ARCHIVED - Creosote-impregnated Waste Materials - PSL1

Environment Canada
Health Canada
1993
ISBN: 0-662-20477-8
Cat. No.: En40-215/13-E

Canadian Environmental Protection Act

Table of Contents

List of Tables

  • Table 1 Summary of Maximum Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations at Wood Treatment/Storage Sites in Canada
  • Table 2 Concentrations of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Biota from Canadian and American Creosote-contaminated Sites
  • Table 3 Summary of Apparent Effects Threshold Concentrations for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Sorbed to Marine Sediments and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations Found at Northern Wood Preservers, Thunder Bay, Ontario, 1984

Notice to Readers

Creosote as a pesticide was not assessed in this report. The pesticide creosote is subject to the provisions of the Pest Control Products Act, and its regulatory status as a heavy duty wood preservative is currently being re-evaluated (see Announcement A92-02: Re-evaluation of Heavy-Duty Wood Preservatives, Agriculture Canada, Food Production and Inspection Branch, July 2, 1992). As part of the pesticide re-evaluation process, Environment Canada and Health Canada will assess the potential effects on the environment and on human health resulting from these pesticidal uses of creosote.

Synopsis

Creosote is used in Canada as a heavy-duty wood preservative for railway ties, bridge timbers, pilings, and large-sized lumber. It is composed of hundreds of compounds, the largest group being the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this assessment, the substance "creosote-impregnated waste materials" (CIWM) includes creosote waste products and creosote-contaminated sites. Creosote waste products are wood materials treated with creosote that have since been removed from service and are awaiting disposal (used railway ties, utility poles, etc.), and creosote-contaminated sites are areas of contaminated soil, water, or materials resulting from the application, manufacture, storage, transportation, or spillage of creosote.

Railway ties constitute the largest volume of creosote waste products generated in Canada. The major railways decommission 4.5 million ties per year (450 000 m3 of wood) containing an estimated 20.2 x 106 kilograms of creosote. It is estimated that 90% of all railway ties removed each year are reused. This leaves roughly 2.02 x 106 kg/yr of creosote in discarded railway ties. Other creosote waste products are generated when docks, breakwaters, railway trestles, and bridges are decommissioned. Studies were not identified that could be used to determine whether creosote waste products could cause harmful effects on the environment.

Estimates of the amounts of waste creosote entering the Canadian environment from creosote-contaminated sites are not available for many sites. However, for most of the sites where hydrogeological surveys have been done, large amounts of waste creosote have been discovered in soil, groundwater, and some surface waters. There is an estimated 256 000 m3 of moderately and highly contaminated soil from 11 abandoned or operating creosote-treating facilities in Canada. Waste creosote is known to be entering the soils, groundwaters, and surface waters at 24 creosote-contaminated sites spread across all of the provinces, except Prince Edward Island. Groundwater has been severely contaminated at several creosote-contaminated sites. Benthic organisms and the general health of the aquatic ecosystem near a major wood-treatment facility in Thunder Bay, Ontario have been adversely affected by the presence of waste creosote pooling on the sediments.

Environmentally sensitive benthic invertebrates [Trichoptera (caddisflies) and Plecoptera (stoneflies)] were significantly reduced in numbers from a kilometre length (approximately) of the south half of the Bow River downstream from another major wood-treatment facility in Calgary. These species had been replaced by less sensitive Gastropods (snails) and Diptera (crane flies). Waste creosote and the PAHs found in it have been detected in Canadian freshwater sediments near creosote wood preservation plants at levels higher than those known to cause severe effects to freshwater and marine organisms. There are strong correlations between the presence of PAHs from CIWM sources in the sediments of Eagle Harbor, Washington and the Elizabeth River, Virginia, the levels of PAHs found in the tissues of fish in these two aquatic systems, and liver tumors discovered in these fish.

There is insufficient information to estimate exposure of humans to the components of waste creosote from creosote-impregnated waste materials. In addition, information was not identified on the effects of CIWM to the environment upon which human life depends. Therefore, detailed consideration of whether this substance is "toxic" as defined under Paragraphs 11 (b) and 11(c) of the Act is not included in this assessment.

Creosote Waste Products

Therefore, on the basis of available data, it is not possible to determine whether materials leaching from creosote waste products (i.e., used railway ties and utility poles) are entering or may be entering the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that are having or may have a harmful effect on the environment.

Creosote-contaminated Sites

Therefore, on the basis of available data, materials from creosote-contaminated sites are entering or may be entering the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that are having or may have a harmful effect on the environment.

1.0 Introduction

The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) requires the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of Health to prepare and publish a Priority Substances List that identifies substances, including chemicals, groups of chemicals, effluents, and wastes that may be harmful to the environment or constitute a danger to human health. The Act also requires both Ministers to assess these substances and determine whether they are "toxic" as defined under Section 11 which states:

"...a substance is toxic if it is entering or may enter the environment in a quantity or concentration, or under conditions

  1. having or that may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment;

  2. constituting or that may constitute a danger to the environment on which human life depends; or

  3. constituting or that may constitute a danger in Canada to human life or health."

Substances that are assessed as "toxic" according to Section 11 may be placed on Schedule I of the Act. Consideration can then be given to developing regulations, guidelines, or codes of practice to control any aspect of these substances' life cycle, from the research and development stage, through manufacture, use, storage, transport, and ultimate disposal.

Use of creosote as a heavy-duty wood preservative in Canada is subject to control under the Pest Control Products Act (PCPA) which is administered by Agriculture Canada. This control does not extend to the disposal of waste products arising from the use of this substance or for the operating practices at creosote-treating facilities. The substance creosote-impregnated waste materials (CIWM) was added to the Priority Substances List under CEPA because of concerns about the potential for environmental contamination from waste materials generated at creosote wood-treatment facilities and from the replacement of creosote-treated wood products.

Creosote-impregnated waste materials are interpreted in this assessment to include:

  • Creosote waste products: materials treated with creosote that have since been removed from service and are awaiting disposal (used railway ties, utility poles, etc.); and

  • Creosote-contaminated sites: creosote-contaminated areas or materials resulting from the application, manufacture, storage, transportation, or spillage of creosote.

The assessment of whether the substance creosote-impregnated waste materials is "toxic", as defined under Section 11 of CEPA, was based on the determination of whether waste creosote or its component compounds enter or are likely to enter the Canadian environment in a concentration or quantities or under conditions that could lead to exposure of humans or other biota at levels that could cause adverse effects.

The potential effects of waste creosote from CIWM on human health have not been widely studied. There is some information available on the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in experimental animals and humans. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are the major group of compounds found in waste creosote. A preliminary literature survey did not identify sufficient data to assess the degree of human exposure to PAHs from CIWM. Polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons are being addressed in a separate Assessment Report so their potential effects on human health will not be discussed herein. No information was identified to indicate that CIWM affects the environment upon which human life depends. Therefore, detailed consideration of whether the substance CIWM is "toxic" as defined under Paragraphs 11(b) and 11(c) of the Act is not included in this assessment.

Data relevant to the assessment of the entry, environmental exposure, and environmental effects of waste creosote were obtained from review documents, reference books, and papers in scientific journals identified through searches of electronic databases up to 1991. These databases included: BIOSIS Previews, Pollution Abstracts, ENVIROLINE, ENVIROFATE, Environment Canada Departmental Library Catalogue (ELIAS), International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC), Chemical Evaluation Search and Retrieval System (CESARS), the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) Treatability database, Register of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS), Chemical Hazard Response Information System (CHRIS), National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Technical Information Center (NIOSHTIC), and National Technical Information Service (NTIS). Site assessment reports prepared by governments and the wood preservation industry were used in this assessment. In addition, a study was undertaken under contract to gather trade information on the usage of creosote in Canada from the Canadian wood preservation industry, Agriculture Canada, Statistics Canada, Public Works Canada, utility companies, and other corporate users of creosoted products.

Although much of the research on CIWM has been conducted outside Canada, available Canadian data on sources, fate, levels, and effects of CIWM on the Canadian environment were emphasized. All original studies that form the basis for determining whether CIWM are "toxic" as defined under Section 11 of CEPA have been critically evaluated by the following Environment Canada staff:

A. Beckett
M. Constable
E. Gordy
T. Lambert
B. Munson, Task Group Leader

Creosote-impregnated waste materials were characterized by the following individuals from Environment Canada: J. Sproull, E. Gordy, N. Gurprasad, and G. Atkinson.

In this report, a Synopsis is presented which will appear in the Canada Gazette. A summary of technical information that is critical to the assessment is presented in Section 2.0. The assessment of whether CIWM are "toxic" as defined under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act is presented in Section 3.0. A Supporting Document that discusses the technical information in greater detail has also been prepared and is available upon request.

As part of the review and approvals process established by Environment Canada for their contributions to Priority Substance assessment reports, this Assessment Report and the Supporting Document were reviewed by a number of experts from Environment Canada, G. Brudermann (wood preservation consultant), and J. Butala (School of Pharmacy, Duquesne University). The final Assessment Report was reviewed and approved by the Environment Canada/Health Canada CEPA Management Committee.

Copies of this Assessment Report and the unpublished Supporting Document are available upon request from:

Commercial Chemicals Branch
Environment Canada
14th Floor, Place Vincent Massey
351 St. Joseph Boulevard
Hull, Quebec
K1A 0H3
Environmental Health Centre
Health Canada
Room 104
Tunney's Pasture
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0L2

2.0 Summary of Information Critical to Assessment of "Toxic"

2.1 Identity, Properties, and Uses

Creosote is a complex and variable mixture produced from coal that is made up of more than 300 compounds. The American Wood Preservation Association describes creosote (CAS Registry Number 8001-58-9) as:

"a distillate of coal-tar produced by high temperature carbonization of bituminous coal; it consists principally of liquid and solid aromatic hydrocarbons and contains appreciable quantities of tar acids and tar bases; it is heavier than water, and has a continuous boiling range of approximately 275°C, beginning at about 175°C" (AWPA, 1977).

There are five major classes of compounds in creosote:

  • Aromatic Hydrocarbons including PAHs, alkylated PAHs, benzene, toluene, and xylene (PAHs can constitute up to 90% of creosote);

  • Phenolics including phenols, cresols, xylenols, and naphthols (1 to 3% of creosote);

  • Nitrogen-containing Heterocycles including pyridines, quinolines, acridines, indolines, carbazoles (1 to 3% of creosote);

  • Sulphur-containing Heterocycles including benzothiophenes (1 to 3% of creosote); and

  • Oxygen-containing Heterocycles including dibenzofurans (5 to 7.5% of creosote) (U.S. EPA, 1987).

"Pure" creosote is denser than water. For some wood preservation uses, creosote is mixed 1:1 with fuel oil. In these uses, the density will be less than pure creosote, but will still be heavier than water (Hoffman and Hrudey, 1990). Creosote is insoluble in water (Romanowski et al., 1983), although the components have a wide range of solubilities from the readily soluble tar acids and bases (i.e., phenols, cresols, acridines) to the insoluble six-ring PAHs (i.e., naphtho[2,3-e]pyrene) (CRC Press, 1973; Merck Index, 1976; Clement Int. Corp., 1990a; Syracuse Research Corp., 1989). Creosote is soluble in many organic solvents, including oil and diesel fuel (U.S. EPA, 1984; Bos et al., 1983).

The vapour pressure (Pv) of creosote is variable because of the number of compounds involved and is difficult to characterize. Vapour pressures range from 2.0 x 10-10 Pascals (Pa) for ibenzo[ghi,pqr]chrysene to 11.6 Pa for naphthalene (Clement Int. Corp., 1990). The range of log Kow values for PAHs is from 3.29 to 7.19 (Clement Int. Corp., 1990). Other components of creosote have widely varying log Kow values, from 0.65 for pyridine (Leo et al., 1971) to 3.95 for biphenyl (Miller et al., 1985). The range of log Koc values for PAHs is from 2.97 to 6.74 (Clement Int. Corp., 1990).

Creosote-impregnated waste materials can arise from two separate sources, creosote waste products and creosote-contaminated sites. These sources have been estimated to comprise 71% and 29% by weight, respectively, of CIWM in the Canadian environment (Konasewich et al., 1991).

There are five creosote pressure-treating facilities operating in Canada, two in British Columbia, one in Ontario, and two in Quebec (Konasewich et al., 1991). One facility in Ontario and one in Newfoundland stopped using creosote in 1992 (Constable, 1992). There are also 20 small facilities in Quebec using dip tanks and vapour chambers (Quebec Ministry of the Environment, 1989) and two dip tank facilities in Saskatchewan (Ertman, 1992). These facilities collectively use 21x 106 kg of creosote per year. Preservation of railway ties uses 54% of the creosote, marine pilings use 37%, and bridge deckings, timbers, and utility poles use the remaining 9% (Konasewich et al., 1991).

2.2 Entry into the Environment

Railway ties constitute the largest number of creosote waste products generated in Canada. The major railways decommission 4.5 x 106 ties per year (450 000 m3 of wood) containing an estimated 20.2 x 106 kg of creosote. It is estimated that 90% of all railway ties removed each year are reused. This leaves roughly 2.02 x 106 kg/yr of creosote in discarded railway ties as creosote waste products (Konasewich et al., 1991). Some of the waste ties are burned by railway companies under permits from provincial environment authorities. Little is known about what happens to the rest of the waste-treated wood, although some of it is landfilled. Since the concentrations of PAHs found in waste railway ties vary, generalizations cannot be made about the composition of the CIWM arising from creosote waste products (Sproull and Gurprasad, 1992).

Many of the marine pilings removed from service are also reused. Out-of-service marine pilings and utility poles do not represent a significant source of creosote waste products compared to the volume of creosote waste products from discarded railway ties.

A study of water soluble leachates from out-of-service railway ties found many PAHs and associated compounds. One gram of wood was shaved from the surface of the railway ties and agitated in water for 24 hours. Up to 88.9 µg/L of naphthalene, 92.7 µg/L of dibenzofuran, 120 µg/L of fluorene, 119 µg/L of phenanthrene, and 58.9 µg/L of carbazole were found in the water. Other compounds were detected at lower concentrations (Rotard and Mailahn, 1987). Little other information is available to determine the leaching potential of creosote components remaining in creosote waste products.

Estimates of the amounts of waste creosote entering the Canadian environment from creosote-contaminated sites are not available for many sites. At most of the sites where hydrogeological surveys have been done to track subsurface contamination, however, high levels of compounds from CIWM have been discovered in soil, groundwater, and some surface waters. Estimating quantities of waste creosote at a site and amounts leaching from a site is complex and expensive, and has been attempted in detail at only two sites in Canada. There is an estimated 256 000 m3 of soil that is moderately to highly contaminated with waste creosote at 11 abandoned or operating creosote-treating facilities in Canada (see Table 1). There are at least 13 other potentially contaminated sites in Canada, both operational and non-operational, but no information was obtained on these sites. It is therefore likely that creosote-contaminated sites are a more significant source of waste creosote to the Canadian environment than are creosote waste products, but the data are not available to confirm this.

There are at least 28 creosote-treating facilities in Canada for which site information is not available. The only province that apparently does not have a creosote-contaminated site is Prince Edward Island.

2.3 Exposure-related Information

2.3.1 Fate

Elevated levels of PAHs from CIWM have been found in both Canada and the United States. Almost all of the information gathered pertains to environmental contamination from non-operational wood preservation facilities (i.e., creosote-contaminated sites). Although some studies were found on the transport of PAH components from in-service treated products, it appears that no studies have been undertaken to determine the mobility of creosote components from creosote waste products.

The environmental transport, transformation, and accumulation of the components of creosote are strongly influenced by the components' physical and chemical properties. As a result of the chemical complexity of waste creosote, studies on the behaviour of individual PAHs in the environment may not reflect the behaviour of the compound when it is a component of creosote. Consequently, observed contaminant distributions at creosote facilities are the best indicators of how PAHs from CIWM will behave in the environment (Hoffman and Hrudey, 1990).

At some sites, there appears to have been a mass transport of creosote, usually at sites where the soil was close to being saturated. This may have been due to a combination of gravity and groundwater flow. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in subsoils vary depending on the amount of creosote in the soil, the type of soil, the slope of the land, and the amount of groundwater present. Waste creosote in soil can occur as lighter- and heavier-than-water fractions, and consequently can be found above and below the water table, or even as a free liquid pool. The light fraction includes the nitrogen-, oxygen-, and sulphur-substituted PAHs, naphthalenes, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenols, and hydrocarbons from the oil with which the creosote was diluted. Low molecular weight PAHs are more water soluble than other creosote components and are dissolved and transported in groundwater and surface water. The light fraction has also been found to move with fluctuating water levels and, as a result, can contaminate the whole soil layer. The heavy fraction is indistinguishable from "pure" creosote. It tends to travel downwards until it encounters an impervious layer. It will flow along the impervious interface through the more porous soil in the downslope direction. This environmental behaviour has been responsible for the contamination of surface waters and groundwaters at many creosote-contaminated sites (W.L. Wardrop & Assoc., 1977; Thompson et al., 1978; Ehrlich et al., 1980; Black, 1982; Hickok et al., 1982; Goerlitz et al., 1985; Rostad et al., 1985; Hult and Stark, 1986; Berard, 1988; Coover et al., 1988; Elder and Dresler, 1988; U.S. EPA, 1988; Golder Associates, 1988; 1990b; 1991; Cherry and Smith, 1990; Reitman et al., 1990).

Table 1 Summary of Maximum Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations at Wood Treatment/Storage Sites in Canada
Site Media Maximum PAH Concentration Detected Total PAHs ** References
ANT BbF BaP NAP PHE
Northern Wood Preservers, Thunder Bay, Ontario Sediments 1 124 632 450 7 654 5 687 26 388 Berard and Tseng, 1986; Pugh, 1989; DeBrou, 1989; Beak Consultants Ltd. and Dominion Soil Investigation Inc., 1988;
Groundwater       1.355    
Air 3     40    
Domtar Sultana, Calgary, Alberta Soil5
groundwater
5 300* 390 290 8 700 5 300* 39 630 Golder Assoc., 1990a; b
40* 8 4 66 40* 303
Upstream
Sediments
0.13* 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.13 0.57
Site Sediments 2.50* 2.60 1.00 2.50 2.50 66.87
Pore water8 2.80 2.10 0.89 27.00 9.00 75.36
Domtar, Truro, Nova Scotia Soil6 1 600 510 390 ND 7 200 26 530 Kieley et al., 1986; Henning and Konasewich, 1984; Bamwoya et al., 1991
Sediments1 42 120 150 50 1 900 6 300
Sediments2   0.17 0.22 ND 1.4 5.2
Domtar , Newcastle, New Brunswick Soil5   250 350 30 6 700 16 000 Golder Assoc., 1987; 1988; 1989
Sediments   120 190 ND 5 600 11 000
Groundwater 0.360 0.335 0.130 4.280 2.045 9.27
Domtar, Transcona Manitoba Soil5 34.91* 5.02 2.60 4.70 34.91* 89.46 Cherry and Smith, 1990
Groundwater 0.02* 0.000 3 0.000 14 0.378 0.020 76
Saskatchewan Forest Products, Prince Albert Saskatchewan Soil6 1 496.64*   0.458 2 057.88 1 496.64* 7 795 Beak Assoc. Consulting, 1990
Soil7 4 910.65*   0.219 11 989.1 4 910.64* 27 435
Koppers, Burnaby, British Columbia Soil5           1 750 to 520 000 Stanley Assoc., 1982; Batterson, 1981; Gough and Konasewich, 1985; Wile, 1984
Liverpool Tank Farm, Surrey British Colombia Soil3           130 to 19 000 Domtar Inc., 1983 Golder Assoc., 1991
Bell Pole, Lumby, British Columbia Soil4 0.50 3.2 22 1.5 5.6 23 656 Conestoga-Rovers & Assoc. 1991a; b
Soil5 1 910 500 300 850 2 260  
Groundwater 0.032 0.022 0.019 3.140 0.730 5.406
Cedar Pole, Galloway, British Columbia Soil4 15 8.4 17 44 170 2 400 Envirochem, 1989; 1990
Groundwater 0.015 0.000 08 0.000 22 1.50 0.52 1.85
Domtar, New Westminister British Columbia Sediments 0.066 0.110 0.057 ND 0.038 0.863 Environment Canada, 1983; Ito, 1991

Abbreviations Used in Table

1 sediments from effluent culvert
2 sediments from the Salmon River
3 soil from surface to 4 metres deep
4 surface soils
5 subsurface soils at various depths
6 soils around treatment site
7 soils from sludge pits
8 water associated with sediments

ANT - anthracene
BbF - benzo[b]fluoranthene
BaP - benzo[a]pyrene
NAP - naphthalene
PHE - phenanthrene
ND - not detected

Concentrations Used in Table

Air - µg/m3
Water - mg/L
Soil and Sediment - mg/kg dry weight

*sample was combined an anthracene/phenanthrene
**Total PAHs refers to the amount of PAHs detected, not the total amount presented in this table

Detection limit for NAP = 0.000 1 mg/kg in soil and sediments

"Weathered" waste creosote has been found at several contaminated sites in Canada and the United States and consists of PAH components that remain after light components, such as phenol, cresol, naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and quinoline, have either degraded or been removed through evaporation or dissolution into water. Typically, weathered creosote is composed primarily of the three-, four-, and higher-ring PAHs (Merrill and Wade, 1985; Bieri et al., 1986). At one Canadian site, soil samples contained up to 7200 mg/kg dry weight of phenanthrene and 390 mg/kg dry weight of benzo[a]pyrene (Kieley et al., 1986). Researchers studying creosote-contaminated sediments from the Elizabeth River in Virginia found that, after an initial period of dissolution of the light PAHs, the PAH composition of creosote remaining in the sediments did not change over an 80-year period (Bieri et al., 1986).

In some aquatic systems, sedimentation can isolate creosote-contaminated layers from the water, thereby slowing and eventually halting the dissipation of the more water soluble PAHs. This was noted in studies of sediments from Thunder Bay Harbour where pools of waste creosote were later found with a cap of sediment forming over them (Superior Diving, 1988; Beak Consultants Ltd. and Dominion Soil Investigation Inc., 1988; de Geus, 1990; Pugh, 1989). The same situation was reported for the Elizabeth River in Virginia where creosote was quickly covered with sediment at a rate of 2 cm/ yr (Bieri et al., 1986).

2.3.2 Concentrations

The maximum levels of five PAHs from waste creosote measured in soils, sediments, groundwater, and air are shown in Table 1. The highest PAH concentration in soil at Canadian creosote-contaminated sites was 8700 mg/kg dry weight of naphthalene. Total PAH concentrations in soil have measured up to 39 630 mg/kg of dry weight. Groundwater has been severely contaminated with PAHs at several Canadian sites. Naphthalene has been found in concentrations of up to 66 mg/L and benzo[a]pyrene up to 4 mg/L. Total PAH concentrations in groundwater have been found at up to 950 mg/L, the creosote having displaced much of the groundwater. In Thunder Bay Harbour, pools of creosote have been found containing an estimated 292 m3 of creosote; surrounding the pools was a "creosote globule field approximately 8800 m2 in extent (Beak Consultants Ltd. and Dominion Soil Investigation Inc., 1988; Superior Diving, 1988; O'Connor Assoc., 1989; de Geus, 1990; Reitman et al., 1990; Golder Associates, 1990b).

Although exposure of mussels and lobsters to creosote originating from in-service products was examined in a small number of studies, no exposure information exists on concentrations of waste creosote originating from creosote waste products. In contrast, data for creosote-contaminated sites does exist, and exposure for certain aquatic biota may be established (Table 2). Most of the information presented is from the United States.

With the exception of laboratory studies, no relevant data were found concerning exposure of terrestrial populations to waste creosote or its components arising from creosote-contaminated sites.

Preliminary information from the Domtar Sunalta/Canada Creosote site in Calgary indicates that mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) are taking in more benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene from the site than fish from a control site upstream. Benzo[a]pyrene metabolites were detected in whitefish bile at levels of up to 200 µg/mL while fish from a control area contained 25 µg/mL. Phenanthrene levels in whitefish bile from the contaminated area ranged up to 1600 µg/mL, while whitefish from the control area contained 75 µg/mL. These analyses were done using a fluorescence technique, so the confirmation of the PAHs is tentative (Environmental Management Assoc., 1993).

In the United States, shellfish have been used to show that PAHs (phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, naphthalene, anthracene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene) from creosote wood preservation operations and spill sites are readily accumulated.

Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) taken from a relatively pristine river were exposed to PAH-contaminated sediments near a creosote wood-treating facility on the Elizabeth River in Virginia. After three days, oysters had accumulated total PAHs from non-detectable levels to 10.1 to 11.7 µg/g wet weight (Pittinger et al., 1985). Clams (Rangia cuneata) exposed to water flowing over a creosote spill near Bayou Bonfouca, Louisiana accumulated approximately five times more anthracene, five times more fluoranthene, thirty times more benzo[a]pyrene, and twice as much naphthalene and phenanthrene as did clams upstream from the spill (DeLeon et al., 1988). Snails (Thais haemastoma) taken downstream from a creek running through a creosote-contaminated site in Florida had accumulated fluoranthene and phenanthrene to levels significantly higher than snails from an uncontaminated area. Only fluoranthene was accumulated in oysters (C. virginica) from the same area (Elder and Dresler, 1988).

Sediment-associated PAHs from creosote-contaminated sites have been shown to accumulate in English sole (Parophrys vetulus) (Malins et al., 1985), guppies (Poecilia reticulata) (Schoor et al., 1991), brown trout (Salmo trutta), lamprey (species unknown), and white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) (Black et al., 1980). Concentrations of metabolites of PAHs in bile from English sole were at levels roughly 40 times greater than English sole from an unpolluted area (2.10 µg/g wet weight versus 0.067 µg/g wet weight) (Malins et al., 1985). Guppies exposed to creosote-contaminated sediments accumulated significant quantities of anthracene, fluoranthene, benz[b]fluoranthene, benz[a]pyrene, and phenanthrene in their muscle tissues (Schoor et al., 1991). Brown trout and white suckers from the creosote-contaminated Hersey River in Michigan had tissue levels of phenanthrene roughly an order of magnitude greater than unexposed fish, and lamprey had levels of phenanthrene over two orders of magnitude greater than their unexposed counterparts (Black et al., 1980). Benthic insects (species unknown) taken from the Hersey River concentrated phenanthrene to levels slightly higher than those found in sediments (5.49 vs 4.10 µg/g wet weight) at the contaminated site and were found to have benzo[a]pyrene concentrations 725 times greater than non-exposed insects (Black et al., 1980).

Table 2 Concentrations of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Biota from Canadian and American Creosote-contaminated Sites
Site Treatment Species PAH Concentration (µg/g wet weight) References
ANT FLU BbF BaP NAP1 PHE1
Elizabeth River, VA 3 Contaminated Oyster   1.7 0.66 0.2   0.1 Pittinger et al., 1985
Bayou Bonfouca, LA 3 Contaminated Clams 0.039 0.130   0.60 0.120 0.028 DeLeon et al., 1988
Control Clams 0.009 0.033   0.022 0.057 0.016 DeLeon et al., 1988
Eagle Harbor, WA4 Contaminated English Sole 9.58 20.7 7.6 5.0 0.65 19.6 Malins et al., 1985
Control English Sole 0.013 0.089 0.035 0.03 0.14 0.06 Malins et al., 1985
Pensacola, FL 4 Contaminated Snails   0.06     0.036 0.19 Elder and Dresler, 1988
Oyster   0.028     0.002 0.03 "
Guppies 6.8 0.16 0.15 0.23 ND 6.4 Schoor et al., 1991
Control Snails   ND     0.022 0.03 Elder and Dresler, 1988
Oyster   0.005     0.008 0.007 "
Calgary, Alta.5 Contaminated Insects       3.9 0.5 0.520 Golder Assoc., 1990a
Fish Muscle       ND 0.22 0.03 "
Fish Fat         0.24 0.200 "
Fish Bile       6 2,6   502,6 Hamilton, 1992
Control Insects       ND ND ND Golder Assoc., 1990a
Fish Muscle       ND ND ND "
Fish Fat         ND ND "
Fish Bile       5.42   202 Hamilton, 1992
Hersey River, MI 4 Contaminated Insects       0.725   5.49 Black et al., 1980
Crayfish       0.008   0.45 "
Lamprey       0.001   0.038 "
Trout       0.000 07   0.029 "
Sucker       0.000 08     "
Control Insects       0.001   0.042 Black et al., 1980
Crayfish       0.000 6   0.006 "
Lamprey       0.000 8   0.035 "
Trout       0.000 04   0.002 "
Sucker       0.000 05   0.004 "
ANT - anthracene
1 NAP and PHE metabolites in fish bile
FLU - Fluoranthene
2 measured as µg/mL in bile
BbF - benzo[b]fluoranthene
3 only one value reported
BaP - benzo[a]pyrene
4 mean value reported
NAP - naphthalene
5 composite sample report
PHE - phenanthrene
6 median value
&nbsp
ND - not detected

These studies show that aquatic organisms living close to creosote-contaminated sites absorb PAHs above the background concentrations found elsewhere. The types of species that are likely to absorb PAHs are those that are in intimate contact with the sediments or those that feed on species in contact with sediments.

2.4 Effects-related Information

Ecotoxicology. No information was found on the toxicity of waste creosote to aquatic or terrestrial biota resulting from creosote waste products.

The exposure information presented in Subsection 2.3.2 and the effects data in this subsection are the only available data for Canadian sites. The characterization of Canadian sites has generally not included biotic environmental exposure and effects data, except at the Northern Wood Preservers (NWP) site in Thunder Bay and the Domtar Sunalta/Canada Creosote site in Calgary. Since Canadian environmental effects data are limited, data from the United States are also presented.

Gross autopsies of whitefish taken from the Bow River near the Domtar Sunalta/Canada Creosote site did not detect any abnormalities. Plecoptera (stoneflies) Trichoptera (caddisflies) and chironomids (midges) were generally absent from an area on the south side of the Bow River approximately 1 km in length. They were largely replaced by Gastropods (snails) and Diptera (crane flies) that are known to be more tolerant of pollutants (Environmental Management Assoc., 1993). Undiluted pore water taken from Bow River sediments from the cut-off berm to 250 m downstream from the berm was determined to be toxic in 19 of 45 samples using the Microtox test (endpoint was a 20% reduction in light generation) (Shaw, 1992). These "toxic" pore water samples were associated with a "creosote odour" and the presence of shallow Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (i.e., waste creosote) (Hamilton, 1992).

In 1986, benthos distribution surveys were done at the Northern Wood Preservers facility in Thunder Bay Harbour. The results of these surveys indicated that benthic habitat in the vicinity of the facility wharf was degraded, with the most severe degradation located closest to the wharf. Habitat alteration, sediment contamination with PAHs, and organic enrichment caused reduced diversity of benthic invertebrates and increased the dominance of sludgeworms (Beak Consultants Limited and Dominion Soil Investigation Inc., 1988). A bioassay study on the sediments indicated that they were lethal to aquatic organisms (leeches, fathead minnows, and mayflies). Sediments from stations near the facility were lethal to all species during a 10-day exposure study; sediments from other locations were non-lethal, indicating the existence of a 150-m wide toxic zone emanating from the facility (Metcalf and Hayton, 1989).

Studies exposing the amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius to aerated water from the sediments of Eagle Harbor, Washington showed that none survived a four-day exposure at sediment water concentrations of 5%. Most of the amphipods exposed to undiluted sediment water immediately displayed abnormal swimming behaviour, a few managed to burrow into the sediment, and all died within 10 to 60 minutes (Swartz et al., 1989).

Long-term, or chronic effects of waste creosote-contaminated sediments have been observed in populations of English sole from Eagle Harbor and Puget Sound, Washington (Maims et al., 1985; 1988; Myers et al., 1987; 1990; Stein et al., 1990). There is strong evidence that the high rates of abnormal alterations of the liver, including tumors and cancers, found in the fish inhabiting the waste creosote-contaminated areas of Eagle Harbor are the result of exposure to PAH-contaminated sediments. The abnormal alterations observed in the livers of English sole closely parallel the changes and tumors that have been induced experimentally in the rat, mouse, and in certain fish by chemicals that are known to be toxic to their livers (Myers et al., 1990).

A study was conducted to determine whether contaminant exposure was associated with altered ovarian development in English sole from four areas of Puget Sound, including Eagle Harbor (Johnson et al., 1988). The results suggested that exposure to PAHs from Eagle Harbor had a significant effect on reproductive processes in English sole. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons appeared to be most closely associated with inhibited ovarian development and depressed blood hormone levels in these fish. There is evidence that populations of English sole in the Sound have been declining, but the role of contaminant exposure in this decline is not known (Johnson et al., 1988).

A study conducted in the Elizabeth River in Virginia found that mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) had a very high prevalence of liver cancer in a population located at a site contaminated with waste creosote. Grossly visible liver lesions were present in 93% of the fish and 33% had liver cancers. Sediment PAH concentrations were 2200 mg/kg dry weight. Mummichog at two other sites having low levels of PAHs (730 and 35 times less) in the sediments showed no such indication of disease (Vogelbein et al., 1990).

Macrophages from oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau) taken from the creosote-contaminated Elizabeth River in Virginia have altered abilities to migrate towards bacteria, to engulf them, and to generate reactive oxygen species required for the degradation of engulfed material, as compared with macrophages of fish taken from the relatively non-polluted York River, Virginia. Adult oyster toadfish and sediments were sampled from four locations in the Elizabeth River. The sediment-bound PAH levels were highest near an operating creosote wood-treatment facility. Macrophage function was also most severely affected at this site (Seeley and Weeks-Perkins, 1991).

The effects of an eight-day exposure of the bottom-feeding fish, Leiostomus xanthurus, to waste creosote-contaminated sediments from the Elizabeth River have been studied under laboratory conditions (Hargis Jr. et al., 1984; Roberts et al., 1989). Exposed fish developed skin lesions, pancreatic and liver alterations, and experienced reduced weight gain, reduced numbers of red blood cells, and increased mortality. No effects were observed in fish exposed to clean sediment. Analyses of these sediments showed heavy contamination with PAHs compared to uncontaminated sediment controls. Phenanthrene and fluoranthene were the two most abundant PAHs in the sediment, each accounting for 5 to 12% of the total PAH load. Benzo[a]pyrene was detected at 43 mg/kg dry weight in the Elizabeth River sediments compared to 0.009 mg/kg dry weight in the uncontaminated sediments. L. xanthurus are largely bottom-feeders, actively agitating the surface of the sediments with their fins and body movements while foraging. This action would account for the observed high incidence of severe fin erosion of the pectoral, caudal, and pelvic fins and dilation of the blood vessels around fins in those fish exposed to Elizabeth River sediments (Hargis Jr. et al., 1984).

Another approach for estimating effects of pollutants on benthic dwelling organisms is to correlate known effects from polluted areas with the concentrations of pollutants in the sediments. The United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) uses the apparent effects threshold (AET) approach to estimate biological effects from sediment-associated PAHs on marine organisms (NOAA, 1990). An AET is defined as the lowest concentration of a compound in sediment at which biological effects (usually changes in composition of benthic invertebrate communities) are observed to occur. The Ontario Ministry of the Environment (OMOE) uses Sediment Quality Guidelines for pollutants in sediments, including total PAHs, to estimate biological effects levels (Persaud et al., 1992). The data generated by the NOAA on creosote-associated effects on marine organisms and the OMOE data on total PAHs can be used to estimate a relationship between PAH sediment concentrations and potential effects on Canadian aquatic ecosystems where these sediments are found. The marine effects data may not be directly comparable to Canadian freshwater ecosystems, but they do at least provide a criterion against which to judge the potential effects of CIWM in freshwater sediments. Table 3 lists the AET concentrations of many PAHs in marine sediments on a dry weight basis and compares them with maximum PAH concentrations from around the Northern Wood Preservers dock in 1988. The Ontario Ministry of the Environment's tentative Lowest-Effect-Level for total PAHs in sediment is 2 mg/kg dry weight, and their tentative Severe-Effect-Level is 11 000 mg/kg dry weight (Persaud et al., 1992). The AET for total PAHs is 22 mg/kg dry weight (NOAA, 1990). In 1984, sediments in Thunder Bay Harbour close to the Northern Wood Preservers facility, contained 26 388 mg/kg dry weight of total PAHs (Berard and Tseng, 1986). Ecological impacts observed at the Northern Wood Preservers facility (reduced benthic diversity and a community shift towards Oligochaetes) would be expected at the concentrations of PAHs present.

No mammalian toxicology data were identified for creosote-impregnated waste materials. Toxicity data for creosote have been derived for mammals from laboratory exposure tests, but little data exists for environmental exposures or effects to mammals outside of this context. In many cases, testing has been performed on organic extracts of creosote, creosote wastes, or contaminated sediments. This laboratory data will not be used to estimate the toxicity of CIWM to wildlife as it does not sufficiently resemble the exposure to wildlife.

Table 3 Summary of Apparent Effects Threshold Concentrations for Polycylic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Sorbed to Marine Sediments and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations Found at Northern Wood Preservers, Thunder Bay, Ontario, 1984
PAH AET Concentration* (mg/kg dry weight) Maximum Sediment Concentration at NWP** (mg/kg dry weight)
Acenaphthene 0.150 15
Anthracene 0.300 120
Benzo[a]anthracene 0.550 600
Benzo[a]pyrene 0.700 450
Chrysene 0.900 600
Dibenz[a,h]anthracene 0.100 61
Fluoranthene 1.000 780
Fluorene 0.350 25
2-Methylnaphthalene 0.300 NA
Naphthalene 0.500 75
Phenanthrene 0.260 250
Pyrene 1.000 338
Total PAHs*** 220.0 4331a
26 388b

* adapted from NOAA (1990)s

** Beak Consultants Ltd. and Dominion Soil Investigation Inc. (1988)

*** Total PAHs present in NWP sediments only

a Total PAHs in 1984

b Total PAHs in 1986

3.0 Assessment of "Toxic" under CEPA

Estimates of the amounts of waste creosote entering the Canadian environment from creosote-contaminated sites are not available for many sites. However, at most of the sites where hydrogeological surveys have been done, large amounts of waste creosote have been discovered in soil, groundwater, and some surface waters. There is an estimated 256 000 m3 of moderately and highly contaminated soil at 11 abandoned or operating creosote-treating facilities in Canada. Waste creosote is known to be entering the soils, groundwaters, and surface waters at 24 creosote-contaminated sites in all of the provinces, except Prince Edward Island.

3.1 CEPA 11(a): Environment

Little information was found on the leaching of waste creosote or component PAHs from creosote waste products, and no information was found on the environmental toxicity of these leachates.

Groundwater has been severely contaminated at several creosote-contaminated sites. Benthic organisms and the general health of the aquatic ecosystem have been adversely affected near a major wood-treatment facility in Thunder Bay, Ontario by the presence of waste creosote pooling on the sediments. Environmentally sensitive benthic invertebrates (Trichoptera and Plecoptera) were generally absent from approximately a kilometre length of the south half of the Bow River downstream from another major wood-treatment facility in Calgary. These organisms were replaced by less sensitive Gastropods (snails) and Diptera (crane flies). Mountain whitefish in the Bow River have highly elevated concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene metabolites in their bile compared to fish from a control site. Concentrations of waste creosote and the component PAHs have been found in Canadian freshwater sediments near creosote wood-preservation plants in excess of concentrations known to have severe effects on freshwater and marine organisms, although these correlations do not provide direct evidence of environmental impacts. There are strong correlations between the presence of PAHs from waste creosote sources in the sediments of Eagle Harbor, Washington and the Elizabeth River, Virginia, the levels of PAHs found in the tissues of fish in these two aquatic systems, and liver tumors discovered in these fish.

3.2 Conclusion

Creosote Waste Products

Therefore, on the basis of available data, it is not possible to determine whether materials leaching from creosote waste products (i.e., used railway ties and utility poles) are entering or may be entering the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that are having or may have a harmful effect on the environment.

Creosote-contaminated Sites

Therefore, on the basis of available data, materials from creosote-contaminated sites are entering or may be entering the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that are having or may have a harmful effect on the environment.

4.0 Recommendations for Research and Evaluation

The available information was sufficient to conduct an assessment of CIWM originating from creosote-contaminated sites. In order to do an assessment of whether CIWM from creosote waste products are "toxic", the following studies are required.

  1. Leaching studies would enable a determination of the specific components of creosote from creosote waste products (i.e., railroad ties and marine pilings), their rates of loss, and their bioavailability. This research is considered to be of medium priority.

  2. Bioassay tests on leachates from creosote waste products would enable a determination of their toxicity to a standard set of bioassay organisms. This research is considered to be of medium priority.

5.0 References

AWPA, Book of Standards, American Wood Preservation Association, Bethesda, MD (1977).

Bamwoya, J.J., L.A. Rutherford, P.A. Hennigar, and W.H. Horne, "Toxic Contaminants in Soils and Sediments at Four Wood Preservation Facilities in Atlantic Canada", Environmental Protection, Environment Canada, Dartmouth, N.S., Report No. EPS-5-AR-91-2 (1991).

Batterson, J., "Koppers International Burnaby Plant Site", Water Quality Unit, Surrey, B.C., B.C. Ministry of Environment Report No. 5795-1(1981).

Beak Assoc. Consulting, "Delineation of Site Contamination at Prince Albert Timber Treating Site", Saskatoon, Sask. (1990).

Beak Consultants Limited and Dominion Soil Investigation Inc., "Lake Sediment Studies-Thunder Bay, Lake Superior", Brampton, Ont. (1988).

Berard, M.F., "Northern Wood Preservers Inc., Thunder Bay, Ontario. Status Report", Environmental Protection, Environment Canada, Toronto, Ont. (1988).

Berard, M. and T. Tseng, "Survey of Northern Wood Preservers Inc., Thunder Bay, Ontario, October 1984", Environmental Protection, Environment Canada, Toronto, Ont. (1986).

Bieri, R.H., C. Hem, R.J. Huggett, P. Shou, H. Slone, C. Smith, and C. Su, "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Sediments from the Elizabeth River Subestuary", Int. J. Environ. Analyt. Chem., 26:97-113 (1986).

Black, J.J., "Movement and Identification of a Creosote-derived PAH1 Complex Below a River Pollution Point Source", Arch. Environ. Toxicol., 11:161-166(1982).

Black, J.J., T.F. Hart, and E. Evans, "HPLC Studies of PAH Pollution in a Michigan Trout Stream", In: Chemical Analysis and Biological Fate: Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Fifth International Symposium, Columbus, OH, Cooke, M. and A.J. Dennis (eds.), Batelle Press, 343-355 (1980).

Bos, R.P., C.T. Hulshof, J.L. Theuws, and P.Th. Henderson, "Mutagenicity of Creosote in the Salmonella/Microsome Assay", Mut. Res., 119:21-25 (1983).

Cherry, J.A. and J.E. Smith, "Wood-Preservative Migration Through a Clayey Aquitard in Winnipeg", Waterloo Centre for Groundwater Research, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont. (1990).

Clement Int. Corp., "Toxicological Profile for Creosote", Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Public Health Service, Washington, D.C., Report No. TP-90-09 (1990).

Conestoga-Rovers & Assoc., "Bell Pole Comprehensive Remedial Plan Revised - July, 1991", Waterloo, Ont. (1991a).

Conestoga-Rovers & Assoc., "Bell Pole Westyard Phase II Remedial Investigation", Waterloo, Ont. (1991b).

Constable, M., Personal communications with plant operators, Environmental Protection, Environment Canada, Edmonton, Alta. (1992).

Coover, J., B. Stone, and B. Genes, "Biological Treatment of Creosote Contaminated Groundwater in Montana", In: 1988 Joint CSCE-ASCE National Conference on Environmental Engineering, Canadian Society of Civil Engineers/American Society of Civil Engineers Conference, Vancouver, B.C. (July 13-15, 1988).

CRC Press, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 53rd Ed., CRC Press, Cleveland, OH (1973).

de Geus, N., "Ontario Region 1989 Audit of Clean-up of Creosote Pools Northern Wood Preservers Inc., Thunder Bay, Ontario", Environmental Protection, Environment Canada, Toronto, Ont. (1990).

DeBrou, G.B., "Air Quality Survey (TAGA 3000)", Air Resources Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, Ont., Report No. ARB-215-89 (1989).

DeLeon, I., J. Ferrario, and C. Byrne "Bioaccumulation of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons by the Clam, Rangia cuneata, in the Vicinity of A Creosote Spill", Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 41:872-879 (1988).

Domtar Inc., "Miscellaneous Site Evaluation for Domtar", New Westminster, B.C. (1983).

Ehrlich, G.G., E.M. Godsy, D.F. Goerlitz, and M.F. Hult, "Microbial Ecology of a Creosote-contaminated Aquifer at St. Louis Park, MN," Chapter 18 In: Microbiology of the Subsurface Environment, Symposium Proceedings (1980).

Elder, J.F. and P.V. Dresler, "Accumulation and Bioconcentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Nearshore Estuarine Environment Near a Pensacola (Florida) Creosote Contamination Site", Environ. Poll., 49:117-132 (1988).

Envirochem, "Subsurface and Soil Investigation at Canada Cedar Pole Preservers Ltd.", North Vancouver, B.C. (1989).

Envirochem, "Subsurface and Soil Investigation at Canada Cedar Pole Preservers Ltd. Phase II", North Vancouver, B.C. (1990).

Environment Canada, "Miscellaneous Site Evaluation of Domtar New Westminster Wood Preservation Facility", Environmental Protection, Environment Canada, North Vancouver, B.C. (1983).

Environmental Management Assoc., "Report on Canada Creosote Project: Ecological Impact Evaluation and Risk Assessment", Calgary, Alberta, Draft Report (1993).

Ertman, K., "State of the Wood Preservation Industry in Western and Northern Region Effects of the Technical Recommendation Documents", Environmental Protection, Environment Canada, Edmonton, Alta., Draft report (1992).

Goerlitz, D.F., D.E. Troutman, E.M. Godsy, and B.J. Franks, "Migration of Wood-preserving Chemicals in Contaminated Groundwater in a Sand Aquifer at Pensacola", Environ. Sci. Technol., 19(10): 955-981 (1985).

Golder Associates, "Hydrogeological Investigation Phase 1, Domtar Wood Preserving Division Newcastle, N.B.", Mississauga, Ont. (1987).

Golder Associates, "Hydrogeological Investigation Phase 2, Domtar Wood Preserving Division Newcastle, N.B.", Mississauga, Ont. (1988).

Golder Associates, "Data Review and Seismic Survey Domtar Wood Preserving Division Plant Newcastle, N.B.", Mississauga, Ont. (1989).

Golder Associates, "Preliminary Risk Assessment Canada Creosote Site, Calgary, Alta.", Alberta Environment, Edmonton, Alta. (892-2803U) (1990a).

Golder Associates, "Soil and Groundwater Investigation at the Former Canada Creosote Ltd. Site, Calgary, Alta. Phase 2", Alberta Environment, Edmonton, Alta., Report No. 1 892-2803S (1990b).

Golder Associates, "Hydrogeological Study Liverpool Tank Farm, Surrey, B.C.", Domtar Wood Preserving Division, Vancouver, B.C. (1991).

Gough, G. and D. Konasewich, "Spill Incidents and Consequences at Kopper's Facility", B.C. Ministry of Environment and Envirochem Services, Surrey and North Vancouver, B.C. (1985).

Hamilton, H., Personal communication, HydroQual Consultants, (Dec. 21, 1992).

Hargis Jr., W.J., M.R. Roberts Jr., and D.E. Zwerner, "Effects of Contaminated Sediments and Sediment-exposed Effluent Water on An Estuarine Fish: Acute Toxicity", Marine Environ. Res., 14:337-354 (1984).

Henning, F.A. and D.E. Konasewich, "Description and Assessment of Four Eastern Canadian Wood Preservation Facilities", Environmental Protection, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ont. (1984).

Hickok, E.A., J.B. Erdmann, M.J. Simonett, G. Boyer, and L.L. Johnson, "Groundwater Contamination with Creosote Wastes", In: 1982 National Conference on Environmental Engineering, July, 1982, Minneapolis, W.K. Johnson and D.R. Martenson (eds.), American Society of Civil Engineers (1982).

Hoffman, R.E. and S.E. Hrudey, "Evaluation of the Reclamation of Decommissioned Wood Preserving Plant Sites in Alberta", Alberta Environment, Edmonton, Alta. (1990).

Hult, M.F. and J.R. Stark, "Coal-Tar Derivatives in the Prairie Du Chein-Jordan Aquifer, St. Louis Park, Minnesota", pp. 99-102 In: National Water Summary 1986-Hydrologic Events and Ground-Water Quality, Moody, D.W., J.C. Carr, E.B. Chase, R.W. Paulson (eds.), U.S. Geological Survey (1986).

Ito, M., Letter and data sheet to W. McNaughton, Plant Manager, New Westminster Wood Preserving Division, Domtar Chemicals Group, Director, Authorizations Branch, Environment Canada, North Vancouver, B.C. (1991).

Johnson, L.L., E. Casillas, T.K. Collier, B.B. McCain, and U. Varanasi, "Contaminant Effects on Ovarian Development in English Sole (Parophrys vetulus) from Puget Sound, Washington", Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 45:2133-2146 (1988).

Kieley, K.M. ,R.A.F. Matheson, and P.A. Hennigar, "Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Vicinity of Two Atlantic Region Wood Preserving Operations", Environmental Protection, Environment Canada, Dartmouth, N.S., Report No. EPS-5-AR-86-3 (1986).

Konasewich, D., N. Hutt, and G.E. Brudermann, "An Inventory of Sources, Uses and Waste Disposal Practices of Creosote in Canada", for Environmental Protection, Environment Canada, Edmonton, Alta. (1991).

Leo, A., C. Hansch, and D. Elkins, "Partition Coefficients and Their Uses", Crit. Rev., 71 (6):525-616 (1971).

Malins, D.C., B.B. McCain, J.T. Landahl, M.S. Myers, M.M Krahn, D.W. Brown, S. Chan, and W.T. Roubal, "Neoplastic and Other Diseases in Fish in Relation to Toxic Chemicals: An Overview", Aquat. Toxicol., 11:43-67 (1988).

Malins, D.C., M.M. Krahn, M.S. Myers, L.D. Rhodes, D.W. Brown, C.A. Krone, B.B. McCain, and S. Chan, "Toxic Chemicals in Sediments and Biota from a Creosote-polluted Harbor: Relationships with Hepatic Neoplasms and Other Hepatic Lesions in English Sole (Parophrys vetulus)", Carcinogenesis, 6(10):1463-1469 (1985).

Merck Index, P. A. Cooper (ed.), 9th Edition, Merck & Co., Inc. Rahway, NJ (1976).

Merrill, E.G. and T.L. Wade, "Carbonized Coal Products As a Source of Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Sediments from a Highly Industrialized Estuary", Environ. Sci. Technol., 19(7):597-602 (1985).

Metcalf, J.L. and A. Hayton, "Comparison of Leeches and Mussels as Biomonitors for Chlorophenol Pollution", J. Great Lakes Res., 15(4):654-668 (1989).

Miller, M.M., S.P. Wasik, G.L. Huang, W.Y. Shiu, and D. MacKay, "Relationships Between Octanol-water Partition Coefficient and Aqueous Solubility", Env. Sci. Technol, 19 (6):522-529 (1985).

Myers, M.S., J.T. Landahl, M.M. Krahn, L.L. Johnson, and B.B. McBain, "Overview of Studies on Liver Carcinogenesis in English Sole from Puget Sound; Evidence for a Xenobiotic Chemical Etiology I: Pathology and Epizootiology", Sci. Tot. Env., 94:33-50 (1990).

Myers, M.S., L.D. Rhodes, and B.B. McCain, "Pathologic Anatomy and Patterns of Occurrence of Hepatic Neoplasms, Putative Preneoplastic Lesions, and Other Idiopathic Hepatic Conditions in English Sole (Parophrys vetulus) from Puget Sound, Washington", J. Nat. Cancer Inst., 78(2):333-363 (1987).

NOAA, "The Potential for Biological Effects of Sediment-sorbed Contaminants Tested in the National Status and Trends Program", National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Seattle, WA, Report No. 1 NOAA T.M. 52 (1990).

O'Connor Assoc., "Preliminary Investigation of Organic Contamination Beneath the Former Canada Creosoting Plant Site", Alberta Environment, Edmonton, Alta., Report No. 10-1042 (1989).

Persaud, D., R. Jaagumagi, and A. Hayton, "Guidelines for the Protection and Management of Aquatic Sediment Quality in Ontario", Water Resources Branch, Ontario Ministry of Environment, Toronto, Ont. (1992).

Pittinger, C.A., A.L. Buikema Jr., S.G. Hornor, and R.W. Young, "Variation in Tissue Burdens of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Indigenous and Relocated Oysters", Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 4:379-387 (1985).

Pugh, D., "A Benthos and Substrate Quality Survey of Thunder Bay Harbour in the Vicinity of Northern Wood Preservers 1972 and 1986", Water Resources Assessment Unit, Ontario Ministry of Environment, Thunder Bay, Ont. (1989).

Quebec Ministry of the Environment, "L'Industrie du traitement chimique (préservation et protection) du bois au Québec en 1987", Direction des substances dangereuses, ENVIRODOQ 890660 (1989).

Reitman, V. ,T. Stone, M. Trudell, L. Andrusiak, and D. Thomson, "Mechanisms of Creosote Movement into the Bow River at the Canada Creosote Site", Alberta Research Council, Devon, Alta. (1990).

Roberts, M., W. Hargis, C. Strobel, and P.F. DeLisle, "Acute Toxicity of PAH Contaminated Sediments to the Estuarine Fish, Leiostomus xanthurus", Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 42:142-149 (1989).

Romanowski, T., W. Funcke, I. Grossmann, J. Konig, and E. Balfanz, "Gas Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric Determination of High-Molecular-Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coal Tar", Anal. Chem., 55:1030-1033 (1983).

Rotard, W. and W. Mailahn, "Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Creosote Extracted from Wooden Sleepers Installed in Playgrounds", Anal. Chem., 59:65-69 (1987).

Rostad, C.E., W.E. Pereira, and M.F. Hult, "Partitioning Studies of Coal-Tar Constituents in a Two-Phase Contaminated Ground-Water System", Chemosphere, 14(8):1023-1036 (1985).

Schoor, W.P., D.E. Williams, and N. Takahashi, "The Induction of Cytochrome P450-IA1 in Juvenile Fish by Creosote-contaminated Sediment", Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 20:497-504 (1991).

Seeley, K.R. and B.A. Weeks-Perkins, "Altered Phagocytic Activity of Macrophages in Oyster Toadfish from a Highly Polluted Subestuary", J. Aquat. Anim. Heal., 3:224-227 (1991).

Shaw, R., Personal communication, HydroQual Consultants (Dec. 23, 1992).

Sproull, J. and N. Gurprasad, "Analysis of Creosote Impregnated Waste Materials from Selected Sources Across Canada for Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Phenols", Appendix I of the Technical Background Document of the PSL Toxicity Assessment of Creosote Impregnated Waste Materials", Environmental Protection, Environment Canada (1992).

Stanley Assoc., "Treatment and Disposal of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater, Burnaby Plant Site", Koppers International Canada Ltd. (1982).

Stein, J.E., W.L. Reichert, M. Nishimoto, and U. Varanasi, "Overview of Studies on Liver Carcinogenesis in English Sole from Puget Sound ; Evidence for a Xenobiotic Chemical Etiology II: Biochemical Studies", Sci. Tot. Env. (94):51-69 (1990).

Superior Diving, "Summary Report on the Sediments and Lake Bottom Surrounding Northern Wood Preservers, Thunder Bay, Ont." (1988).

Swartz, R.C., P.F. Kemp, D.W. Schults, G.R. Ditsworth, and R.J. Ozretich, "Acute Toxicity of Sediment from Eagle Harbor, Washington, to the Infaunal Amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius", Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 8:215-222 (1989).

Syracuse Research Corporation, "Toxicological Profile for Phenol", Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Public Health Service and U.S. EPA, Washington, D.C. (1989).

Thompson, G.E., H. Husain, J. Parry, and P.J. Gilbride, "Hydrogeological Control and Clean Up of Soil and Groundwater Contaminants at Northern Wood Preservers Ltd.", In: Twenty-fifth Ontario Industrial Waste Conference (June, 1978).

U.S. EPA, "Coal Tar, Creosote, and Coal Tar Neutral Oil Non-wood Preservative Uses", U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., Report No. EPA/540/09-87/110 (1984).

U.S. EPA, "Health Affects Assessment for Creosote", Office of Health and Environmental Assessment and Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. Report No. EPA/600/8-88/025 (1987).

U.S. EPA, "Superfund Record of Decision, (EPA Region 8):Libby Ground Water Contamination, MT, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. Report No. EPA/ROD/RO8-89/022 (1988).

Vogelbein, W.K., J.W. Fourie, P.A. Van Veld, and R.J. Huggett, "Hepatic Neoplasms in the Mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus from a Creosote-contaminated Site", Canc. Res., 50: 5978-5986 (1990).

W.L. Wardrop & Assoc., "Northern Wood Preservers Ltd. Thunder Bay Creosote Contamination Investigation. Phase 1, Results of Soils and Ground Water Investigation", (1977).

Wile, K., "Saga of the Koppers Site in Burnaby", Environmental Protection, Environment Canada, North Vancouver, B.C. (1984).

Report a problem or mistake on this page
Please select all that apply:

Thank you for your help!

You will not receive a reply. For enquiries, contact us.

Date modified: