Wastewater management: resource documents

Reports on Wastewater impacts

1. Impacts of Municipal Wastewater Effluents on Canadian Waters: A Review (Abstract)

This 1997 report identified the status of municipal wastewater effluents in Canada and identified the main concerns in terms of human health and environmental effects.

A full report of this review is available in the following publication: Chambers P.A., M. Allard, S.L. Walker, J. Marsalek, J. Lawrence, M. Servos, J. Busnarda, K.S. Munger, K. Adare, C. Jefferson, R.A. Kent and M.P. Wong. 1997. The impacts of municipal wastewater effluents in Canadian waters: a review, Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, 32 (4), 659-713.

This report is available upon request from the Environment and Climate Change Canada – Wastewater Program

2.  Summary and Update of the 1997 Science Assessment of the Impacts of Municipal Wastewater Effluents (MWWE) on Canadian Waters and Human Health

This 1999 document revisits the 1997 report and updates key information while presenting it in a summary format.

Table 1: Resource Documents
 Chlorine cover picture Environment Canada's Review of Municipal Effluent Chlorination / Dechlorination Principles, Technologies and Practices ( [HTML Version] [PDF Version (41 kb)] ) was published in March 2003. The report includes a comprehensive review of the current state-of-the-art methods for chlorine-based disinfection, residual chlorine control, dechlorination chemicals and procedures, and the related chlorination and dechlorination equipment used in the wastewater treatment.
 Ultravioltet cover picture The Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidance Manual for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in Canada ( [HTML Version] [PDF Version (17 kb)] ) was published in October 2003. The manual reviews ultraviolet disinfection technology and advancements for application in disinfecting effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This manual's purpose is to provide information and guidance to communities investigating UV technology for application at their wastewater plants.
 Ammonia cover picture The Treatment Processes for the Removal of Ammonia from Municipal Wastewater document ( [HTML Version] [PDF Version (16 kb)] ) was published in 2003. The manual describes techniques to identify and evaluate technological options for application at municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWWTPs) for the removal of total ammonia-nitrogen (the sum of un-ionized ammonia-nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen) from wastewaters. The report is intended to serve as a reference and decision-support tool to assist municipal engineers, managers and senior process staff at MWWTPs.
 Guidance Manual cover picture The Guidance Manual for Sewage Treatment Plant Process Audits ( [HTML Version] [PDF Version (13 kb)] ) is a reference document for agencies, municipalities, consultants, planners, organizations, and individuals responsible for the assessment, optimization, and upgrading of municipal sewage treatment plants. It focuses on technical methodologies that have been used to examine and assess full scale plants. In particular, conventional and modified activated sludge facilities are covered in detail.

Environment Canada's Priority Substances List Assessment Reports:

Ammonia in the aquatic environment In 2005, the National Pollutant Release Inventory reported that the amount of total ammonia released to the Canadian environment by industry was more than 70,000 tonnes. This is more than double the amount reported in 1995. Releases of ammonia are to air, water and land but it is also naturally occurring and required by most organisms for protein synthesis. A waste byproduct of animals, fish and microbial metabolism, the primary human use of ammonia is as a nitrogen source in fertilizers, especially anhydrous ammonia and urea.

Inorganic chloramines Inorganic chloramines are formed in wastewater as a result of a series of reactions that occur when free chlorine is added in the presence of sufficient amounts of aqueous ammonia. The three chemicals that can be formed are; monochloramine, dichloramine and trichloramine. These three chemicals easily convert into each other and are therefore not usually found in isolation. Site specific conditions determine the relative concentrations of each of the three species that will be formed.

Chlorinated wastewater effluents Chlorinated wastewater effluents are those effluents to which chlorine or chlorination agents have been added for disinfection or biofouling control. Chlorination has become the most common method of disinfection in Canada and the United States due to its ease of application and low cost. Chlorine is a member of the halogen family and is the second most reactive non-metallic substance after fluorine. Wastewater treatment plants are the largest source of chlorinated wastewater effluents to surface waters by volume.

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