent possible.
Recovery strategies must be prepared for all Extirpated, Endangered and Threatened species. They include measures to mitigate the known threats to the species and its habitat and set the population and distribution objectives. Other objectives can be included, such as stewardship, to conserve the species, or education, to increase public awareness. Recovery strategies must include a statement of the time frame for the development of one or more action plans that will state the measures necessary to implement the recovery strategy. To the extent possible, recovery strategies must also identify the critical habitat of the species, which is the habitat necessary for the survival or recovery of the species. If there is not enough information available to identify critical habitat, the recovery strategy includes a schedule of studies required for its identification. This schedule outlines what must be done to obtain the necessary information and by when it needs to be done. In such cases, critical habitat can be identified in a subsequent action plan.
Proposed recovery strategies for newly listed species are posted on the Species at Risk Public Registry to provide for public review and comment. For Endangered species, proposed recovery strategies are posted within one year of their addition to Schedule 1, and for Threatened or Extirpated species, within two years.
Once a recovery strategy has been posted as final, one or more action plans based on the recovery strategy must then be prepared. These include measures to address threats and achieve the population and distribution objectives. Action plans also complete the identification of the critical habitat where necessary and, to the extent possible, state measures that are proposed to protect it.
For terrestrial species listed on SARA Schedule 1 as Extirpated, Endangered or Threatened, The Minister of the Environment may authorize exceptions to the Act’s prohibitions, when and where they apply. The Minister can enter into agreements or issue permits only for one of three purposes: for research, for conservation activities, or if the effects to the species are incidental to the activity. Research must relate to the conservation of a species and be conducted by qualified scientists. Conservation activities must benefit a listed species or be required to enhance its chances of survival. All activities, including those that incidentally affect a listed species, its individuals, residences or critical habitat must also meet certain conditions. First, it must be established that all reasonable alternatives to the activity have been considered and the best solution has been adopted. Second, it must also be established that all feasible measures will be taken to minimize the impact of the activity on the listed species. And finally, it must be established that the activity will not jeopardize the survival or recovery of the species. Having issued a permit or agreement, the Minister must then include an explanation on the Species at Risk Public Registry of why the permit or agreement was issued.
While immediate protection under SARA for species listed as Extirpated, Endangered and Threatened does not apply to species listed as Special Concern, any existing protections and prohibitions, such as those provided by the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994 or the Canada National Parks Act, continue to be in force.
For species of Special Concern, management plans are to be prepared and made available on the Species at Risk Public Registry within three years of a species’ addition to Schedule 1, allowing for public review and comment. Management plans include appropriate conservation measures for the species and for its habitat. They are prepared in cooperation with the jurisdictions responsible for the management of the species, including directly affected Wildlife Management Boards and Indigenous organizations. Landowners, lessees and others directly affected by a management plan will also be consulted to the extent possible.
On October 24, 2017, COSEWIC submitted 28 assessments of species at risk to the Minister of the Environment for species that are eligible to be added to Schedule 1 of SARA. Thirteen of these are terrestrial species, and 15 are aquatic species. COSEWIC also reviewed the classification of species already on Schedule 1, in some cases changing their status. Four terrestrial species are now being considered for down-listing on SARA (to a lower risk status) and 3 terrestrial species are now being considered for a higher risk status on SARA. One species, the Sonora Skipper, is being considered for removal from the list, as it was found to be not at risk in its latest assessment. In all, 21 terrestrial species that are eligible to be added to Schedule 1, to be removed from Schedule 1, or to have their current status on Schedule 1 changed are included in this consultation (Table 1).
COSEWIC also submitted the reviews of species already on Schedule 1, confirming their classification. Twelve of these reviews were for terrestrial species. These species are not included in the consultations because there is no regulatory change being proposed (Table 2).
For more information on the consultations for aquatic species, visit the Fisheries and Oceans Canada.
The involvement of Canadians is integral to the listing process, as it is to the ultimate protection of Canadian wildlife. Your comments matter and are given serious consideration. ECCC will review all the comments that it receives by the deadlines provided below.
Comments for terrestrial species undergoing normal consultations must be received by May 22, 2018.
Comments for terrestrial species undergoing extended consultations must be received by October 22, 2018.
Most species will be undergoing normal consultations. For the final consultation paths, please visit the Species at Risk Public Registry after January 22, 2018.
For more details on submitting comments, see the section “Comments solicited on the proposed amendment of Schedule 1” of this document.
|Lichens||Golden-eye Lichen (Great Lakes population)||Teloschistes chrysophthalmus||ON|
|Mammals||Caribou (Eastern Migratory population)||Rangifer tarandus||MB ON QC NL|
|Mammals||Caribou (Torngat Mountains population)||Rangifer tarandus||NU QC NL|
|Molluscs||Eastern Banded Tigersnail||Anguispira kochi kochi||ON|
|Birds||Lark Bunting||Calamospiza melanocorys||AB SK MB|
|Mammals||Caribou (Barren-ground population)||Rangifer tarandus||YT NT NU AB SK MB|
|Arthropods||Magdalen Islands Grasshopper||Melanoplus madeleineae||QC|
|Arthropods||Transverse Lady Beetle||Coccinella transversoguttata||YT NT NU BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL|
|Birds||Evening Grosbeak||Coccothraustes vespertinus||YT NT BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL|
|Birds||Harris's Sparrow||Zonotrichia querula||NT NU AB SK MB ON|
|Lichens||Golden-eye Lichen (Prairie / Boreal population)||Teloschistes chrysophthalmus||MB ON|
|Reptiles||Bullsnake||Pituophis catenifer sayi||AB SK|
|Vascular Plants||Long's Bulrush||Scirpus longii||NS|
|Birds||Pink-footed Shearwater||Ardenna creatopus||BC Pacific Ocean|
|Reptiles||Blanding's Turtle (Great Lakes / St. Lawrence population)||Emydoidea blandingii||ON QC|
|Arthropods||Monarch||Danaus plexippus||NT BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL|
|Reptiles||Western Painted Turtle (Pacific Coast population)||Chrysemys picta bellii||BC|
|Vascular Plants||Spotted Wintergreen||Chimaphila maculata||ON QC|
|Vascular Plants||Anticosti Aster||Symphyotrichum anticostense||QC NB|
|Mosses||Rusty Cord-moss||Entosthodon rubiginosus||BC SK|
|Arthropods||Sonora Skipper||Polites sonora||BC|
|Arthropods||Gold-edged Gem||Schinia avemensis||AB SK MB|
|Birds||Burrowing Owl||Athene cunicularia||BC AB SK MB|
|Birds||Prothonotary Warbler||Protonotaria citrea||ON|
|Mammals||Ord's Kangaroo Rat||Dipodomys ordii||AB SK|
|Mosses||Nugget Moss||Microbryum vlassovii||BC|
|Reptiles||Blanding's Turtle (Nova Scotia population)||Emydoidea blandingii||NS|
|Vascular Plants||Butternut||Juglans cinerea||ON QC NB|
|Vascular Plants||Western Prairie Fringed Orchid||Platanthera praeclara||MB|
|Birds||Rusty Blackbird||Euphagus carolinus||YT NT NU BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL|
|Mammals||Nuttall's Cottontail nuttallii subspecies||Sylvilagus nuttallii nuttallii||BC|
|Reptiles||Western Painted Turtle (Intermountain - Rocky Mountain population)||Chrysemys picta bellii||BC|
|Vascular Plants||American Hart's-tongue Fern||Asplenium scolopendrium var. americanum||ON|
For a brief summary of the reasons for the COSEWIC status designation of individual species, and their biology, threats, distribution and other information, please consult: The COSEWIC Summaries of Terrestrial Species Eligible for Addition or Reclassification on Schedule 1 - January 2018
For a more comprehensive explanation of the conservation status of an individual species, please refer to the COSEWIC status report for that species, also available on the Species at Risk Public Registry.
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Ottawa ON K1A 0H3
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