Canada warbler COSEWIC assessment and status report: chapter 4

Distribution

Global range

The Canada Warbler breeds across the southern boreal region of Canada and across much of southeastern Canada, northeastern United States, the Great Lakes region, and in a disjunct area of the southern Appalachian Mountains in eastern Tennessee, western South Carolina, and extreme northern Georgia (Conway 1999; Figure 1). In the United States it breeds in northeastern Minnesota, northeastern Wisconsin, the western and northern peninsula of Michigan, central Pennsylvania, northwestern New Jersey, southern Connecticut, southern Rhode Island, and southeastern Massachusetts (Conway 1999). Its range extends south through the southern Appalachian Mountains in eastern Tennessee, western South Carolina, and extreme northern Georgia(Conway 1999; Figure 1).

Its winter range includes, to the north, the eastern part of the Andes foothills in Venezuela and northern Colombia and, to the south, Ecuador, northern Peru, and the Tepui region of northern Brazil (Robinson et al. 1995; American Ornithologist’s Union 1998).

Canadian range

The Canadian range of the Canada Warbler extends from the Maritime provinces to British Columbia, where its range appears to be expanding (Campbell et al. 2007) and includes portions of all Canadian provinces and territories except Nunavut and Newfoundland and Labrador (Figure 1). Its breeding range includes the extreme southeastern Yukon (Sinclair et al. 2003), northeastern British Columbia (from Smith River in the north, south to Dawson Creek; Campbell et al. 2001; South Peace Bird Atlas Society 2006), the southwestern corner of the Northwest Territories (from Fort Simpson in the north to Fort Liard; Machtans and Latour 2003), northern and central Alberta (from Wood Buffalo National Park in the north, south to Cold Lake; Semenchuk 1992), north-central Saskatchewan (Flotten Lake in the north, south to Nipawin;Smith 1996), central and southeastern Manitoba (Moose Lake in the north, south to Whiteshell Provincial Park and the extreme southeast corner of the province; Manitoba Avian Research Committee 2003), north-central and southern Ontario (Favourable Lake in the north, south to Elgin County; Cadman et al. 1987; Wormington pers. comm. 2008), south-central and southern Quebec (Manicouagan Reservoir in the north, south to Gatineau; Gauthier and Aubry 1996), and all of New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia (including Cape Breton Island; Erskine 1992).

An estimated 80% of the Canada Warbler’s global breeding range occurs in Canada (based on range sizes by jurisdiction in PIF Landbird Population Estimates Database 2007), with an extent of occurrence of approximately 2.2 million km² (NatureServe 2007). The area of occupancy of the Canada Warbler is approximately 27,000 km². This value is based on the home range estimate of two ha (Chase 2005), multiplied by a population estimate of 1.35 million pairs, derived from an extrapolation from the Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas (see Abundance section for details).

Figure 1. North American breeding range of the Canada Warbler (based on Cadmanet al. 1987; Gauthier and Aubry 1996; Conway 1999, Campbell et al. 2001; Sinclair et al. 2003; Lambert and Faccio 2005; Bird Studies Canada 2006a; South Peace Bird Atlas Society 2006; NatureServe 2007).

Figure 1. North American breeding range of the Canada Warbler (based on Cadman et al. 1987; Gauthier and Aubry 1996; Conway 1999, Campbell et al. 2001; Sinclair et al. 2003; Lambert and Faccio 2005; Bird Studies Canada 2006a; South Peace Bird Atlas Society 2006; NatureServe 2007).
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