Recovery Strategy for the Dense-flowered Lupine (Lupinus densiflorus) in Canada [Proposed] 2011

Recovery Strategy for the Dense-flowered Lupine (Lupinus densiflorus) in Canada

Species at Risk Act
Recovery Strategy Series

March 2011

Dense-flowered Lupine in flower

SARA is the Act developed by the federal government as a key contribution to the common national effort to protect and conserve species at risk in Canada. SARA came into force in 2003, and one of its purposes is "to provide for the recovery of wildlife species that are extirpated, endangered or threatened as a result of human activity."

In the context of species at risk conservation, recovery is the process by which the decline of an endangered, threatened, or extirpated species is arrested or reversed and threats are removed or reduced to improve the likelihood of the species’ persistence in the wild. A species will be considered recovered when its long-term persistence in the wild has been secured.

A recovery strategy is a planning document that identifies what needs to be done to arrest or reverse the decline of a species. It sets goals and objectives and identifies the main areas of activities to be undertaken. Detailed planning is done at the action plan stage.

Recovery strategy development is a commitment of all provinces and territories and of three federal agencies — Environment Canada, Parks Canada Agency, and Fisheries and Oceans Canada — under the Accord for the Protection of Species at Risk. Sections 37–46 of SARA ( outline both the required content and the process for developing recovery strategies published in this series.

Depending on the status of the species and when it was assessed, a recovery strategy has to be developed within one to two years after the species is added to the List of Wildlife Species at Risk. Three to four years is allowed for those species that were automatically listed when SARA came into force.

In most cases, one or more action plans will be developed to define and guide implementation of the recovery strategy. Nevertheless, directions set in the recovery strategy are sufficient to begin involving communities, land users, and conservationists in recovery implementation. Cost-effective measures to prevent the reduction or loss of the species should not be postponed for lack of full scientific certainty.

This series presents the recovery strategies prepared or adopted by the federal government under SARA. New documents will be added regularly as species get listed and as strategies are updated.

To learn more about the Species at Risk Act and recovery initiatives, please consult the SARA Public Registry (

Recovery Strategy for the Dense-flowered Lupine (Lupinus
) in Canada [

March 2011

Parks Canada Agency. 2011. Recovery Strategy for Dense-flowered Lupine (Lupinus densiflorus) in Canada [Proposed]. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Parks Canada Agency, Ottawa. x + 27 pp.

Additional copies:

Additional copies can be downloaded from the SARA Public Registry (

Cover illustration: Matt Fairbarns

Également disponible en français sous le titre
« Programme de retablissement du lupin densiflore (Lupinus densiflorus) au Canada »

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of the Environment, 2011. All rights reserved.

ISBN To Come
Catalogue no. To Come

Content (excluding the illustrations) may be used without permission, with appropriate credit to the source.

Under the Accord for the Protection of Species at Risk (1996), the federal, provincial, and territorial governments agreed to work together on legislation, programs, and policies to protect wildlife species at risk throughout Canada. The Species at Risk Act (S.C. 2002, c.29) (SARA) requires that federal competent ministers prepare recovery strategies for listed Extirpated, Endangered and Threatened species.

The Minister of the Environment presents this document as the recovery strategy for the Dense-flowered Lupine as required under SARA. It has been prepared in cooperation with the jurisdictions responsible for the species, as described in the Preface. The Minister invites other jurisdictions and organizations that may be involved in recovering the species to use this recovery strategy as advice to guide their actions.

The goals, objectives, and recovery approaches identified in the strategy are based on the best existing knowledge and are subject to modifications resulting from new findings and revised objectives.

This recovery strategy will be the basis for one or more action plans that will provide further details regarding specific recovery measures to be taken to support protection and recovery of the species. Success in the recovery of this species depends on the commitment and cooperation of many different constituencies that will be involved in implementing the actions identified in this strategy. In the spirit of the Accord for the Protection of Species at Risk, all Canadians are invited to join in supporting and implementing this strategy for the benefit of the species and of Canadian society as a whole. The Minister of the Environment will report on progress within five years.

The Canadian Wildlife Service of Environment Canada funded the preparation of the first draft of this report; the initial draft was prepared by Matt Fairbarns. Further revision was the result of comments and edits provided by a number of organizations: Department of National Defence, Canada Coast Guard, the Province of British Columbia, Environment Canada, Parks Canada Agency, and the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team.

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals (2004), a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all Species at Risk Act recovery strategies. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond their intended benefits. Environmental effects, including impacts to non-target species and the environment, were considered during recovery planning. The SEA is incorporated directly into the strategy and also summarized below.

The greatest potential for environmental effects comes from fieldwork activities aimed at habitat restoration; however, these effects can be mitigated or eliminated at the project level phase through proper field procedures and/or strong involvement of Parks Canada Agency and the Garry Oak Ecosystem Recovery Team (see section 2.6: Effects on Other Species). Some recovery strategy activities may require project-level environmental assessment as required under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. Any activities found to require project-level environmental assessments will be assessed at that time pursuant to the provisions of the Act.

This recovery strategy benefits the environment by promoting the conservation and recovery of the Dense-flowered Lupine, a natural component of biodiversity. Activities required to meet recovery objectives are unlikely to result in any important negative environmental effects, as they are limited to habitat rehabilitation, research activities, fostering stewardship, increasing public awareness, improving knowledge on habitat requirements and population threats, and conducting habitat/species mapping, inventory, and restoration. In addition it is likely that habitat restoration for Dense-flowered Lupine will benefit other co-occurring native species which occupy the same habitat.

In summary, the SEA process has concluded that this recovery strategy will likely have several positive effects on the environment and other species. There are no obvious adverse environmental effects anticipated with the implementation of this recovery strategy.

SARA defines residence as: a dwelling-place, such as a den, nest or other similar area or place, that is occupied or habitually occupied by one or more individuals during all or part of their life cycles, including breeding, rearing, staging, wintering, feeding or hibernating [Subsection 2(1)].

Residence descriptions, or the rationale for why the residence concept does not apply to a given species, are posted on the SARA public registry:

This recovery strategy addresses the recovery of Dense-flowered Lupine (Lupinus densiflorus). In Canada, this species only occurs in British Columbia.

Parks Canada Agency led the preparation of this recovery strategy, which involved members of the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team in cooperation with the provincial government of British Columbia and Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service.

Dense-flowered Lupine is a species of maritime meadows in Garry Oak Ecosystems and recovery of this species will be integrated with the recovery of species in the Recovery Strategy for Multi-Species at Risk in Maritime Meadows Associated with Garry Oak Ecosystems in Canada (Parks Canada Agency 2006).

Dense-flowered Lupine is an annual plant restricted to western North America. Within its range, Dense-flowered Lupine is restricted to dry to moist grassy openings, clay cliffs, and eroding grassy banks and benches above the seashore.

The Canadian populations and a small number of populations on nearby islands in Puget Sound constitute a disjunct element within the species that appears to be evolutionarily distinct and may comprise a variety (scopulorum) not occurring elsewhere. While the scopulorum variety has not been assessed individually, Dense-flowered Lupine was assessed as Endangered—the highest risk category—by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC 2005). In 2006 the species was listed as Endangered on Schedule 1 of the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA).

The total Canadian population is small and fluctuates considerably depending on climatic conditions. This small population is also subject to continued risks from habitat loss and degradation due to activities such as trampling and soil disturbance, competition with invasive alien plants, land development, mowing, and fire suppression.

While there are significant knowledge gaps relating to the species there is sufficient information to conclude that recovery is feasible. To this end, the population and distribution objectives are to attain at least four viable self-sustaining populations of Dense-flowered Lupine (the number known historically) distributed throughout its historical extent of occurrence in Canada.

Critical habitat for the recovery of Dense-flowered Lupine is identified in this recovery strategy. The best available information has been used in the identification of critical habitat; however, there are significant knowledge gaps and additional critical habitat will need to be identified in upcoming planning documents to meet the population and distribution objectives.

Further recovery actions for Dense-flowered Lupine will be incorporated into one or more action plans by March 2016.


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