Certain Aromatic Amines of the Aromatic Azo and Benzidine-based substance grouping

What are they?

  • Sixteen substances are included in the Aromatic Amines subgroup screening assessment of the Aromatic Azo and Benzidine-based Substance Grouping.
  • These 16 Aromatic Amines are industrial chemicals.

How are they used?

  • These Aromatic Amines are predominantly used as compounds from which many others are made (chemical intermediates) such as pigments, dyes, pesticides, drugs and rubber products, and are also used as a laboratory chemical. Some of these substances are also used as ingredients in cosmetics.
  • Based on the most recent data, none of these Aromatic Amines was manufactured in Canada; however, some were imported into Canada.

Why did the Government of Canada assess them?

  • These 16 Aromatic Amines were identified as priorities for assessment based on categorization within the Domestic Substances List, and/or were considered as priority substances based on other human health concerns.
  • These Aromatic Amines were considered in the Chemicals Management Plan Substance Groupings Initiative and/or the Challenge to Industry. These substances were included for the screening assessment of potential risks to the environment and to human health.

How are Canadians exposed to them?

  • Exposure of the general population of Canada to these 16 Aromatic Amines via environmental media is expected to be low.
  • Canadians may be exposed to some of these substances during the use of certain products available to consumers, such as cooking utensils, textiles and leather, as well as cosmetics. As well, one of the substances (o-Toluidine) was detected at low levels in the breast milk of a small number of mothers.

How are they released into the environment?

  • Some of these Aromatic Amines may be released to the environment as a result of industrial processes. The most important sources for environmental release are considered to be the formulation of various products, such as tires or cosmetics, as well as the use and disposal of those products.
  • Globally, these substances are also produced unintentionally, and can be released through the use of biomass (organic material) and fossil fuel combustion, pesticides, coal gasification plants, aluminum smelting, wastewater treatment plants, oil refineries and production facilities, dye houses and chemical factories.

What are the results of the assessment?

  • The Government of Canada has conducted a science-based evaluation of these 16 Aromatic Amines called a screening assessment.
  • Screening assessments address the potential for harm to the general population of Canada and the environment.
  • Results of the final screening assessment indicate that these Aromatic Amines are expected to remain in the environment for a long time, under certain conditions, but are not expected to accumulate in organisms.
  • Furthermore, the quantity of these substances that may be released to the environment is below the level expected to cause harm to organisms. The Government of Canada has therefore concluded that none of these 16 Aromatic Amines is entering the environment at levels that constitute a danger to the environment.
  • The Government of Canada has also concluded that none of these 16 Aromatic Amines is harmful to human health at current levels of exposure.
  • However, given that some of these substances have health effects of concern, there may be concerns if their use were to increase in Canada.
  • Hazards related to chemicals used in the workplace should be classified accordingly under the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS).

What is the Government of Canada doing?

  • The Government of Canada published the Final Screening Assessment for Certain Aromatic Amines on May 28, 2016.
  • Based on the conclusion of the final screening assessment, the Government of Canada proposes that no further action be taken on these 16 Aromatic Amines.
  • Given that some of these substances have health effects of concern, the Government will investigate options on how best to monitor changes in the use of these substances. Stakeholders will have the opportunity to provide feedback on a consultation document, describing potential options for information gathering or preventative actions, to be published once assessments for all of the Aromatic Azo and Benzidine-based Substance Grouping are completed.

What can Canadians do?

  • The health risks associated with a chemical depend on the hazard (its potential to cause health effects) and the dose (the amount of chemical to which you are exposed). However, none of these 16 Aromatic Amines is harmful to the environment or human health at current levels of exposure.
  • Canadians who may be exposed to these Certain Aromatic Amines in the workplace should consult with their employer and occupational health and safety (OHS) representative about safe handling practices, applicable laws and requirements under the OHS legislation and the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS).
  • As a general precaution, Canadians are reminded when using any product to carefully follow any safety warnings and directions, and to dispose of the products appropriately.
Aromatic Amines Assessed by the Government of Canada (16 Substances)
CAS RN DSL Name Name
88-53-9 Benzenesulfonic acid, 2-amino-5-chloro-4-methyl- Red Lake C Amine
90-04-0 Benzenamine, 2-methoxy- o-Anisidine
91-59-8 2-Naphthalenamine 2-Naphthylamine
95-51-2 Benzenamine, 2-chloro- 2-Chloroaniline
95-53-4 Benzenamine, 2-methyl- o-Toluidine
95-76-1 Benzenamine, 3,4-dichloro- 3,4-Dichloroaniline
95-80-7 1,3-Benzenediamine, 4-methyl- 2,4-Diaminotoluene
100-01-6 Benzenamine, 4-nitro- 4-Nitroaniline
106-47-8 Benzenamine, 4-chloro- 4-Chloroaniline
106-49-0 Benzenamine, 4-methyl- p-Toluidine
108-45-2 1,3-Benzenediamine 1,3-Diaminobenzene
123-30-8 Phenol, 4-amino- p-Aminophenol
156-43-4 Benzenamine, 4-ethoxy- p-Phenetidine
540-23-8 Benzenamine, 4-methyl-, hydrochloride p-Toluidine hydrochloride
541-69-5 1,3-Benzenediamine, dihydrochloride 1,3-Diaminobenzene dihydrochloride
615-05-4 1,3-Benzenediamine, 4-methoxy- 2,4-Diaminoanisole

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