Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) COSEWIC assessment and status report: chapter 3

Technical Summary

Technical Summary - Nunavik Population (DU1)

Salmo salar

Atlantic Salmon
Nunavik population ( DU 1)
Saumon atlantique
Population du Nunavik

Range of Occurrence in Canada: Northern Quebec and Labrador / Atlantic Ocean and Hudson Bay

Demographic Information

Generation time (average age of parents in the population) 6.1 yrs
Estimated percent decrease in total number of mature individuals in 2007 versus 1993 (3 generations) Data deficient, increasing trend in CPUE data
[Projected or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over the next [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations]. unknown
[Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over any [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations] period, over a time period including both the past and the future. N/A
Are the causes of the decline clearly reversible? N/A
Are the causes of the decline understood? N/A
Have the causes of the decline ceased? N/A
Suspected trend in number of populations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? Data deficient
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations? No


Extent and Area Information

Estimated extent of occurrence >20,000 km2
Suspected trend in extent of occurrence Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence? No
Index of area of occupancy (IAO) ≥5,216 km2
Suspected trend in area of occupancy Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy? No
Is the extent of occurrence or area of occupancy severely fragmented? No
Number of current locations 5 known populations
Trend in number of locations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations? No
Trend in area of habitat Stable


Number of Mature Individuals in Each Population

Population N Mature Individuals
  -
Total -


Quantitative Analysis


Threats (actual or imminent, to populations or habitats)

Possible threats include recreational and aboriginal fisheries.


Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source)

Status of outside population(s)? Nearby Labrador populations are increasing.
Is immigration known? No
Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada? Unknown
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? Yes
Is rescue from outside populations likely? No


Current Status

COSEWIC: Data Deficient (Nov 2010)


Status and Reasons for Designation

Status:
Data Deficient
Alpha–numeric code:
Not applicable
Reasons for designation:
This species requires rivers or streams that are generally clear, cool and well-oxygenated for reproduction and several years of rearing, but undertakes lengthy feeding migrations in the North Atlantic Ocean as older juveniles and adults. This population, which breeds in rivers flowing into Ungava Bay and eastern Hudson Bay, is the northernmost population of the species in North America, and the westernmost population of the entire species. It is separated by approximately 650 km from the nearest population to the south. Little is known about abundance trends in this population, although limited catch per unit effort data suggest increased abundance in recent years.


Applicability of Criteria

Criterion A (Decline in Total Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation):
Not applicable.
Criterion C (Small and Declining Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution):
Not applicable.
Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):
Not applicable.

Technical Summary - Labrador Population (DU2)

Salmo salar

Atlantic Salmon
Labrador Population
Saumon atlantique
Population du Labrador

Range of Occurrence in Canada: Labrador, Quebec / Atlantic Ocean

Demographic Information

Generation time (average age of parents in the population) 6.3 yrs
Estimated percent decrease in total number of mature individuals in 2008 versus 1993 (3 generations) 380
[Projected or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over the next [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations]. unknown
[Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over any [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations] period, over a time period including both the past and the future. N/A
Are the causes of the decline clearly reversible? N/A
Are the causes of the decline understood? N/A
Have the causes of the decline ceased? N/A
Suspected trend in number of populations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? No
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations? No


Extent and Area Information

Estimated extent of occurrence >20,000 km2
Suspected trend in extent of occurrence Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence? No
Index of area of occupancy (IAO) >2,000 km2
Suspected trend in area of occupancy Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy? No
Is the extent of occurrence or area of occupancy severely fragmented? No
Number of current locations 91 known rivers
Trend in number of locations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations? No
Trend in area of habitat Stable


Number of Mature Individuals in Each Population

Population N Mature Individuals
  235,874 (151,049 – 307,731)
Total 235,874 (151,049 – 307,731)


Quantitative Analysis


Threats (actual or imminent, to populations or habitats)

Potential threats include recreational and Aboriginal fisheries, mining and hydroelectric development.


Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source)

Status of outside population(s)? Nearby Newfoundland populations are stable or increasing.
Is immigration known? No
Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada? Unknown
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? Yes
Is rescue from outside populations likely? No


Current Status

COSEWIC: Not at Risk (Nov 2010)


Status and Reasons for Designation

Status:
Not at Risk
Alpha–numeric code:
Not applicable
Reasons for designation:
This species requires rivers or streams that are generally clear, cool and well-oxygenated for reproduction and several years of rearing, but undertakes lengthy feeding migrations in the North Atlantic Ocean as older juveniles and adults. This population breeds in rivers along the Atlantic coast of Labrador and southwest along the Quebec coast to the Napetipi River (inclusive). Freshwater habitats remain largely pristine. Abundance data are not available for most rivers; however, for rivers for which data are available, the number of mature individuals appears to have increased by about 380% over the last 3 generations.


Applicability of Criteria

Criterion A (Decline in Total Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation):
Not applicable.
Criterion C (Small and Declining Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution):
Not applicable.
Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):
Not applicable.

Technical Summary - Northeast Newfoundland Population (DU3)

Salmo salar

Atlantic Salmon
Northeast Newfoundland Population
Saumon atlantique
Population du nord-est de Terre-Neuve

Range of Occurrence in Canada: Newfoundland/Atlantic Ocean

Demographic Information

Generation time (average age of parents in the population) 4.2 yrs
Estimated percent decrease in total number of mature individuals in 2007 versus 1993 (3 generations) 10
[Projected or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over the next [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations]. unknown
[Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over any [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations] period, over a time period including both the past and the future. N/A
Are the causes of the decline clearly reversible? N/A
Are the causes of the decline understood? N/A
Have the causes of the decline ceased? N/A
Suspected trend in number of populations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? No
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations? No


Extent and Area Information

Estimated extent of occurrence >20,000 km2
Suspected trend in extent of occurrence Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence? No
Index of area of occupancy (IAO) >2,000 km2
Suspected trend in area of occupancy Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy? No
Is the extent of occurrence or area of occupancy severely fragmented? No
Number of current locations 127 known rivers
Trend in number of locations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations? No
Trend in area of habitat Stable


Number of Mature Individuals in Each Population

Population N Mature Individuals
  80,505 (63,689 –129,967 (2007)
Total 80,505 (63,689 –129,967 (2007)


Quantitative Analysis


Threats (actual or imminent, to populations or habitats)

Recreational and illegal fisheries, poorly understood changes in marine ecosystems resulting in reduced survival during the marine phase of the life history.


Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source)

Status of outside population(s)? Nearby Labrador and Newfoundland populations are stable or increasing, excepting DU 4 (south coast of Newfoundland)
Is immigration known? No
Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada? Unknown
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? Yes
Is rescue from outside populations likely? No


Current Status

COSEWIC: Not at Risk (Nov 2010)


Status and Reasons for Designation

Status:
Not at Risk
Alpha–numeric code:
Not applicable
Reasons for designation:
This species requires rivers or streams that are generally clear, cool and well-oxygenated for reproduction and the first few years of rearing, but undertakes lengthy feeding migrations in the North Atlantic Ocean as older juveniles and adults. This population breeds in rivers along the northeast coast of Newfoundland, from the northern tip of the island to the southeastern corner of the Avalon Peninsula. Recent abundance data show no clear trends in the number of mature individuals. Since 1992, the negative effects of poor marine survival have been at least partially offset by a near cessation of fishing mortality in coastal fisheries. Illegal fishing is a threat in some rivers.


Applicability of Criteria

Criterion A (Decline in Total Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation):
Not applicable.
Criterion C (Small and Declining Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution):
Not applicable.
Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):
Not applicable.

Technical Summary - South Newfoundland Population (DU4)

Salmo salar

Atlantic Salmon
South Newfoundland Population
Saumon atlantique
Population du sud de Terre-Neuve

Range of Occurrence in Canada: Newfoundland/Atlantic Ocean

Demographic Information

Generation time (average age of parents in the population) 4.1 yrs
Estimated percent decrease in total number of mature individuals in 2007 versus 1993 (3 generations) 36
[Projected or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over the next [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations]. unknown
[Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over any [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations] period, over a time period including both the past and the future. N/A
Are the causes of the decline clearly reversible? No
Are the causes of the decline understood? No
Have the causes of the decline ceased? No
Suspected trend in number of populations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? No
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations? No


Extent and Area Information

Estimated extent of occurrence >20,000 km2
Suspected trend in extent of occurrence Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence? No
Index of area of occupancy (IAO) >2,000 km2
Suspected trend in area of occupancy Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy? No
Is the extent of occurrence or area of occupancy severely fragmented? No
Number of current locations 104 known rivers
Trend in number of locations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations? No
Trend in area of habitat Stable


Number of Mature Individuals in Each Population

Population N Mature Individuals
  21,866 (14,021 – 29,711) (2007)
Total 21,866 (14,021 – 29,711) (2007)


Quantitative Analysis


Threats (actual or imminent, to populations or habitats)

Recreational and illegal fisheries, commercial fishery in St. Pierre and Miquelon, ecological and genetic interactions with escaped domestic Atlantic Salmon, poorly understood changes in marine ecosystems resulting in reduced survival during the marine phase of the life history.


Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source)

Status of outside population(s)? Nearby Labrador and Newfoundland populations are stable or increasing.
Is immigration known? No
Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada? Unknown
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? Yes
Is rescue from outside populations likely? No


Current Status

COSEWIC: Threatened (Nov 2010)


Status and Reasons for Designation

Status:
Threatened
Alpha–numeric code:
A2b
Reasons for designation:
This species requires rivers or streams that are generally clear, cool and well-oxygenated for reproduction and the first few years of rearing, but undertakes lengthy feeding migrations in the North Atlantic Ocean as older juveniles and adults. This population breeds in rivers from the southeast tip of the Avalon Peninsula, Mistaken Point, westward along the south coast of Newfoundland to Cape Ray. The numbers of small (one-sea-winter) and large (multi-sea-winter) salmon have both declined over the last 3 generations, about 37% and 26%, respectively, for a net decline of all mature individuals of about 36%. This decline has occurred despite the fact that mortality from commercial fisheries in coastal areas has greatly declined since 1992; this may be due to poor marine survival related to substantial but incompletely understood changes in marine ecosystems. Illegal fishing is a threat in some rivers. The presence of salmon aquaculture in a small section of this area brings some risk of negative effects from interbreeding or adverse ecological interactions with escaped domestic salmon. Genetic heterogeneity among the many small rivers in this area is unusually pronounced, suggesting that rescue among river breeding populations may be somewhat less likely than in other areas.


Applicability of Criteria

Criterion A (Decline in Total Number of Mature Individuals):
Meets Threatened, A2b. The decline over the last 3 generations has been 36%.
Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation):
Not applicable.
Criterion C (Small and Declining Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution):
Not applicable.
Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):
Not applicable.

Technical Summary - Southwest Newfoundland Population (DU5)

Salmo salar

Atlantic Salmon
Southwest Newfoundland Population
Saumon atlantique
Population du sud-ouest de Terre-Neuve

Range of Occurrence in Canada: Newfoundland, Quebec/Atlantic Ocean

Demographic Information

Generation time (average age of parents in the population) 5.3 yrs
Estimated percent decrease in total number of mature individuals in 2007 versus 1993 (3 generations) 134
[Projected or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over the next [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations]. unknown
[Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over any [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations] period, over a time period including both the past and the future. N/A
Are the causes of the decline clearly reversible? N/A
Are the causes of the decline understood? N/A
Have the causes of the decline ceased? N/A
Suspected trend in number of populations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? No
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations? No


Extent and Area Information

Estimated extent of occurrence >20,000 km2
Suspected trend in extent of occurrence Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence? No
Index of area of occupancy (IAO) >2,000 km2
Suspected trend in area of occupancy Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy? No
Is the extent of occurrence or area of occupancy severely fragmented? No
Number of current locations 40 known rivers
Trend in number of locations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations? No
Trend in area of habitat Stable


Number of Mature Individuals in Each Population

Population N Mature Individuals
  44,566 (2007)
Total 44,566 (2007)


Quantitative Analysis


Threats (actual or imminent, to populations or habitats)

Recreational and illegal fisheries, clear cut logging near freshwater habitat.


Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source)

Status of outside population(s)? Nearby Labrador and Newfoundland populations are stable or increasing, except DU 4 on the south coast of Newfoundland.
Is immigration known? No
Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada? Unknown
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? Yes
Is rescue from outside populations likely? No


Current Status

COSEWIC: Not at Risk (Nov 2010)


Status and Reasons for Designation

Status:
Not at Risk
Alpha–numeric code:
Not applicable
Reasons for designation:
This species requires rivers or streams that are generally clear, cool and well-oxygenated for reproduction and the first few years of rearing, but undertakes lengthy feeding migrations in the North Atlantic Ocean as older juveniles and adults. This population breeds in rivers from Cape Ray northwards along the west coast of Newfoundland to approximately 49°24’ N, 58°15’ W. Both small (one-sea-winter) and large (multi-sea-winter) salmon have increased in number over the last 3 generations, about 132% and 144%, respectively, giving an increase in the total number of mature individuals of about 134%.


Applicability of Criteria

Criterion A (Decline in Total Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation):
Not applicable.
Criterion C (Small and Declining Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution):
Not applicable.
Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):
Not applicable.

Technical Summary - Northwest Newfoundland Population (DU6)

Salmo salar

Atlantic Salmon
Northwest Newfoundland Population
Saumon atlantique
Population du nord-ouest de Terre-Neuve

Range of Occurrence in Canada: Newfoundland/Atlantic Ocean

Demographic Information

Generation time (average age of parents in the population) 4.5 yrs
Estimated percent decrease in total number of mature individuals in 2007 versus 1993 (3 generations) 0
[Projected or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over the next [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations]. unknown
[Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over any [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations] period, over a time period including both the past and the future. N/A
Are the causes of the decline clearly reversible? N/A
Are the causes of the decline understood? N/A
Have the causes of the decline ceased? N/A
Suspected trend in number of populations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? No
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations? No


Extent and Area Information

Estimated extent of occurrence >20,000 km2
Suspected trend in extent of occurrence Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence? No
Index of area of occupancy (IAO) >2,000 km2
Suspected trend in area of occupancy Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy? No
Is the extent of occurrence or area of occupancy severely fragmented? No
Number of current locations 34 known rivers
Trend in number of locations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations? No
Trend in area of habitat Stable


Number of Mature Individuals in Each Population

Population N Mature Individuals
  31,179 (20,061 –42,296)(2007)
Total 31,179 (20,061 –42,296)(2007)


Quantitative Analysis


Threats (actual or imminent, to populations or habitats)

Recreational and illegal fisheries.


Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source)

Status of outside population(s)? Nearby Labrador and Newfoundland populations are stable or increasing, except DU 4 on the south coast of Newfoundland.
Is immigration known? No
Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada? Unknown
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? Yes
Is rescue from outside populations likely? No


Current Status

COSEWIC: Not at Risk (Nov 2010)


Status and Reasons for Designation

Status:
Not at Risk
Alpha–numeric code:
Not applicable
Reasons for designation:
This species requires rivers or streams that are generally clear, cool and well-oxygenated for reproduction and the first few years of rearing, but undertakes lengthy feeding migrations in the North Atlantic Ocean as older juveniles and adults. This population breeds in rivers along the west coast of Newfoundland from approximately 49°24’ N, 58°15’ W to the tip of the Great Northern Peninsula. The total number of mature individuals appears to have remained stable over the last 3 generations, and the number of large (multi-sea-winter) salmon appears to have increased by about 42%.


Applicability of Criteria

Criterion A (Decline in Total Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation):
Not applicable.
Criterion C (Small and Declining Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution):
Not applicable.
Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):
Not applicable.

Technical Summary - Quebec Eastern North Shore Population (DU7)

Salmo salar

Atlantic Salmon
Quebec Eastern North Shore Population
Saumon atlantique
Population de l’est de la Côte-Nord du Québec

Range of Occurrence in Canada: Quebec/Atlantic Ocean

Demographic Information

Generation time (average age of parents in the population) 4.7 yrs
Estimated percent decrease in total number of mature individuals in 2007 versus 1993 (3 generations) 14
[Projected or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over the next [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations]. Unknown
[Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over any [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations] period, over a time period including both the past and the future. N/A
Are the causes of the decline clearly reversible? N/A
Are the causes of the decline understood? N/A
Have the causes of the decline ceased? N/A
Suspected trend in number of populations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? No
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations? No


Extent and Area Information

Estimated extent of occurrence >20,000 km2
Suspected trend in extent of occurrence Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence? No
Index of area of occupancy (IAO) ≥4,428 km2
Suspected trend in area of occupancy Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy? No
Is the extent of occurrence or area of occupancy severely fragmented? No
Number of current locations 20 known rivers
Trend in number of locations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations? No
Trend in area of habitat Stable


Number of Mature Individuals in Each Population

Population N Mature Individuals
  4,949
Total 4,949


Quantitative Analysis


Threats (actual or imminent, to populations or habitats)

Recreational, Aboriginal and illegal fisheries, hydroelectric development, poorly understood changes in marine ecosystems resulting in reduced survival during the marine phase of the life history.


Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source)

Status of outside population(s)? Nearby Labrador and Newfoundland populations are stable or increasing, except DU 4 on the south coast of Newfoundland. DUs to the south and west appear to be stable or decreasing (Nova Scotia, and southern New Brunswick DUs)
Is immigration known? No
Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada? Unknown
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? Yes
Is rescue from outside populations likely? No


Current Status

COSEWIC: Special Concern (Nov, 2010)


Status and Reasons for Designation

Status:
Special Concern
Alpha–numeric code:
Met criterion for Threatened, C1, but designated Special Concern because of the increase in the number of large fish that have greater reproductive potential.
Reasons for designation:
This species requires rivers or streams that are generally clear, cool and well-oxygenated for reproduction and the first few years of rearing, but undertakes lengthy feeding migrations in the North Atlantic Ocean as older juveniles and adults. This population breeds in rivers along the north shore of the St. Lawrence River estuary from the Napetipi River (not inclusive) westward to the Kegaska River (inclusive). This population shows opposing trends in the abundance of small (one-sea-winter) and large (multi-sea-winter) fish. Small salmon have declined 26% over the last 3 generations, whereas large salmon have increased 51% over the same period; pooling the data for both groups suggests a decline of about 14% for all mature individuals considered together. The small size of the population, about 5000 mature fish in 2008, is cause for concern. As is the case for most populations of the species, poor marine survival related to substantial but incompletely understood changes in marine ecosystems is also a concern.


Applicability of Criteria

Criterion A (Decline in Total Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation):
Not applicable.
Criterion C (Small and Declining Number of Mature Individuals):
May meet Threatened C1; population is approximately 5,000 individuals and a combined analysis of small and large salmon suggests a 14% decline over the last 3 generations; however, small and large salmon show opposing trends, and large salmon have increased 51%.
Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution):
Not applicable.
Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):
Not applicable.

Technical Summary - Quebec Western North Shore Population (DU8)

Salmo salar

Atlantic Salmon
Quebec Western North Shore Population
Saumon atlantique
Population de l’ouest de la Côte-Nord du Québec

Range of Occurrence in Canada: Quebec/Atlantic Ocean

Demographic Information

Generation time (average age of parents in the population) 4.7 yrs
Estimated percent decrease in total number of mature individuals in 2007 versus 1993 (3 generations) 24
[Projected or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over the next [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations]. Unknown
[Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over any [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations] period, over a time period including both the past and the future. N/A
Are the causes of the decline clearly reversible? N/A
Are the causes of the decline understood? N/A
Have the causes of the decline ceased? N/A
Suspected trend in number of populations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? No
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations? No


Extent and Area Information

Estimated extent of occurrence >20,000 km2
Suspected trend in extent of occurrence Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence? No
Index of area of occupancy (IAO) ≥6,980 km2
Suspected trend in area of occupancy Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy? No
Is the extent of occurrence or area of occupancy severely fragmented? No
Number of current locations 25 known rivers
Trend in number of locations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations? No
Trend in area of habitat Stable


Number of Mature Individuals in Each Population

Population N Mature Individuals
  14,821
Total 14,821


Quantitative Analysis


Threats (actual or imminent, to populations or habitats)

Recreational, Aboriginal and illegal fisheries, hydroelectric development, poorly understood changes in marine ecosystems resulting in reduced survival during the marine phase of the life history.


Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source)

Status of outside population(s)? Nearby Labrador and Newfoundland populations are stable or increasing, except DU 4 on the south coast of Newfoundland. DUs to the south and west appear to be stable or decreasing (Nova Scotia, and southern New Brunswick DUs)
Is immigration known? No
Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada? Unknown
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? Yes
Is rescue from outside populations likely? No


Current Status

COSEWIC: Special Concern (Nov 2010)


Status and Reasons for Designation

Status:
Special Concern
Alpha–numeric code:
Not applicable
Reasons for designation:
This species requires rivers or streams that are generally clear, cool and well-oxygenated for reproduction and the first few years of rearing, but undertakes lengthy feeding migrations in the North Atlantic Ocean as older juveniles and adults. This population breeds in rivers along the north shore of the St. Lawrence River from the Natashquan River (inclusive) to the Escoumins River in the west (inclusive). Small (one-sea-winter) and large (multi-sea-winter) fish have both declined over the last 3 generations, approximately 34% and 20%, respectively, for a net decline of all mature individuals of about 24%. As is the case for most populations of the species, poor marine survival related to substantial but incompletely understood changes in marine ecosystems is a concern.


Applicability of Criteria

Criterion A (Decline in Total Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation):
Not applicable.
Criterion C (Small and Declining Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution):
Not applicable.
Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):
Not applicable.

Technical Summary - Anticosti Island Population (DU9)

Salmo salar

Atlantic Salmon
Anticosti Island Population
Saumon atlantique
Population de l’île d’Anticosti

Range of Occurrence in Canada: Quebec/Atlantic Ocean

Demographic Information

Generation time (average age of parents in the population) 5 yrs
Estimated percent decrease in total number of mature individuals in 2007 versus 1993 (3 generations) 40
[Projected or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over the next [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations]. Unknown
[Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over any [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations] period, over a time period including both the past and the future. N/A
Are the causes of the decline clearly reversible? No
Are the causes of the decline understood? No
Have the causes of the decline ceased? Unknown
Suspected trend in number of populations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? No
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations? Unlikely


Extent and Area Information

Estimated extent of occurrence >20,000 km2
Suspected trend in extent of occurrence Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence? Unlikely
Index of area of occupancy (IAO) 2,584 km2
Suspected trend in area of occupancy Unknown
Are there extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy? No
Is the extent of occurrence or area of occupancy severely fragmented? No
Number of current locations 25 known rivers
Trend in number of locations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations? No
Trend in area of habitat Stable


Number of Mature Individuals in Each Population

Population N Mature Individuals
  2,414 (2008)
Total 2,414 (2008)


Quantitative Analysis


Threats (actual or imminent, to populations or habitats)

Poorly understood changes in marine ecosystems resulting in reduced survival during the marine phase of the life history.


Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source)

Status of outside population(s)? Nearby Quebec and New Brunswick populations appear to be declining or marginally stable.
Is immigration known? No
Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada? Unknown
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? Yes
Is rescue from outside populations likely? No


Current Status

COSEWIC: Endangered (Nov 2010)


Status and Reasons for Designation

Status:
Endangered
Alpha–numeric code:
C1
Reasons for designation:
This species requires rivers or streams that are generally clear, cool and well-oxygenated for reproduction and the first few years of rearing, but undertakes lengthy feeding migrations in the North Atlantic Ocean as older juveniles and adults. This population breeds in rivers on Anticosti Island. Small (one-sea-winter) and large (multi-sea-winter) fish have both declined over 3 generations, approximately 32% and 49%, respectively, for a net decline of all mature individuals of about 40%. The population size is small, about 2,400 individuals in 2008. As is the case for most populations of the species, poor marine survival related to substantial but incompletely understood changes in marine ecosystems is a concern.


Applicability of Criteria

Criterion A (Decline in Total Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable but the decline in large salmon (49%) almost meets Endangered A2b, and the overall decline (40%) meets Threatened A2b.
Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation):
Not applicable.
Criterion C (Small and Declining Number of Mature Individuals):
Meets Endangered, C1; the total number of mature individuals was approximately 2,400 in 2008, and the population has declined about 27% over the last 2 generations.
Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution):
Not applicable.
Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):
Not applicable.

Technical Summary - Inner St. Lawrence Population (DU10)

Salmo salar

Atlantic Salmon
Inner St. Lawrence Population
Saumon atlantique
Population de l’intérieur du Saint-Laurent

Range of Occurrence in Canada: Quebec/Atlantic Ocean

Demographic Information

Generation time (average age of parents in the population) 3.5 yrs
Estimated percent decrease in total number of mature individuals in 2007 versus 1993 (3 generations) 5
[Projected or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over the next [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations]. Unknown
[Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over any [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations] period, over a time period including both the past and the future. N/A
Are the causes of the decline clearly reversible? N/A
Are the causes of the decline understood? N/A
Have the causes of the decline ceased? N/A
Suspected trend in number of populations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? No
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations? No


Extent and Area Information

Estimated extent of occurrence >20,000 km2
Suspected trend in extent of occurrence Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence? No
Index of area of occupancy (IAO) 1,552 km2
Suspected trend in area of occupancy Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy? No
Is the extent of occurrence or area of occupancy severely fragmented? No
Number of current locations 9 known rivers
Trend in number of locations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations? No
Trend in area of habitat Stable


Number of Mature Individuals in Each Population

Population N Mature Individuals
  5,020 (2008)
Total 5,020 (2008)


Quantitative Analysis


Threats (actual or imminent, to populations or habitats)

Poorly understood changes in marine ecosystems resulting in reduced survival during the marine phase of the life history.


Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source)

Status of outside population(s)? Nearby Quebec and New Brunswick populations appear to be declining or marginally stable.
Is immigration known? No
Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada? Unknown
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? Yes
Is rescue from outside populations likely? No


Current Status

COSEWIC: Special Concern (Nov 2010)


Status and Reasons for Designation

Status:
Special Concern
Alpha–numeric code:
Not applicable
Reasons for designation:
This species requires rivers or streams that are clear, cool and well-oxygenated for reproduction and the first few years of rearing, but undertakes lengthy feeding migrations in the North Atlantic Ocean as older juveniles and adults. This highly managed population breeds in rivers tributary to the St. Lawrence River upstream from the Escoumins River (not included) on the north shore and the Ouelle River (included) on the south shore. Small (one-sea-winter) and large (multi-sea-winter) fish have both remained approximately stable in abundance over the last 3 generations. The small size of the population, about 5,000 individuals in 2008, is of concern. The rivers in this area are close to the largest urban areas in Quebec and the population has undergone a large historical decline due to loss of habitat. As is the case for most populations of the species, poor marine survival related to substantial but incompletely understood changes in marine ecosystems is a concern.


Applicability of Criteria

Criterion A (Decline in Total Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation):
Not applicable.
Criterion C (Small and Declining Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution):
Not applicable.
Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):
Not applicable.

Technical Summary - Lake Ontario Population (DU11)

Salmo salar

Atlantic Salmon
Lake Ontario Population
Saumon atlantique
Population du lac Ontario

Range of Occurrence in Canada: Ontario/Atlantic Ocean

Demographic Information

Generation time (average age of parents in the population) 4 yrs
Estimated percent decrease in total number of mature individuals in 2007 versus 1993 (3 generations) N/A
[Projected or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over the next [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations]. N/A
[Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over any [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations] period, over a time period including both the past and the future. N/A
Are the causes of the decline clearly reversible? No
Are the causes of the decline understood? Yes
Have the causes of the decline ceased? Unknown
Suspected trend in number of populations N/A
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? N/A
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations? N/A


Extent and Area Information

Estimated extent of occurrence N/A
Suspected trend in extent of occurrence Unknown
Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence? Unknown
Index of area of occupancy (IAO) N/A
Suspected trend in area of occupancy Unknown
Are there extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy? N/A
Is the extent of occurrence or area of occupancy severely fragmented? N/A
Number of current locations 0
Trend in number of locations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations? Unknown
Trend in area of habitat Unknown


Number of Mature Individuals in Each Population

Population N Mature Individuals
  0
Total 0


Quantitative Analysis


Threats (actual or imminent, to populations or habitats)

Causes of extinction include deterioration in spawning habitat due to timbering, agriculture, and mills and dams across rivers that prevented access to spawning grounds, in addition to extensive commercial and food fisheries. Thiamine deficiency, associated with preying on alewife, has also been implicated as a barrier to restoration of salmon in this area. Invasive species.


Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source)

Status of outside population(s)? Nearby Quebec, and New Brunswick populations are either declining, or small and marginally stable.
Is immigration known? No
Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada? Unknown
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? No
Is rescue from outside populations likely? No


Current Status

COSEWIC: Extinct (Nov 2010)
Ontario’s Endangered Species Act: Extirpated


Status and Reasons for Designation

Status:
Extinct
Alpha–numeric code:
Not applicable
Reasons for designation:
Once a prolific resident throughout the Lake Ontario watershed, there has been no record of this population since 1898. The Lake Ontario population was extinguished through habitat destruction and through over-exploitation by food and commercial fisheries. As the original strain is gone, re-introduction is not possible. Recent attempts to introduce other strains of the species have resulted in some natural reproduction, but no evidence of self-sustaining populations.


Applicability of Criteria

Criterion A (Decline in Total Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation):
Not applicable.
Criterion C (Small and Declining Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution):
Not applicable.
Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):
Not applicable.

Technical Summary - Gaspé-Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence Population (DU12)

Salmo salar

Atlantic Salmon
Gaspé-Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence Population
Saumon atlantique
Population de la Gaspésie-sud du golfe Saint-Laurent

Range of Occurrence in Canada: Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince-Edward Island, Nova Scotia / Atlantic Ocean

Demographic Information

Generation time (average age of parents in the population) 4.6 yrs
Estimated percent decrease in total number of mature individuals in 2007 versus 1993 (3 generations) 28
[Projected or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over the next [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations]. unknown
[Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over any [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations] period, over a time period including both the past and the future. N/A
Are the causes of the decline clearly reversible? N/A
Are the causes of the decline understood? N/A
Have the causes of the decline ceased? N/A
Suspected trend in number of populations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? No
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations? No


Extent and Area Information

Estimated extent of occurrence >20,000 km2
Suspected trend in extent of occurrence Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence? No
Index of area of occupancy (IAO) >2,000 km2
Suspected trend in area of occupancy Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy? No
Is the extent of occurrence or area of occupancy severely fragmented? No
Number of current locations 78 known rivers
Trend in number of locations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations? No
Trend in area of habitat Stable


Number of Mature Individuals in Each Population

Population N Mature Individuals
  102,263 (2007)
Total 102,263 (2007)


Quantitative Analysis


Threats (actual or imminent, to populations or habitats)

Recreational and Aboriginal fishing, agriculture, land development, pollution, poorly understood changes in marine ecosystems resulting in reduced survival during the marine phase of the life history, invasive species in freshwater habitats.


Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source)

Status of outside population(s)? Nearby Quebec and New Brunswick populations appear to be declining or marginally stable.
Is immigration known? No
Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada? Unknown
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? Yes
Is rescue from outside populations likely? No


Current Status

COSEWIC: Special Concern (Nov 2010)


Status and Reasons for Designation

Status:
Special Concern
Alpha–numeric code:
Not applicable
Reasons for designation:
This species requires rivers or streams that are generally clear, cool and well-oxygenated for reproduction and the first few years of rearing, but undertakes lengthy feeding migrations in the North Atlantic Ocean as older juveniles and adults. This population breeds in rivers from the Ouelle River (excluded) in the western Gaspé Peninsula southward and eastward to the northern tip of Cape Breton. Small (one-sea-winter) and large (multi-sea-winter) fish have both declined over the last 3 generations, approximately 34% and 19%, respectively, for a net decline of all mature individuals of about 28%. This recent 3 generation decline represents a continuation of a decline extending back at least to the 1980s. The number of mature individuals remains over 100,000; however, the majority spawn in a single major river system, the Miramichi, in New Brunswick. Freshwater habitat quality is a concern in some areas, particularly in Prince Edward Island where some remaining populations are maintained by hatchery supplementation. Invasive and illegally introduced species, such as smallmouth bass, are a poorly understood threat in some freshwater habitats. Poor marine survival is related to substantial but incompletely understood changes in marine ecosystems.


Applicability of Criteria

Criterion A (Decline in Total Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation):
Not applicable.
Criterion C (Small and Declining Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution):
Not applicable.
Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):
Not applicable.

Technical Summary - Eastern Cape Breton Population (DU13)

Salmo salar

Atlantic Salmon
Eastern Cape Breton Population
Saumon atlantique
Population de l'est du Cap-Breton

Range of Occurrence in Canada: Nova Scotia / Atlantic Ocean

Demographic Information

Generation time (average age of parents in the population) 5 yrs
Estimated percent decrease in total number of mature individuals in 2007 versus 1993 (3 generations) 29
(based on 5 rivers with majority of fish)
[Projected or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over the next [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations]. unknown
[Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over any [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations] period, over a time period including both the past and the future. N/A
Are the causes of the decline clearly reversible? No
Are the causes of the decline understood? No
Have the causes of the decline ceased? No
Suspected trend in number of populations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? No
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations? No


Extent and Area Information

Estimated extent of occurrence >20,000 km2
Suspected trend in extent of occurrence Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence? No
Index of area of occupancy (IAO) 1,684 km2
Suspected trend in area of occupancy Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy? No
Is the extent of occurrence or area of occupancy severely fragmented? No
Number of current locations 30 known rivers
Trend in number of locations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations? No
Trend in area of habitat Stable


Number of Mature Individuals in Each Population

Population N Mature Individuals
Only 5 rivers of 30 included in estimate. 1,150 (2008)
Total 1,150 (2008)


Quantitative Analysis


Threats (actual or imminent, to populations or habitats)

Recreational fishing, habitat loss, poorly understood changes in marine ecosystems resulting in reduced survival during the marine phase of the life history


Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source)

Status of outside population(s)? Nearby Quebec and New Brunswick populations appear to be declining or marginally stable. Newfoundland DU 5 is increasing, while DU 4 is declining.
Is immigration known? No
Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada? Unknown
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? Yes
Is rescue from outside populations likely? No


Current Status

COSEWIC: Endangered (Nov 2010)


Status and Reasons for Designation

Status:
Endangered
Alpha–numeric code:
C1
Reasons for designation:
This species requires rivers or streams that are generally clear, cool and well-oxygenated for reproduction and the first few years of rearing, but undertakes lengthy feeding migrations in the North Atlantic Ocean as older juveniles and adults. This population breeds in Cape Breton Island rivers draining into the Atlantic Ocean and Bras d’Or Lakes. The numbers of adults returning to spawn has declined by about 29% over the last 3 generations; moreover, these declines represent continuations of previous declines. The total number of mature individuals in 5 rivers, thought to harbour the majority of the population, was only about 1,150 in 2008. There is no likelihood of rescue, as neighbouring regions harbour genetically dissimilar populations, and the population to the south is severely depleted. A current threat is poor marine survival related to substantial but incompletely understood changes in marine ecosystems.


Applicability of Criteria

Criterion A (Decline in Total Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable. Estimated decline is just below the threshold for Threatened A2b, with a decline of ~29% over the last 3 generations.
Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation):
Not applicable.
Criterion C (Small and Declining Number of Mature Individuals):
Meets Endangered C1. The estimated number of mature individuals in 2008, 1150, is based on only 5 of 30 rivers, but these are thought to account for the majority of the population and therefore the total is thought to be well below 2500. The estimated decline of ~29% over 3 generations corresponds to ~20% over 2 generations.
Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution):
Not applicable.
Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):
Not applicable.

Technical Summary - Nova Scotia Southern Upland Population (DU14)

Salmo salar

Atlantic Salmon
Nova Scotia Southern Upland Population
Saumon atlantique
Population des hautes terres du sud de la Nouvelle-Écosse

Range of Occurrence in Canada: Nova Scotia / Atlantic Ocean

Demographic Information

Generation time (average age of parents in the population) 4 yrs
Estimated percent decrease in total number of mature individuals in 2007 versus 1993 (3 generations) 61
[Projected or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over the next [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations]. Unknown
[Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over any [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations] period, over a time period including both the past and the future. N/A
Are the causes of the decline clearly reversible? No
Are the causes of the decline understood? No
Have the causes of the decline ceased? No
Suspected trend in number of populations Declining
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? No
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations? No


Extent and Area Information

Estimated extent of occurrence >20,000 km2
Suspected trend in extent of occurrence Declining
Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence? No
Index of area of occupancy (IAO) 4,280 km2
Suspected trend in area of occupancy Declining
Are there extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy? No
Is the extent of occurrence or area of occupancy severely fragmented? No
Number of current locations 31 known rivers
Trend in number of locations Declining
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations? No
Trend in area of habitat Declining


Number of Mature Individuals in Each Population

Population N Mature Individuals
Only 4 of the 31 rivers included in estimate. 1,427(2008)
Total 1,427(2008)


Quantitative Analysis


Threats (actual or imminent, to populations or habitats)

Acidification, habitat loss, recreational fishing, poorly understood changes in marine ecosystems resulting in reduced survival during the marine phase of the life history, ecological and genetic interactions with escaped domestic Atlantic Salmon.


Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source)

Status of outside population(s)? Nearby Nova Scotia and New Brunswick populations appear to be declining.
Is immigration known? No
Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada? Unknown
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? No
Is rescue from outside populations likely? No


Current Status

COSEWIC: Endangered (Nov 2010)


Status and Reasons for Designation

Status:
Endangered
Alpha–numeric code:
A2bce; C1
Reasons for designation:
This species requires rivers or streams that are generally clear, cool and well-oxygenated for reproduction and the first few years of rearing, but undertakes lengthy feeding migrations in the North Atlantic Ocean as older juveniles and adults. This population breeds in rivers from northeastern mainland Nova Scotia, along the Atlantic coast and into the Bay of Fundy as far as Cape Split. Small (one-sea-winter) and large (multi-sea-winter) fish have both declined over the last 3 generations by approximately 59% and 74%, respectively, for a net decline of all mature individuals of about 61%. Moreover, these declines represent continuations of greater declines extending far into the past. During the past century, spawning occurred in 63 rivers, but a recent (2008) survey detected juveniles in only 20 of 51 rivers examined. There is no likelihood of rescue, as neighbouring regions harbour severely depleted, genetically dissimilar populations. The population has historically suffered from dams that have impeded spawning migrations and flooded spawning and rearing habitats, and other human influences, such as pollution and logging, that have reduced or degraded freshwater habitats. Acidification of freshwater habitats brought about by acidic precipitation is a major, ongoing threat, as is poor marine survival related to substantial but incompletely understood changes in marine ecosystems. There are a few salmon farms in this area that could lead to negative effects of interbreeding or ecological interactions with escaped domestic salmon.


Applicability of Criteria

Criterion A (Decline in Total Number of Mature Individuals):
Meets Endangered A2b,c,e with a decline of 61% in the number of mature individuals over the last 3 generations (12 years), in part due to a decline in the quality of the habitat due to acid precipitation. Breeding has ceased in half of the rivers since the 1980s.
Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation):
Not applicable.
Criterion C (Small and Declining Number of Mature Individuals):
Meets Endangered C1. The number of mature individuals in 2008 was 1,427 in 4 rivers thought to include the majority of the population, and therefore is thought to be well below 2,500. The population is declining, with a 2-generation decline of ~40%.
Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution):
Not applicable.
Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):
Not applicable.

Technical Summary - Inner Bay of Fundy Population (DU15)

Salmo salar

Atlantic Salmon
Inner Bay of Fundy Population
Saumon atlantique
Population de l’intérieur de la baie de Fundy

Range of Occurrence in Canada: New Brunswick and Nova Scotia / Atlantic Ocean

Demographic Information

Generation time (average age of parents in the population) 4 yrs
Estimated percent decline in total number of mature individuals over the last 3 generations (11 years; to 2002)
Note: This value was extracted from the 2006 COSEWIC Status Report on the Atlantic Salmon - Inner Bay of Fundy populations. The declining trend did not change in 2003 (Gibson et al. 2004)
> 94% (this is the lowest 90% confidence limit for the healthiest index river)
[Projected or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over the next [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations]. Unknown
[Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over any [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations] period, over a time period including both the past and the future. N/A
Are the causes of the decline clearly reversible? No
Are the causes of the decline understood? No
Have the causes of the decline ceased? No
Suspected trend in number of populations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? No
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations? No


Extent and Area Information

Estimated extent of occurrence >20,000 km2
Suspected trend in extent of occurrence Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence? No
Index of area of occupancy (IAO) Unknown; actual area of occupancy estimated to be no more than 9 km2
Suspected trend in area of occupancy Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy? No
Is the extent of occurrence or area of occupancy severely fragmented? No
Number of current locations 19 known rivers, less populations
Trend in number of locations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations? No
Trend in area of habitat Declining


Number of Mature Individuals in Each Population

Population N Mature Individuals
  <100 (2006)
Total <100 (2006)


Quantitative Analysis


Threats (actual or imminent, to populations or habitats)

Leading marine considerations: interactions with farmed and hatchery salmon (competition with escapees; parasite and disease epidemics), ecological community shifts (increased predation by native species; lack of forage species), depressed population phenomena (lack of recruits to form effective shoals), environmental shifts (regime shift depressing ocean productivity; altered migration routes leading to depressed survival), fisheries (excessive illegal and/or incidental catch), and the possibility of cumulative interactions among these or more factors. Leading freshwater considerations: interbreeding and competition with escaped farm fish, depressed population phenomena (abnormal behaviour due to low abundance; inbreeding depression), changes in environmental conditions (climate changes leading to premature smolt emigration and decreased freshwater productivity; atmospheric changes increasing ultraviolet radiation; increased contaminant concentrations), historical reduction in habitat quality.


Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source)

Status of outside population(s)? Nearby Nova Scotia and New Brunswick populations appear to declining.
Is immigration known? No
Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada? Unknown
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? No
Is rescue from outside populations likely? No


Current Status

COSEWIC: Endangered (Nov 2010)


Status and Reasons for Designation

Status:
Endangered
Alpha–numeric code:
C2a(i,ii); D1
Reasons for designation:
This species requires rivers or streams that are generally clear, cool and well-oxygenated for reproduction and the first few years of rearing, but undertakes feeding migrations in the North Atlantic Ocean as older juveniles and adults. This population once bred in 32 rivers tributary to the inner Bay of Fundy, from just east of the Saint John River, to the Gaspereau River in Nova Scotia; however, spawning no longer occurs in most rivers. The population, which is thought to have consisted of about 40,000 individuals earlier in the 20th century, is believed to have been fewer than 200 individuals in 2008. Survival through the marine phase of the species’ life history is currently extremely poor, and the continued existence of this population depends on a captive rearing program. There is no likelihood of rescue, as neighbouring regions harbour severely depleted, genetically dissimilar populations. The population has historically suffered from dams that have impeded spawning migrations and flooded spawning and rearing habitats, and other human influences, such as pollution and logging, that have reduced or degraded freshwater habitats. Current threats include extremely poor marine survival related to substantial but incompletely understood changes in marine ecosystems, and negative effects of interbreeding or ecological interactions with escaped domestic salmon from fish farms. The rivers used by this population are close to the largest concentration of salmon farms in Atlantic Canada.


Applicability of Criteria

Criterion A (Decline in Total Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable, the population declined from about 40,000 earlier in the 20th century to about 250 individuals in 1999.
Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation):
Not applicable.
Criterion C (Small and Declining Number of Mature Individuals):
Meets Endangered, C2a(i,ii), based on an inferred continuing decline in numbers of mature individuals, and population fragmentation that has resulted in no population estimated to contain more than 250 individuals and for which at least 95% of mature individuals are contained within a single population (Big Salmon River).
Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution):
Meets Endangered, D1 (less than 250 mature individuals). The 2003 fall spawning estimate was less than 100 adults, and the most likely estimate was 50-75.
Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):
Not applicable.

Technical Summary - Outer Bay of Fundy Population (DU16)

Salmo salar

Atlantic Salmon
Outer Bay of Fundy Population
Saumon atlantique
Population de l’extérieur de la baie de Fundy

Range of Occurrence in Canada: New Brunswick / Atlantic Ocean

Demographic Information

Generation time (average age of parents in the population) 4 yrs
Estimated percent decrease in total number of mature individuals in 2007 versus 1993 (3 generations) 64
[Projected or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over the next [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations]. unknown
[Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over any [10 or 5 years, or 3 or 2 generations] period, over a time period including both the past and the future. N/A
Are the causes of the decline clearly reversible? No
Are the causes of the decline understood? No
Have the causes of the decline ceased? No
Suspected trend in number of populations Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? No
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations? No


Extent and Area Information

Estimated extent of occurrence >20,000 km2
Suspected trend in extent of occurrence Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence? No
Index of area of occupancy (IAO) 6,928 km2
Suspected trend in area of occupancy Stable
Are there extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy? No
Is the extent of occurrence or area of occupancy severely fragmented? No
Number of current locations 17 known rivers
Trend in number of locations Declining
Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations? No
Trend in area of habitat Declining


Number of Mature Individuals in Each Population

Population N Mature Individuals
Only 4 rivers included in estimate. 7,584 (2008)
Total 7,584 (2008)


Quantitative Analysis


Threats (actual or imminent, to populations or habitats)

Recreational fishing, habitat loss, genetic and ecological interactions with escaped domestic Atlantic Salmon, poorly understood changes in marine ecosystems resulting in reduced survival during the marine phase of the life history.


Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source)

Status of outside population(s)? Nearby Nova Scotia and New Brunswick populations appear to declining.
Is immigration known? No
Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada? Likely
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? No
Is rescue from outside populations likely? No


Current Status

COSEWIC: Endangered (Nov 2010)


Status and Reasons for Designation

Status:
Endangered
Alpha–numeric code:
A2b
Reasons for designation:
This species requires rivers or streams that are generally clear, cool and well-oxygenated for reproduction and the first few years of rearing, but undertakes lengthy feeding migrations in the North Atlantic Ocean as older juveniles and adults. This population breeds in rivers tributary to the New Brunswick side of the Bay of Fundy, from the U.S. border to the Saint John River. Small (one-sea-winter) and large (multi-sea-winter) fish have both declined over the last 3 generations, approximately 57% and 82%, respectively, for a net decline of all mature individuals of about 64%; moreover, these declines represent continuations of greater declines extending far into the past. There is no likelihood of rescue, as neighbouring regions harbour severely depleted, genetically dissimilar populations. The population has historically suffered from dams that have impeded spawning migrations and flooded spawning and rearing habitats, and other human influences, such as pollution and logging, that have reduced or degraded freshwater habitats. Current threats include poor marine survival related to substantial but incompletely understood changes in marine ecosystems, and negative effects of interbreeding or ecological interactions with escaped domestic salmon from fish farms. The rivers used by this population are close to the largest concentration of salmon farms in Atlantic Canada.


Applicability of Criteria

Criterion A (Decline in Total Number of Mature Individuals):
Meets Endangered A2b. The 3-generation decline in overall numbers of mature salmon is 64% and the decline in large (multi-seawinter) salmon is 82%
Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation):
Not applicable.
Criterion C (Small and Declining Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable.
Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution):
Not applicable.
Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):
Not applicable.
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