Page 8: Guidance on Waterborne Bacterial Pathogens

Part C. References and acronyms

C.1 References

Abu Kwaik, Y., Venkataraman, C., Harb, O.S. and Gao, L.-Y. (1998). Signal transduction in the protozoan host Hartmannella vermiformis upon attachment and invasion by Legionella micdadei. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 64(9): 3134-3139.

Adams, B.L., Bates, T.C. and Oliver, J.D. (2003). Survival of Helicobacter pylori in a natural freshwater environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 69: 7462-7466.

Alamanos, Y., Maipa, V., Levidiotou, S. and Gessouli, E. (2000). A community waterborne outbreak of gastro-enteritis attributed to Shigella sonnei. Epidemiol. Infect., 125: 499-503.

Alary, M. and Joly, J.R. (1991). Risk factors for contamination of domestic hot water systems by legionellae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 57(8): 2360-2367.

Allaker, R.P., Young, K.A., Hardie, J.M., Domizio, P and Meadows, N.J. (2002). Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori at oral and gastrointestinal sites in children: evidence for possible oral-to-oral transmission. J. Med. Microbiol., 51: 312-317.

Angulo, F.J., Tippen, S., Sharp, D.J., Payne, B.J., Collier, C., Hill, J.E., Barrett, T.J., Clark, R.M., Geldreich, E.E., Donnell, H.D., Jr. and Swerdlow, D.L. (1997). A community waterborne outbreak of salmonellosis and the effectiveness of a boil water order. Am. J. Public Health, 87: 580-584.

APHA, AWWA and WEF (2005). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 21st edition. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Environment Federation, Washington, DC.

Archuleta, R., Mullens, P. and Primm, T.P. (2002). The relationship of temperature to desiccation and starvation tolerance of the Mycobacterium avium complex. Arch. Microbiol., 178: 311-314.

Armstrong, J.L., Shigeno, D.S., Calomiris, J.J. and Seidler, R. (1981). Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in drinking water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 42: 277-283.

Armstrong, J.L., Calomiris, J.J. and Seidler, R.J. (1982). Selection of antibiotic-resistant standard plate count bacteria during water treatment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 44: 308-316.

Armstrong, T.W. and Haas, C.N. (2008). Legionnaires' disease: evaluation of a quantitative microbial risk assessment model. J. Water Health, 6(2): 149-166.

Arnell, B., Bennett, J., Chehey, R. and Greenblatt, J. (1996). Shigella sonnei outbreak associated with contaminated drinking water--Island Park, Idaho, August 1995.MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep., 45(11): 229-231.

Aronson, T., Holtzman, A., Glover, N., Boian, M., Froman, S., Berlin, O.G.W., Hill, H. and Stelma, G., Jr. (1999). Comparison of large restriction fragments of Mycobacterium avium isolates recovered from AIDS and non-AIDS patients with those of isolates from potable water. J. Clin. Microbiol., 37(4): 1008-1012.

ASHRAE (2000). ASHRAE Guideline 12-2000: Minimizing the risk of legionellosis associated with building water systems. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA. Available at: http://spxcooling.com/pdf/guide12.pdf

Auger, P., Pouliot, B., De Grace, M., Milot, C., Lafortune, M. and Bergeron, Z. (1981). Epidemic of bacillary dysentery. Can. Med. Assoc. J., 125: 733-736.

AWWA (2005). AWWA Standard: Disinfecting Water Mains (ANSI/AWWA C651-05). American Water Works Association, Denver, Colorado.

AWWA (2006). AWWA manual of water supply practices--M48: Waterborne pathogens. 2nd edition. American Water Works Association, Denver, Colorado.

Azevedo, N.F., Almeida, C., Fernandes, I., Cerqueira, L., Dias, S., Keevil, C.W. and Vieira, M.J. (2008). Survival of gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. in water: implications for transmission. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 74: 1805-1811.

Baele, M., Pasmans, F., Flahou, B., Chiers, K., Ducatelle, R. and Haesebrouck, F. (2009). Non-Helicobacter pylori helicobacters detected in the stomach of humans comprise several naturally occurring Helicobacter species in animals. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol., 55: 306-313.

Baker, K.H. and Hegarty, J.P. (2001). Presence of Helicobacter pylori in drinking water is associated with clinical infection. Scand. J. Infect. Dis., 33: 744-746.

Baker, K.H., Hegarty, J.P., Redmond, B., Reed, N.A. and Herson, D.S. (2002). Effect of oxidizing disinfectants (chlorine, monochloramine, and ozone) on Helicobacter pylori. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 68: 981-984.

Bartram, J., Bentham, R., Briand, E., Callan, P., Crespi, S., Lee, J.V. and Surman-Lee, S. (2007). Chapter 3: Approaches to risk management. In: Legionella and the prevention of legionellosis. Bartram, J., Chartier, Y., Lee, J.V., Pond, K. and Surman-Lee, S. (eds.). World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. pp. 39-56. Available at: www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/emerging/legionella.pdf

Bellack, N.R., Koehoorn, M.W., MacNab, Y.C. and Morshed, M.G. (2006). A conceptual model of water's role as a reservoir in Helicobacter pylori transmission: a review of the evidence. Epidemiol. Infect., 134: 439-449.

Benin, A.L., Benson, R.F. and Besser, R.E. (2002). Trends in legionnaires disease, 1980-1998: declining mortality and new patterns of diagnosis. Clin. Infect. Dis., 35(9): 1039-1046.

Benson, J.A., Fode-Vaughan, K.A. and Collins, M.L.P. (2004). Detection of Helicobacter pylori in water by direct PCR. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 39: 221-225.

Bentham, R., Surman-Lee, S., Lee, J.V., Briand, E. and Van de Kooj, D. (2007). Chapter 4: Potable water and in-building distribution systems. In: Legionella and the prevention of legionellosis. Bartram, J., Chartier, Y., Lee, J.V., Pond, K. and Surman-Lee, S. (eds.). World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. pp. 57-68. Available at: www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/emerging/legionella.pdf

Black, R.E., Levine, M.M., Clements, M.L., Hughes, T.P. and Blaser, M.J. (1988). Experimental Campylobacter jejuni infection in humans. J. Infect. Dis., 157(3): 472-479.

Blanc, D.S., Carrara, P., Zanetti, G. and Francioli, P. (2005). Water disinfection with ozone, copper and silver ions, and temperature increase to control Legionella: seven years of experience in a university teaching hospital. J. Hosp. Infect., 60(1): 69-72.

Blaser, M.J., Wells, J.H., Powers, B. and Wang, W.L. (1980). Survival of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in biological milieus. J. Clin. Microbiol., 11: 309-313.

Blaser, M.J. (1992). Helicobacter pylori: its role in disease. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15, 386-393.

Bode, G., Mauch, F. and Malfertheiner, P. (1993). The coccoid forms of Helicobacter pylori. Criteria for their viability.Epidemiol. Infect.,111: 483-490.

Borchardt, M.A., Stemper, M.E. and Standridge, J.H. (2003). Aeromonas isolates from human diarrheic stool and groundwater compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 9: 224-228.

Borella, P., Montagna, M.T., Romano-Spica, V., Stampi, S., Stancanelli, G., Triassi, M., Neglia, R., Marchesi, I., Fantuzzi, G., Tatòt, D., Napoli, C., Quaranta, G., Laurenti, P., Leoni, E., De Luca, G., Ossi, C., Moro, M. and D'Alcalà, G.R. (2004). Legionella infection risk from domestic hot water. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 10(3): 457-464.

Borella, P., Guerrieri, E., Marchesi, I., Bondi, M. and Messi, P. (2005). Water ecology of Legionella and protozoan: environmental and public health perspectives. Biotechnol. Annu. Rev., 11: 355-380.

Boring, J.R., III, Martin, W.T. and Elliott, L.M. (1971). Isolation of Salmonella typhimurium from municipal water, Riverside, California, 1965. Am. J. Epidemiol., 93: 49-54.

Bragança, S.M., Azevedo, N.F., Simöes, L.C., Keevil, C.W. and Vieira, M.J. (2007). Use of fluorescent in situ hybridisation for the visualisation of Helicobacter pylori in real drinking water biofilms. Water Sci. Technol., 55: 387-393.

Brandi, G., Sisti, M., Giardini, F., Schiavano, G.F. and Albano, A. (1999). Survival ability of cytotoxic strains of motile Aeromonas spp. in different types of water. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 29: 211-215.

Brooks, T., Osicki, R.A., Springthorpe, V.S., Sattar, S.A., Filion, L., Abrial, D. and Riffard, S. (2004). Detection and identification of Legionella species from groundwaters. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A, 67: 1845-1859.

Brown, L.M. (2000). Helicobacter pylori: epidemiology and routes of transmission. Epidemiol. Rev., 22: 283-297.

Brown, L.M., Thomas, T.L., Ma, J., Chang, Y., You, W., Liu, W., Zhang, L., Pee, D. and Gail, M.H. (2002). Helicobacter pylori infection in rural China: demographic, lifestyle and environmental factors. Int. J. Epidemiol., 31: 638-646.

Bruce-Grey-Owen Sound Health Unit (2000). The investigative report on the Walkerton outbreak of waterborne gastroenteritis. May-June, Owen Sound, Ontario. Available at: www.publichealthgreybruce.on.ca

Burke, V., Gracey, M. and Robinson, J. (1983). The microbiology of childhood gastroenteritis: Aeromonas species and other infective agents. J. Infect. Dis., 148: 68-74.

Burnsed, L.J., Hicks, L.A., Smithee, L.M.K., Fields, B.S., Bradley, K.K., Pascoe, N., Richards, S.M., Mallonee, S., Littrell, L., Benson, R.F., Moore, M.R., Bos, J., Lee, A., Rayno, K., Coffman, B., Grubbs, M., Eberly, D., Minor, V., Botchlet, R., Johnson, S., Lytle, M., McDermott, M., Mathewson, J., Evans, T., Madewell, T., Campbell, S., Bowman, L., Myers, S., Wagner, J., Jones, R., Stone, P., Lin, H., Ibrahim, S., Duszynski, T., Beard, B., Howe, A., Burkholder, S., Ramey, P., Overholt, K., Weber, A., Azene, N., Comstock, D., Mallonee, J., Garrison, P., Powell, R., Stevenson, K., Orr, C., Kostiuk, E., Jordan, L. and Hawkins, L. (2007). A large, travel-associated outbreak of legionellosis among hotel guests: utility of the urine antigen assay in confirming Pontiac fever. Clin. Infect. Dis., 44(2): 222-228.

Cachafeiro, S.P., Naveira, I.M. and García, I.G. (2007). Is copper-silver ionisation safe and effective in controlling Legionella? J. Hosp. Infect., 67: 209-216.

Cangelosi, G., Clark-Curtiss, J., Behr, M., Bull, T. and Stinear, T. (2004). Chapter 4: Biology of waterborne pathogenic mycobacteria. In: Pathogenic mycobacteria in water, a guide to public health consequences, monitoring and management. Pedley, S., Bartram, J., Rees, G., Dufour, A. and Cotruvo, J.A. (eds.). Published by IWA Publishing, London, United Kingdom, on behalf of the World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. pp. 39-54.

Cappelluti, E., Fraire, A.E. and Schaefer, O.P. (2003). A case of "hot tub lung" due to Mycobacterium avium complex in an immunocompetent host. Arch. Intern. Med., 163(7): 845-848.

Carter, A.M., Pacha, R.E., Clark, G.W. and Williams, E.A. (1987). Seasonal occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in surface waters and their correlation with standard indicator bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 53: 523-526.

Castilho, M.C.B., Castro, T.L.A., Araújo, V.S., Trajano, R.S., Santos, P.A., Pimenta, P.M.C., Lucheze, K., Melo, J.T.B., Gonçalves, A.M., Nogueira, R.T., Luna, M.G. and Freitas-Almeida, A.C. (2009). High frequency of hemolytic and cytotoxic activity in Aeromonas spp. isolated from clinical, food and environmental in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 96(1): 53-61.

Chamorey, E., Forel, M. and Drancourt, M. (1999). An in-vitro evaluation of the activity of chlorine against environmental and nosocomial isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila. J. Hosp. Infect., 41: 45-49.

Chang, J.C.H., Ossoff, S.F. and Lobe, D.C. (1985). UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 49(6): 1361-1365.

Chauret, C., Volk, C., Creason, R., Jarosh, J., Robinson, J. and Warnes, C. (2001). Detection of Aeromonas hydrophila in a drinking-water distribution system: a field and pilot study. Can. J. Microbiol., 47: 782-786.

Chauret, C., Smith, C. and Baribeau, H. (2008). Inactivation of Nitrosomonas europaea and pathogenic Escherichia coli by chlorine and monochloramine. J. Water Health, 6(3): 315-322.

Chen, K.T., Chen, C.J. and Chiu, J.P. (2001). A school waterborne outbreak involving both Shigella sonnei and Entamoeba histolytica. J. Environ. Health, 64: 9-13.

Cirillo, J.D., Falkow, S., Tompkins, L.S. and Bermudez, L.E. (1997). Interaction of Mycobacterium avium with environmental amoebae enhances virulence. Infect. Immun., 65: 3759-3767.

Clark, C.G., Price, L., Ahmed, R., Woodward, D.L., Melito, P.L., Rodgers, F.G., Jamieson, F., Ciebin, B., Li, A. and Ellis, A. (2003). Characterization of waterborne outbreak-associated Campylobacter jejuni, Walkerton, Ontario. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 9: 1232-1241.

Clark, W.F., Sontrop, J.M., Macnab, J.J., Salvadori, M., Moist, L., Suri, R. and Garg, A.X. (2010). Long term risk for hypertension, renal impairment, and cardiovascular disease after gastroenteritis from drinking water contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7: a prospective cohort study. BMJ, 341:c6020. Available at: www.bmj.com/content/341/bmj.c6020

Cooper, I.R. and Hanlon, G.W. (2010). Resistance of Legionella pneumophila serotype 1 biofilms to chlorine-based disinfection. J. Hosp. Infect., 74: 152-159.

Costa, J., Tiago, I., Da Costa, M.S. and Veríssimo, A. (2005). Presence and persistence of Legionella spp. in groundwater. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 71(2): 663-671.

Covert, T.C., Rodgers, M.R., Reyes, A.L. and Stelma, G.N., Jr. (1999). Occurrence of nontuberculous mycobacteria in environmental samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 65: 2492-2496.

Cowgill, K.O., Lucas, C.E., Benson, R.F., Chamany, S., Brown, E.W., Fields, B.S. and Feikin, D.R. (2005). Recurrence of legionnaires disease at a hotel in the United States Virgin Islands over a 20-year period. Clin. Infect. Dis., 40: 1205-1207.

Craun, M.F., Craun, G.F., Calderon, R.L. and Beach, M.J. (2006). Waterborne outbreaks reported in the United States. J. Water Health, 4(Suppl. 2): 19-30.

Crow, H.E., King, C.T., Smith, C.E., Corpe, R.F. and Stergus, I. (1957). A limited clinical, pathologic, and epidemiologic study of patients. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 75: 199-222.

Cunliffe, D. (2007). Chapter 10: Regulatory aspects. In: Legionella and the prevention of legionellosis. Bartram, J., Chartier, Y., Lee, J.V., Pond, K. and Surman-Lee, S. (eds.). World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. pp. 161-174. Available at: www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/emerging/legionella.pdf

Daley, C.D. and Griffith, D.E. (2010). Pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis., 14: 665-671.

Declerck, P., Behets, J., De Keersmaecker, B. and Ollevier, F. (2007). Receptor-mediated uptake of Legionella pneumophila by Acanthamoeba castellanii and Naegleria lovaniensis. J. Appl. Microbiol., 103(6): 2697-2703.

Declerck, P., Behets, J., Margineanu, A., van Hoef, V., De Keersmaecker, B. and Ollevier, F. (2009). Replication of Legionella pneumophila in biofilms of water distribution pipes. Microbiol. Res., 164(6): 593-603.

Delaedt, Y., Daneels, A., Declerck, P., Behets, J., Ryckeboer, J., Peters, E. and Ollevier, F. (2008). The impact of electrochemical disinfection on Escherichia coli and Legionella pneumophila in tap water. Microbiol. Res., 163(2): 192-199.

Del Giudice, G., Malfertheiner, P. and Rappuoli, R. (2009). Development of vaccines against Helicobacter pylori. Expert Rev. Vaccines, 8: 1037-1049.

De Oliveira Scoaris, D., Bizerra, F.C., Yamada-Ogatta, S.F., De Abreu Filho, B.A., Ueda-Nakamura, T., Nakamura, C.V. and Dias Filho, B.P. (2008). The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol., 51: 1049-1055.

Diederen, B.M.W. (2008). Legionella spp. and Legionnaires' disease. J. Infect., 56: 1-12.

Dominique, E.L., Tydall, R.L., Mayberry, W.R. and Pancorbo, O.C. (1988). Effects of three oxidizing biocides on Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 54: 741-747.

Doyle, R.M. and Heuzenroeder, M.W. (2002). A mutation in an ompR-like gene on a Legionella longbeachae serogroup1 plasmid attenuates virulence. Int. J. Med. Microbiol., 292: 227-239.

Dufour, A.P. and Jakubowski, W. (1982). Drinking water and Legionnaires' disease. J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 74: 631-637.

Dufresne, S.F., Locas, M.C., Duchesne, A., Restieri, C., Ismaïl, J., Lefebvre, B., Labbé, A.C., Dion, R., Plante, M. and Laverdière, M. (2012). Sporadic Legionnaires' disease: the role of domestic electric hot-water tanks. Epidemiol. Infect., 140(1): 172-181.

du Moulin, G.C., Stottmeier, K.D., Pelletier, P.A., Tsang, A.Y. and Hedley-Whyte, J. (1988). Concentration of Mycobacterium avium by hospital hot water systems. JAMA, 11: 1599-1601.

Dunn, B.E., Cohen, H. and Blaser, M.J. (1997). Helicobacter pylori. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 10: 720-741.

Dutka, B.J., Walsh, K., Ewan, P., El-Shaarawi, A. and Tobin, R.S. (1984). Incidence of Legionella organisms in selected Ontario (Canada) cities. Sci. Total Environ., 39: 237-249.

Eden, K.V., Rosenburg, M.L., Stoopler, M., Wood, B.T., Highsmith, A.K., Skaliy, P., Wells, J.G. and Feeley, J.C. (1977). Waterborne gastrointestinal illness at a ski resort. Public Health Rep., 92: 245-250.

El-Taweel, G.E. and Shaban, A.M. (2001). Microbiological quality of drinking water at eight water treatment plants. Int. J. Environ. Health Res., 11: 285-290.

Emekdas, G., Aslan, G., Tezcan, S., Serin, M.S., Yildiz, C., Ozturhan, H. and Durmaz, R. (2006). Detection of the frequency, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genotypic discrimination of Aeromonas strains isolated from municipally treated tap water samples by cultivation and AP-PCR. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 107: 310-314.

Ernst, P.B. and Gold, B.D. (2000). The disease spectrum of Helicobacter pylori: the immunopathogenesis of gastroduodenal ulcer and gastric cancer. Annu. Rev. Microbiol., 54: 615-640.

Erova, T.E., Kosykh, V.G., Fadl, A.A., Sha, J., Horneman, A.J. and Chopra, A.K. (2008). Cold shock exoribonuclease R (VacB) is involved in Aeromonas hydrophila pathogenesis. J. Bacteriol., 190: 3467-3474.

Falkinham, J.O., III (1996). Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 9:177-215.

Falkinham, J.O. (2004). Chapter 3: Environmental sources of Mycobacterium avium linked to routes of exposure. In: Pathogenic mycobacteria in water, a guide to public health consequences, monitoring and management. Pedley, S., Bartram, J., Rees, G., Dufour, A. and J.A. Cotruvo (eds.). Published by IWA Publishing, London, United Kingdom, on behalf of the World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. pp. 26-38.

Falkinham, J.O., III, Norton, C.D. and LeChevallier, M.W. (2001). Factors influencing numbers of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and other mycobacteria in drinking water distribution systems. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 67: 1225-1231.

Falkinham, J.O., III, Iseman, M.D., de Haas, P. and van Soolingen, D. (2008). Mycobacterium avium in a shower linked to pulmonary disease.J. Water Health, 6(2): 209-213.

Feazel, L.M., Baumgartner, L.K., Peterson, K.L., Frank, D.N., Harris, J.K. and Pace, N.R. (2009). Opportunistic pathogens enriched in showerhead biofilms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 106: 16393-16398.

Fernández, M.C., Giampaolo, B.N., Ibañez, S.B., Guagliardo, M.V., Esnaola, M.M., Conca, L., Valdivia, P., Stagnaro, S.M., Chiale, C. and Frade, H. (2000). Aeromonas hydrophila and its relation with drinking water indicators of microbiological quality in Argentina Genetica, 108: 35-40.

Field, S.K., Fisher, D. and Cowie, R.L. (2004). Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease in patient without HIV infection. Chest, 126: 566-581.

Fields, B.S. (1996). The molecular ecology of legionellae. Trends Microbiol., 4: 286-290.

Fields, B.S., Benson, R.F. and Besser, R.E. (2002). Legionella and legionnaires' disease: 25 years of investigation. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 15(3): 506-526.

Fliermans, C.B., Cherry, W.B. and Orrison, L.H. (1981). Ecological distribution of Legionella pneumophila. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 41(1): 9-16.

Gavriel, A.A., Landre, J.P.B. and Lamb, A.J. (1998). Incidence of mesophilic Aeromonas within a public drinking water supply in north-east Scotland. J. Appl. Microbiol., 84: 383-392.

Gião, M.S., Azevedo, N.F., Wilks, S.A., Vieira, M.J. and Keevil, C.W. (2008). Persistence of Helicobacter pylori in heterotrophic drinking-water biofilms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 74: 5898-5904.

Gião, M.S., Azevedo, N.F., Wilks, S.A., Vieira, M.J. and Keevil, C.W. (2010). Effect of chlorine on incorporation of Helicobacter pylori into drinking water biofilms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 76: 1669-1673.

Glover, N., Holtzman, A., Aronson, T., Froman, S., Berlin, O.G.W., Dominguez, P., Kunkel, K.A., Overturf, G., Stelma, G., Jr., Smith, C. and Yakrus, M. (1994). The isolation and identification of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) recovered from Los Angeles potable water, a possible source of infection in AIDS patients. Int. J. Environ. Health Res., 4: 63-72.

Gold, W.L. and Salit, I.E. (1993). Aeromonas hydrophila infections of skin and soft tissue: report of 11 cases and review. Clin. Infect. Dis., 16: 69-74.

Gomes, B.C. and De Martinis, E.C.P. (2004). The significance of Helicobacter pylori in water, food and environmental samples. Food Control, 15: 397-403.

Goodman, K.J., Correa, P., Tenganá Aux, H.J., Ramirez, H., DeLany, J.P., Pepinosa, O.G., Quiñones, M.L. and Parra, T.C. (1996). Helicobacter pylori infection in the Colombian Andes: a population-based study of transmission pathways. Am. J. Epidemiol., 144: 290-299.

Graham, D.Y., Opekun, A.R., Osato, M.S., El-Zimaity, H.M.T., Lee, C.K., Yamaoka, Y., Qureshi, W.A., Cadoz, M. and Monath, T.P. (2004). Challenge model for Helicobacter pylori infection in human volunteers. Gut, 53: 1235-1243.

Grange, J.M. (1991). Environmental mycobacteria and human disease. Lepr. Rev., 62: 353-361.

Greub, G. and Raoult, D. (2004). Microorganisms resistant to free-living amoebae. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 17: 413-433.

Gyles, C.L. (2007). Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: an overview. J. Anim. Sci., 85(Suppl. 13):E45-E62.

Haesebrouck, F., Pasmans, F., Flahou, B., Chiers, K., Baele, M., Meyns, T., Decostere, A. and Ducatelle, R. (2009). Gastric helicobacters in domestic animals and nonhuman primates and their significance for human health. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 22: 202-223.

Hara-Kudo, Y. and Takatori, K. (2011). Contamination level and ingestion dose of foodborne pathogens associated with infections. Epidemiol. Infect., 139: 1505-1510.

Harrington, G.W., Xagoraraki, I., Assavasilavasukul, P. and Standridge, J.H. (2003). Effect of filtration conditions on removal of emerging waterborne pathogens. J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 95(12): 95-104.

Havelaar, A.H., Versteegh, J.F.M. and During, M. (1990). The presence of Aeromonas in drinking water supplies in the Netherlands. Zentralbl. Hyg. Umweltmed., 190: 236-256.

Hayes, S.L., White, K.M. and Rodgers, M.R. (2006). Assessment of the effectiveness of low-pressure UV light for inactivation of Helicobacter pylori. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 72: 3763-3765.

Hayes, S.L., Sivaganesan, M., White, K.M. and Pfaller, S.L. (2008). Assessing the effectiveness of low-pressure ultraviolet light for inactivating Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) micro-organisms. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 47: 386-392.

Health Canada (2008). Guidelines for Canadian drinking water quality: guideline technical document--Chlorite and chlorate. Water Quality and Health Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Ottawa, Ontario. Available at: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/water-eau/chlorite-chlorate/index-eng.php

Health Canada (2012). Guidelines for Canadian drinking water quality: guideline technical document--Escherichia coli. Water, Air and Climate Change Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Available at: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/waterquality

Hegarty, J.P., Dowd, M.T. and Baker, K.H. (1999). Occurrence of Helicobacter pylori in surface water in the United States. J. Appl. Microbiol., 87: 697-701.

Herbarth, O., Krumbiegel, P., Fritz, G.J., Richter, M., Schlink, U., Mu¨ller, D.M. and Richter, T. (2001). Helicobacter pylori prevalences and risk factors among school beginners in a German urban center and rural county. Environ. Health Perspect., 109: 573-577.

Hershey, J., Burrus, B., Marcussen, V., Notter, J., Watson, K., Wolford, R., Shaffner, R.E., III, Barrett, E., Woolard, D., Branch, L., Hackler, R., Rouse, B., Gibson, L., Jenkins, S., Rullan, J., Miller, G., Jr. and Curran, S. (1997). Legionnaires disease associated with a whirlpool spa display--Virginia, September-October, 1996. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep., 46: 83-86.

Hilborn, E.D., Covert, T.C., Yakrus, M.A., Harris, S.I., Donnelly, S.F., Rice, E.W., Toney, S., Bailey, S.A. and Stelma, G.N., Jr. (2006). Persistence of nontuberculous mycobacteria in a drinking water system after addition of filtration treatment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 72: 5864-5869.

Hiransuthikul, N., Tantisiriwat, W., Lertutsahakul, K., Vibhagool, A. and Boonma, P. (2005). Skin and soft-tissue infections among tsunami survivors in southern Thailand. Clin. Infect. Dis., 41(10): e93-96.

Hoebe, C.J.P., Cluitmans, J.J.M. and Wagenvoort, J.H.T. (1998). Two fatal cases of nosocomial Legionella pneumophila pneumonia associated with a contaminated cold water supply. Eur. J. Clin. Micriobiol. Infect. Dis., 17: 740-749.

Holmes, P. and Nicolls, L.M. (1995). Aeromonads in drinking-water supplies: their occurrence and significance. J. Chartered Inst. Water Environ. Manage., 9: 464-469.

Holmes, P., Nicolls, L.M. and Sartory, D.P. (1996). The ecology of mesophilic Aeromonas in aquatic environment. In: The genus Aeromonas. Austin, B., Altwegg, M., Gosling, P. and Joseph, S.W. (eds.). John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. pp. 39-76.

Horiuchi, T., Ohkusa, T., Watanabe, M., Kobayashi, D., Miwa, H. and Eishi, Y. (2001). Helicobacter pylori DNA in drinking water in Japan. Microbiol. Immunol., 45: 515-519.

Hörman, A., Rimhanen-Finne, R., Maunula, L., Von Bonsdorff, C.-H., Torvela, N., Heikinheimo, A. and Hänninen, M.-L. (2004). Campylobacter spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Noroviruses, and indicator organisms in surface water in southwestern Finland, 2000-2001. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 70(1): 87-95.

Hunter, P.R. (1997). Waterborne disease--Epidemiology and ecology. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom.

ISO (2004). Water quality--Detection and enumeration of Legionella--Part 2: Direct membrane filtration method for waters with low bacterial counts. International Organization of Standardization. ISO 11731-2:2004.

ISO (2005). Water quality--Detection and enumeration of thermotolerant Campylobacter species. International Organization of Standardization. ISO 17995:2005.

Jacangelo, J.G., Patania, N.L., Trussell, R.R., Hass, C.N. and Gerba, C. (2002). Inactivation of waterborne emerging pathogens by selected disinfectants. AWWA Research Foundation and the American Water Works Association, Denver, Colorado, pp. 1-145.

Jackson, S.G., Goodbrand, R.B., Johnson, R.P., Odorico, V.G., Alves, D., Rahn, K., Wilson, J.B., Welch, M.K. and Khakhria, R. (1998). Escherichia coli O157:H7 diarrhoea associated with well water and infected cattle on an Ontario farm. Epidemiol. Infect., 120(1): 17-20.

Janda, M.J. and Abbott, S.L. (1998). Evolving concepts regarding the genus Aeromonas: An expanding panorama of species, disease presentations, and unanswered questions. Clin. Infec. Dis. 27:332-344.

Janda, M.J. and Abbott, S.L. (2010). The genus Aeromonas: taxonomy, pathogenicity, and infection. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 23: 35-73.

Johnson, C., Rice, E. and Reasoner, D. (1997). Inactivation of Helicobacter pylori by chlorination. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 63: 4969-4970.

Joly, J. (1985). Legionella and domestic water heaters in the Quebec City area. Can. Med. Assoc. J., 132(2): 160.

Kahana, L.M., Kay, J.M., Yakrus, M.A. and Waserman, S. (1997). Mycobacterium avium complex infection in an immunocompetent young adult related to hot tub exposure. Chest, 111: 242-245.

Kersters, I., Huys, G., Van Duffel, H., Vancanneyt, M., Kersters, K. and Verstraete, W. (1996). Survival potential of Aeromonas hydrophila in freshwaters and nutrient-poor waters in comparison with other bacteria. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 80: 266-276.

Khajanchi, B.K., Fadl, A.A., Borchardt, M.A., Berg, R.L., Horneman, A.J., Stemper, M.E., Joseph, S.W., Moyer, N.P., Sha, J. and Chopra, A.K. (2010). Distribution of virulence factors and molecular fingerprinting of Aeromonas species isolates from water and clinical samples: suggestive evidence of water-to-human transmission. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 76: 2313-2325.

Kilvington, S. and Price, J. (1990). Survival of Legionella pneumophila within cysts of Acanthamoeba polyphaga following chlorine exposure. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 68(5): 519-525.

Kim, B.R., Anderson, J.E., Mueller, S.A., Gaines, W.A. and Kendall, A.M. (2002). Literature review--Efficacy of various disinfectants against Legionella in water systems. Water Res., 36: 4433-4444.

Kirschner, R.A., Jr., Parker, B.C. and Falkinham, J.O., III (1992). Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria: Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum in acid, brown-water swamps of the southeastern United States and their association with environmental variables. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 145: 271-275.

Kirschner, R.A., Jr., Parker, B.C. and Falkinham, J.O., III (1999). Humic and fulvic acids stimulate the growth of Mycobacterium avium. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 30: 327-332.

Klein, P.D., Gilman, R., Leon-Barua, R., Ramirez-Ramos, A., Recaverren, S., Spira, W., Wanatabe, J., Graham, D.Y., Gaillour, A., Opekun, A.R. and O'Brian Smith, E. (1991). Water source as risk factor for Helicobacter pylori infection in Peruvian children. Lancet, 337: 1503-1506.

Knøchel, S. (1991). Chlorine resistance of motile Aeromonas spp. Water Sci. Technol., 24: 327-330.

Koivunen, J. and Heinonen-Tanski, H. (2005). Inactivation of enteric microorganisms with chemical disinfectants, UV irradiation and combined chemical/UV treatments. Water Res., 39(8): 1519-1526.

Kool, J.L., Carpenter, J.C. and Fields, B.S. (1999). Effect of monochloramine disinfection of municipal drinking water on risk of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. Lancet, 353: 272-277.

Kothary, M.H. and Babu, U.S. (2001). Infective dose of foodborne pathogens in volunteers: a review. J. Food Saf., 21(1): 49-73.

Kramer, M.H.J. and Ford, T.E. (1994). Legionellosis: ecological factors of an environmentally "new" disease. Zentralbl. Hyg. Umweltmed., 195: 470-482.

Kühn, I., Allestam, G., Huys, G., Janssen, P., Kersters, K., Krovacek, K. and Stenström, T.-A. (1997). Diversity, persistence, and virulence of Aeromonas strains isolated from drinking water distribution systems in Sweden. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 63: 2708-2715.

Kuipers, E.J., Thijs, J.C. and Festen, H.P.M. (1995). The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in peptic ulcer disease. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 9(Suppl. 2): 59-69.

Kusnetsov, J., Iivanainen, E., Elomaa, N., Zacheus, O. and Martikainen, P.J. (2001). Copper and silver ions more effective against legionellae than against mycobacteria in a hospital warm water system. Water Res., 35: 4217-4225.

Kusters, J.G., Van Vliet, A.H.M. and Kuipers, E.J. (2006). Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 19: 449-490.

LaBombardi, V.J., O'Brien, A.M. and Kislak, J.W. (2002). Pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium fortuitum due to contaminated ice machines. Am. J. Infect. Control, 30: 184-186.

Lafrance, G., Lafrance, R., Roy, G.L., Ouellete, D. and Bourdeau, R. (1986). Outbreak of enteric infection following a field trip--Ontario. Can. Dis. Wkly. Rep., 12: 171-172.

Langenberg, W., Rauws, E.A.J., Oudbier, J.H. and Tytgat, G.N.J. (1990). Patient-to-patient transmission of Campylobacter pylori infection by fiberoptic gastroduodenoscopy and biopsy. J. Infect. Dis., 161: 507-511.

Långmark, J., Storey, M.V., Ashbolt, N.J. and Stenström, T.-A. (2007). The effects of UV disinfection on distribution pipe biofilm growth and pathogen incidence within the greater Stockholm area, Sweden. Water Res., 41: 3327-3336.

Lau, H.Y. and Ashbolt, N.J. (2009). The role of biofilms and protozoa in Legionella pathogenesis: implications for drinking water. J. Appl. Microbiol., 107: 368-378.

LeChevallier, M.W. (2004). Chapter 11: Control, treatment and disinfection of Mycobacterium avium complex in drinking water. In: Pathogenic mycobacteria in water, a guide to public health consequences, monitoring and management. Pedley, S., Bartram, J., Rees, G., Dufour, A. and Cotruvo, J.A. (eds.). Published by IWA Publishing, London, United Kingdom, on behalf of the World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. pp. 143-168.

LeChevallier, M.W. and Au, K-K. (2004). Water treatment and pathogen control--Process efficiency in achieving safe drinking water. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switerland.

LeChevallier, M.W., Seidler, R.J. and Evans, T.M. (1980). Enumeration and characterization of standard plate count bacteria in chlorinated and raw water supplies. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 40: 922-930.

LeChevallier, M.W., Abbaszadegan, M., Camper, A.K., Hurst, C.J., Izaguirre, G., Marshall, M.M., Naumovitz, D., Payment, P., Rice, E.W., Rose, J., Schaub, S., Slifko, T.R., Smith, D.B., Smith, H.V., Sterling, C.R. and Stewart, M. (1999). Committee report: Emerging pathogens--bacteria. J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 91(9): 101-109.

Le Dantec, C., Duguet, J.-P., Montiel, A., Dumoutier, N., Dubrou, S. and Vincent, V. (2002a). Chlorine disinfection of atypical mycobacteria isolated from a water distribution system. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 68: 1025-1032.

Le Dantec, C., Duguet, J.-P., Montiel, A., Dumoutier, N., Dubrou, S. and Vincent, V. (2002b). Occurrence of mycobacteria in water treatment lines and in water distribution systems. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 68: 5318-5325.

Loret, J.F., Robert, S., Thomas, V., Cooper, A.J., McCoy, W.F. and Lévi, Y. (2005). Comparison of disinfectants for biofilm, protozoa and Legionella control. J. Water Health, 3: 423-433.

Lück, P.C., Schneider, T., Wagner, J., Walther, I., Reif, U., Weber, S. and Weist, K. (2008). Community-acquired Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 10 linked to the private home. J. Med. Microbiol., 57: 240-243.

Lumb, R., Stapledon, R., Scroop, A., Bond, P., Cunliffe, D., Goodwin, A., Doyle, R. and Bastian, I. (2004). Investigation of spa pools associated with lung disorders caused by Mycobacterium avium complex in immunocompetent adults. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 70: 4906-4910.

Lund, V. (1996). Evaluation of E. coli as an indicator for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica in chlorinated and untreated oligotrophic lake water. Water Res., 30(6): 1528-1534.

Maalej, S., Gdoura, R., Dukan, S., Hammami, A. and Bouain, A. (2004). Maintenance of pathogenicity during entry into and resuscitation from viable but nonculturable state in Aeromonas hydrophila exposed to natural seawater at low temperature. J. Appl. Microbiol., 97: 557-565.

Mangione, E.J., Huitt, G., Lenaway, D., Beebe, D., Bailey, A., Figoski, M., Rau, M.P., Albrecht, K.D. and Yakrus, M.A. (2001). Nontuberculous mycobacterial disease following hot tub exposure. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 7(6): 1039-1042.

Manresa, M.J., Villa, A.V., Giralt, A.G. and González-Enseñat, M.A. (2009) Aeromonas hydrophila Folliculitis Associated with an Inflatable Swimming Pool: Mimicking Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection. Ped. Derma. 26:601-603.

Marras, T.K. and Daley, C.L. (2002). Epidemiology of human pulmonary infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria. Clin. Chest Med., 23: 553-567.

Marras, T.K., Wallace, R.J., Jr., Koth, L.L., Stulbarg, M.S., Cowl, C.T. and Daley, C.L. (2005). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis reaction to Mycobacterium avium in household water. Chest, 127: 664-671.

Marras, T.K., Chedore, P., Ying, A.M. and Jamieson, F. (2007). Isolation prevalence of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacteria in Ontario, 1997-2003. Thorax, 62: 661-666.

Marrie, T., Green, P., Burbridge, S., Bezanson, G., Neale, S., Hoffman, P.S. and Haldane, D. (1994). Legionellaceae in the potable water of Nova Scotia hospitals and Halifax residences. Epidemiol. Infect., 112: 143-150.

Mary, P., Chihib, N.E., Charafeddine, O., Defives, C. and Hornez, J.P. (2002). Starvation survival and viable but nonculturable states in Aeromonas hydrophila. Microb. Ecol., 43: 250-258.

Massa, S., Armuzzi, R., Tosques, M., Canganella, F. and Trovatelli, L.D. (1999). Susceptibility to chlorine of Aeromonas hydrophila strains [note]. J. Appl. Microbiol., 86: 169-173.

Mathys, W., Stanke, J., Harmuth, M. and Junge-Mathys, E. (2008). Occurrence of Legionella in hot water systems of single-family residences in suburbs of two German cities with special reference to solar and district heating. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health, 211(1-2): 179-185.

Matysiak-Budnik, T., Briet, F., Heyman, M. and Megraud, F. (1995). Laboratory-acquired Helicobacter pylori infection [letter]. Lancet, 346: 1489-1490.

McEvoy, M., Batchelor, N., Hamilton, G., MacDonald, A., Faiers, M., Sills, A., Lee, J. and Harrison, T. (2000). A cluster of cases of legionnaires' disease associated with exposure to a spa pool on display. Commun. Dis. Public Health, 3: 43-45.

McFeters, G.A., Bissonnette, G.K., Jezeski, J.J., Thomson, C.A. and Stuart, D.G. (1974). Comparative survival of indicator bacteria and enteric pathogens in well water. Appl. Microbiol., 27: 823-829.

McKeown, I., Orr, P., Macdonald, S., Kabani, A., Brown, R., Coghlan, G., Dawood, M., Embil, J., Sargent, M., Smart, G. and Bernstein, C.N. (1999). Helicobacter pylori in the Canadian Arctic: seroprevalence and detection in community water samples. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 94: 1823-1829.

McNeil, C.A., Out, K., Pagan, R.T., McMyre, P., Black, W.A. and Mathias, R.G. (1981). Possible waterborne Campylobacter outbreak--British Columbia. Can. Dis. Wkly. Rep., 7: 223-227.

Medema, G.J., Wondergem, E., Van Dijk-Looyaard, A.M. and Havelaar, A.H. (1991). Effectivity of chlorine dioxide to control Aeromonas in drinking water distribution systems. Water Sci. Technol., 24: 325-326.

Meheus, J. and Peeters, P. (1989). Preventive and corrective actions to cope with Aeromonas growth in water treatment. Water Supply, 7: 10-14.

Mentzing, L.O. (1981). Waterborne outbreaks of Campylobacter enteritis in central Sweden. Lancet, 318(8242): 352-354.

Merino, S., Rubires, X., Knochel, S. and Tomas, J.M. (1995). Emerging pathogens: Aeromonas spp. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 28: 157-168.

Mitchell, D.O. and Starzyk, M.J. (1975). Survival of Salmonella and other indicator microorganisms. Can. J. Microbiol., 21: 1420-1421.

Moe, C.L. (1997). Waterborne transmission of infectious agents. In: Manual of environmental microbiology. Hurst, C.J., Knudsen, G.R., McInerney, M.J., Stetzenbach, L.D. and Walter, M.V. (eds.). ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Montecalvo, M.A., Forester, G., Tsang, A.Y., du Moulin, G. and Wormser, G.P. (1994). Colonisation of potable water with Mycobacterium avium complex in homes of HIV-infected patients [letter]. Lancet, 343: 1639.

Moreno, Y., Piqueres, P., Alonso, J.L., Jiménez, A., González, A. and Ferrús, M.A. (2007). Survival and viability of Helicobacter pylori after inoculation into chlorinated drinking water. Water Res., 41: 3490-3496.

Morgan, D.R., Johnson, P.C., DuPont, H.L., Satterwhite, T.K. and Wood, L.V. (1985). Lack of correlation between known virulence properties of Aeromonas hydrophila and enteropathogenicity for humans. Infect. Immun., 50: 62-65.

Muniesa, M., Jofre, J., García-Aljaro, C. and Blanch, A.R. (2006). Occurrence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in the environment. Environ. Sci. Technol., 40(23): 7141-7149.

Nichols, G., Ford, T., Bartram, J., Dufour, A. and Portaels, F. (2004). Introduction. In: Pathogenic mycobacteria in water, a guide to public health consequences, monitoring and management. S. Pedley, J. Bartram, G. Rees, A. Dufour and J.A. Cotruvo (eds.). Published by IWA Publishing, London, United Kingdom, on behalf of the World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. pp. 1-14.

Norton, C.D., LeChevallier, M.W. and Falkinham, J.O., III (2004). Survival of Mycobacterium avium in a model distribution system. Water Res., 38: 1457-1466.

Novello, A. (1999). Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter among attendees of the Washington County Fair--New York, 1999. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep., 48: 803-804.

NRCC (2010). National Plumbing Code of Canada. Canadian Commission on Building and Fire Codes, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada. Available at: www.nationalcodes.nrc.gc.ca/eng/npc/index.shtml

Oliver, B., Gross, E.A., Talan, D.A., Moran, G.J. and Pinner, R. (2005). Legionnaires disease associated with potable water in a hotel--Ocean City, Maryland, October 2003 to February 2004. Ann. Emerg. Med., 46: 288-290.

Olsen, S.J., Miller, G., Breuer, T., Kennedy, M., Higgins, C., Walford, J., McKee, G., Fox, K., Bibb, W. and Mead, P. (2002). A waterborne outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections and hemolytic uremic syndrome: implications for rural water systems. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 8: 370-375.

Pablos, M., Rodríguez-Calleja, J.M., Santos, J.A., Otero, A. and García-López, M.L. (2009). Occurrence of motile Aeromonas in municipal drinking water and distribution of genes encoding virulence factors. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 135: 158-164.

Pagnier, I., Merchat, M. and La Scola, B. (2009). Potentially pathogenic amoeba-associated microorganisms in cooling towers and their control. Future Microbiol., 4: 615-629.

Palmer, C.J., Tsai, Y-L., Paszko-Kolva, C., Mayer, C. and Sangermano, L.R. (1993). Detection of Legionella species in sewage and ocean water by polymerase chain reaction, direct fluorescent-antibody, and plate culture methods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 59: 3618-3624.

Park, S.R., Mackay, W.G. and Reid, D.C. (2001). Helicobacter sp. recovered from drinking water biofilm sampled from a water distribution system. Water Res., 35: 1624-1626.

Payment, P., Gamache, F. and Paquette, G. (1988). Microbiological and virological analysis of water from two water filtration plants and their distribution systems. Can. J. Microbiol., 34: 1304-1309.

Pazzaglia, G., Escalante, J.R., Sack, R.B., Rocca, C. and Benavides, V. (1990). Transient intestinal colonization by multiple phenotypes of Aeromonas species during the first week of life. J. Clin. Microbiol., 28(8):1842-1846.

Pazzaglia, G., Sack, R.B., Salazar, E., Yi, A., Chea, E., Leon-Barua, R., Guerrero, C.E. and Palomino, J. (1991). High frequency of coinfecting enteropathogens in Aeromonas-associated diarrhea of hospitalized Peruvian infants. J. Clin. Microbiol., 29: 1151-1156.

Percival, S.L. and Thomas, J.G. (2009). Transmission of Helicobacter pylori and the role of water and biofilms. J. Water Health, 7: 469-477.

Percival, S.L., Chalmers, R.L., Embrey, M., Hunter, P.R., Sellwood, J. and Wyn-Jones, P. (2004). Microbiology of waterborne diseases. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Peters, M., Müller, C., Rüsch-Gerdes, S., Seidel, C., Göbel, U., Pohle, H.D. and Ruf, B. (1995). Isolation of atypical mycobacteria from tap water in hospitals and homes: is this a possible source of disseminated MAC infection in AIDS patients? J. Infect., 31: 39-44.

PHAC (2006). Notifiable Disease Incidence by Year, 1989-2004, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Available at: http://dsol-smed.phac-aspc.gc.ca/dsol-smed/ndis/c_time-eng.php

PHAC (2010). Notifiable diseases on-line. Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Available at: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/bid-bmi/dsd-dsm/duns-eng.php

Phillips, M.S. and von Reyn, C.F. (2001). Nosocomial infections due to nontuberculous mycobacteria. Clin. Infect. Dis., 33: 1363-1374.

Pinto-Santini, D. and Salama, N.R. (2005). The biology of Helicobacter pylori infection, a major risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 14: 1853-1858.

Pond, K. (2005). Water recreation and disease--Plausibility of associated infections: acute effects, sequelae and mortality. IWA Publishing, London, United Kingdom.

Presley, S.M., Rainwater, T.R., Austin, G.P., Platt, S.G., Zak, J.C., Cobb, G.P., Marsland, E.J., Tian, K., Zhang, B., Anderson, T.A., Cox, S.B., Abel, M.T., Leftwich, B.D., Huddleston, J.R., Jeter, R.M. and Kendall, R.J. (2006). Assessment of pathogens and toxicants in New Orleans, LA following Hurricane Katrina. Environ. Sci. Technol., 40: 468-474.

Pryor, M., Springthorpe, S., Riffard, S., Brooks,T., Huo, Y., Davis, G. and Sattar, S.A. (2004). Investigation of opportunistic pathogens in municipal drinking water under different supply and treatment regimes. Water Sci. Technol., 50(1): 83-90.

Rahman, M., Abd, H., Romling, U., Sandstrom, G. and Möllby, R. (2008). Aeromonas-Acanthamoeba interaction and early shift to a viable but nonculturable state of Aeromonas by Acanthamoeba. J. Appl. Microbiol., 104: 1449-1457.

Reimer, A.R., Au, S., Schindle, S. and Bernard, K.A. (2010). Legionella pneumophila monoclonal antibody subgroups and DNA sequence types isolated in Canada between 1981 and 2009: laboratory component of national surveillance. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 29: 191-205.

Reingold, A.L., Thomason, B.M., Brake, B.J., Thacker, L., Wilkinson, H.W. and Kuritsky, J.N. (1984). Legionella pneumonia in the United States: the distribution of serogroups and species causing human illness. J. Infect. Dis., 149: 819.

Rice, E.W. (1999). Escherichia coli. In: AWWA manual M48: Waterborne pathogens. American Water Works Association, Denver, CO. pp. 75-78.

Rickman, O.B., Ryu, J.H., Fidler, M.E. and Kalra, S. (2002). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with Mycobacterium avium complex and hot tub use. Mayo Clin. Proc., 77(11): 1233-1237.

Rogers, J., Dowsett, A.B., Dennis, P.J., Lee, J.V. and Keevil, C.W. (1994). Influence of plumbing materials on biofilm formation and growth of Legionella pneumophila in potable water systems. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 60(6): 1842-1851.

Roig, J., Sabria, M. and Pedro-Botet, M.L. (2003). Legionella spp.: community acquired and nosocomial infections. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis., 16: 145-151.

Rolle-Kampczyk, U.E., Fritz, G.J., Diez, U., Lehmann, I., Richter, M. and Herbarth, O. (2004). Well water--one source of Helicobacter pylori colonization. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health, 207: 363-368.

Rose, L.J., Rice, E.W., Hodges, L., Peterson, A. and Arduino, M.J. (2007). Monochloramine inactivation of bacterial select agents. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 73(10): 3437-3439.

Rowbotham, T.J. (1986). Current views on the relationships between amoebae, legionellae and man. Isr. J. Med. Sci., 22: 678-689.

Rowbotham, T.J. (1998). Isolation of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 from human feces with use of amebic cocultures. Clin. Infect. Dis., 26: 502-503.

Rusin, P.A., Rose, J.B., Haas, C.N. and Gerba, C.P. (1997). Risk assessment of opportunistic bacterial pathogens in drinking water. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 152: 57-83.

Sacks, J.J., Spencer, L., Baldy, L., Berta, S., Patton, C.M., White, M.C., Bigler, W.J. and Witte, J.J. (1986). Epidemic campylobacteriosis associated with a community water supply. Am. J. Public Health, 76: 424-428.

Sasaki, K., Tajiri, Y., Sata, M., Fujii, Y., Matsubara, F., Zhao, M., Shimizu, S., Toyonaga, A., and Tanikawa, K. (1999). Helicobacter pylori in the natural environment. Scand. J. Infect. Dis., 31: 275-280.

Schuster, C.J., Ellis, A.G., Robertson, W.J., Charron, D.F., Aramini, J.J., Marshall, B.J. and Medeiros, D.T. (2005). Infectious disease outbreaks related to drinking water in Canada, 1974-2001. Can. J. Public Health, 96(4): 254-255.

Scott, D., Weeks, D., Melchers, K. and Sachs, G. (1998). The life and death of Helicobacter pylori. Gut, 43(Suppl. 1): S56-S60.

Sebakova, H., Kozisek, F., Mudra, R., Kaustova, J., Fiedorova, M., Hanslikova, D., Nachtmannova, H., Kubina, J., Vraspir, P. and Sasek, J. (2008). Incidence of nontuberculous mycobacteria in four hot water systems using various types of disinfection. Can. J. Microbiol., 54: 891-898.

September, S.M., Brözel, V.S. and Venter, S.N. (2004). Diversity of nontuberculoid Mycobacterium species in biofilms of urban and semiurban drinking water distribution systems. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 70: 7571-7573.

September, S.M., Els, F.A., Venter, S.N. and Brözel, V.S. (2007). Prevalence of bacterial pathogens in biofilms of drinking water distribution systems. J. Water Health, 5: 219-227.

Shahamat, M., Mai, U., Paszko-Kolva, C., Kessel, M. and Colwell, R.R. (1993). Use of autoradiography to assess viability of Helicobacter pylori in water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 59: 1231-1235.

Sherman, P.M., Ossa, J.C. and Wine, E. (2010). Bacterial infections: new and emerging enteric pathogens. Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol., 26(1): 1-4.

Sidari, F.P., III, Stout, J.E., Vanbriesen, J.M., Bowman, A.M., Grubb, D., Neuner, A., Wagener, M.M. and Yu, V.L. (2004). Keeping Legionella out of water systems. J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 96(1): 111-119.

Sisti, M., Albano, A. and Brandi, G. (1998). Bactericidal effect of chlorine on motile Aeromonas spp. in drinking water supplies and influence of temperature on disinfection efficacy. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 26: 347-351.

Smith, A., Reacher, M., Smerdon, W., Adak, G.K., Nichols, G. and Chalmers, R.M. (2006). Outbreaks of waterborne infectious intestinal disease in England and Wales, 1992-2003. Epidemiol. Infect., 134(6): 1141-1149.

Sniadack, D.E., Ostroff, S.D., Karlix, M.A., Smithwick, R.W., Schwartz, B., Spaucer, M.A., Silcox, V.A. and Good, R.C. (1992). A nosocomial pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium xenopi due to a contaminated potable water supply: lessons in prevention. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol., 14: 636-641.

Sobsey, M.D. (1989). Inactivation of health-related microorganisms in water by disinfection processes. Water Sci. Technol., 21(3): 179-195.

Solnick, J.V., Hansen, L.M., Canfield, D.R. and Parsonnet, J. (2001). Determination of the infectious dose of Helicobacter pylori during primary and secondary infection in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Infect. Immun., 69: 6887-6892.

Sommer, R., Lhotsky, M., Haider, T. and Cabaj, A. (2000). UV inactivation, liquid-holding recovery, and photoreactivation of Escherichia coli O157 and other pathogenic Escherichia coli strains in water. J. Food Protect., 63(8): 1015-1020.

Sood, A., Sreedhar, R., Kulkarni, P. and Nawoor, A.R. (2007). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like granulomatous lung disease with nontuberculous mycobacteria from exposure to hot water aerosols. Environ. Health Perspect., 115: 262-266.

Steed, K.A. and Falkinham, J.O., III (2006). Effect of growth in biofilms on chlorine susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 72: 4007-4011.

Steinert, M., Birkness, K., White, E., Fields, B. and Quinn, F. (1998). Mycobacterium avium bacilli grow saprozoically in coculture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga and survive within cyst walls. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 64(6): 2256-2261.

Storey, M.V., Winiecka-Krusnell, J., Ashbolt, N.J. and Stenström, T.-A. (2004). The efficacy of heat and chlorine treatment against thermotolerant acanthamoebae and legionellae. Scand. J. Infect. Dis., 36(9): 656-662.

Stout, J.E. and Yu, V.L. (1997). Legionellosis. N. Engl. J. Med., 337(10): 682-687.

Stout J.E., Lin, Y.S.E., Goetz, A. M. and Muder R.R. (1998). Controlling Legionella in hospital water systems: experience with the superheat-and-flush method and copper-silver ionization. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol19:911-914.

Stout, J.E. and Yu, V.L. (2003). Experiences of the first 16 hospitals using copper-silver ionization for Legionella control: implications for the evaluation of other disinfection modalities. Infect. Control Hospital Epidemiol., 24: 563-568.

Stout, J.E., Yu, V.L., Muraca, P., Joly, J., Troup, N. and Tompkins, L.S. (1992a). Potable water as a cause of sporadic cases of community-acquired legionnaires' disease. N. Engl. J. Med., 326: 151-155.

Stout, J.E., Yu, V.L., Yee, Y.C., Vaccarello, S., Diven, W. and Lee, T.C. (1992b). Legionella pneumophila in residential water supplies: environmental surveillance with clinical assessment for Legionnaires' disease. Epidemiol. Infect., 109(1): 49-57.

Straus, W.L., Plouffe, J.F., File, T.M., Jr., Lipman, H.B., Hackman, B.H., Salstrom, S.-J., Benson, R.F. and Breiman, R.F. (1996). Risk factors for domestic acquisition of legionnaires disease. Arch. Intern. Med., 156(15): 1685-1692.

Swerdlow, D.L., Woodruff, B.A., Brady, R.C., Griffin, P.M., Tippen, S., Donnell, H.D., Jr., Geldreich, E., Payne, B.J., Meyer, A., Jr., Wells, J.G., Greene, K.D., Bright, M., Bean, N.H. and Blake, P.A. (1992). A waterborne outbreak in Missouri of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with bloody diarrhea and death. Ann. Intern. Med., 117(10): 812-819.

Taylor, D.N., McDermott, K.T., Little, J.R., Wells, J.G. and Blaser, M.J. (1983). Campylobacter enteritis from untreated water in the Rocky Mountains. Ann. Intern. Med., 99: 38-40.

Taylor, R., Sloan, D., Cooper, T., Morton, B. and Hunter, I. (2000). A waterborne outbreak of Salmonella saintpaul. Commun. Dis. Intell., 24: 336-340.

Taylor, R.H., Falkinham, J.O., III, Norton, C.D. and LeChevallier, M.W. (2000). Chlorine, chloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 66: 1702-1705.

Temmerman, R., Vervaeren, H., Noseda, B., Boon, N. and Verstraete, W. (2006). Necrotrophic growth of Legionella pneumophila. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 72(6): 4323-4328.

Templeton, M.R., Oddy, F., Leung, W.-K. and Rogers, M. (2009). Chlorine and UV disinfection of ampicillin-resistant and trimethoprim-resistant Escherichia coli. Can. J. Civ. Eng., 36(5): 889-894.

Thomas, V., Bouchez, T., Nicolas, V., Robert, S., Loret, J.F. and Lévi, Y. (2004). Amoebae in domestic water systems: resistance to disinfection treatments and implication in Legionella persistence. J. Appl. Microbiol., 97: 950-963.

Thompson, J.S. and Gravel, M.J. (1986). Family outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Yersinia enterocolitica serotype 0:3 from well water. Can. J. Microbiol., 32: 700-701.

Tobin, R.S., Ewan, P., Walsh, K. and Dutka, B. (1986). A survey of Legionella pneumophila in water in 12 Canadian cities. Water Res., 20: 495-501.

Tobin-D'Angelo, M.J., Blass, M.A., Del Rio, C., Halvosa, J.S., Blumberg, H.M. and Horsburgh, C.R., Jr. (2004). Hospital water as a source of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates in respiratory specimens. J. Infect. Dis., 189: 98-104.

Tsintzou, A., Vantarakis, A., Pagonopoulou, O., Athanassiadou, A. and Papapetropoulou, M. (2000). Environmental mycobacteria in drinking water before and after replacement of the water distribution network. Water Air Soil Pollut., 120: 273-282.

U.S. EPA (1999a). Legionella: human health criteria document. Office of Science and Technology, Office of Water, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. November (EPA 822-R-99-011).

U.S. EPA (1999b). Alternative disinfectants and oxidants guidance manual. Office of Water, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. April (EPA 815-R-99-014).

U.S. EPA (2002). Treatability screening for CCL microbial contaminants. Office of Water, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (EPA/822/R/01/002).

U.S. EPA (2006). Aeromonas: human health criteria document. Office of Science and Technology, Office of Water, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. March (EPA 68-C-02-026).

U.S. EPA (2009). Drinking water contaminant candidate list 3--Final. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Fed. Regist., 74(194): 51850-51862.

Vaerewijck, M.J.M., Huys, G., Palomino, J.C., Swings, J. and Portaels, F. (2005). Mycobacteria in drinking water distribution systems: ecology and significance for human health. FEMS Microbiol. Rev., 29: 911-934.

Vakil, N. and Megraud, F. (2007). Eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology, 133: 985-1001.

Van der Kooij, D. (2003). Chapter 11: Managing re-growth in drinking water distribution systems. In: Heterotrophic plate counts and drinking-water safety--The significance of HPCs for water quality and human health. Bartram, J., Cotruvo, J., Exner, M., Fricker, C. and Glasmacher, A. (eds.). Published by IWA Publishing, London, United Kingdom, on behalf of the World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. pp. 199-232.

Vicuña-Reyes, J.P., Luh, J. and Mariñas, B.J. (2008). Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium with chlorine dioxide. Water Res., 42: 1531-1538.

Vogt, R.L., Sours, H.E., Barrett, T., Feldman, R.A., Dickson, R.J. and Witherell, L. (1982). Campylobacter enteritis associated with contaminated water. Ann. Intern. Med., 96: 292-296.

Von Graevenitz, A. (2007). The role of Aeromonas in diarrhea: a review. Infection, 35: 59-64.

Von Reyn, C.F., Waddell, R.D., Eaton, T., Arbeit, R.D., Maslow, J.N., Barber, T.W., Brindle, R.J., Gilks, C.F., Lumio, J., Lähdevirta, J., Ranki, A., Dawson, D. and Falkinham, J.O., III (1993). Isolation of Mycobacterium avium complex from water in the United States, Finland, Zaire, and Kenya. J. Clin. Microbiol., 31: 3227-3230.

Von Reyn, C.F., Maslow, J.N., Barber, T.W., Falkinham, J.O., III and Arbeit, R.D. (1994). Persistent colonisation of potable water as a source of Mycobacterium avium infection in AIDS. Lancet, 343: 1137-1141.

Wang, W.L.L., Powers, B.W., Blaser, M.J. and Leuchtefeld, N.W. (1982). Laboratory studies of disinfectants against Campylobacter jejuni. In: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Microbiology. American Society of Microbiology, Washington, DC.

Wang, Y., Claeys, L., Van Der Ha, D., Verstraete, W. and Boon, N. (2010). Effects of chemically and electrochemically dosed chlorine on Escherichia coli and Legionella beliardensis assessed by flow cytometry. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 87: 331-341.

Watson, C.L., Owen, R.J., Said, B., Lai, S., Lee, J.V., Surman-Lee, S. and Nichols, G. (2004). Detection of Helicobacter pylori by PCR but not culture in water and biofilm samples from drinking water distribution systems in England. J. Appl. Microbiol., 97: 690-698.

Weintraub, J.M., Flannery, B., Vugia, D.J., Gelling, L.B., Salerno, J.J., Conroy, M.J., Stevens, V.A., Rose, C.E., Besser, R.E., Fields, B.S. and Moore, M.R. (2008). Legionella reduction after conversion to monochloramine for residual disinfection. J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 100(4): 129-139.

Wendt, S.L., George, K.L., Parker, B.C., Gruft, H. and Falkinham, J.O., III (1980). Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria: isolation of potentially pathogenic mycobacteria from aerosols. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 122: 259-263.

West, A.P., Millar, M.R. and Tompkins, D.S. (1992). Effect of physical environment on survival of Helicobacter pylori. J. of Clin. Pathol. 45:228-231.

White, F.M. and Pedersen, A.T. (1976). Epidemic shigellosis on a worktrain in Labrador. Can. Med. Assoc. J., 115: 647-649.

WHO (2002). Guidelines for drinking-water quality. 2nd edition. Addendum: Microbiological agents in drinking water. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

WHO (2010). Chapter 11: Microbial fact sheets. In: Guidelines for drinking-water quality. 3rd edition. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Winiecka-Krusnell, J., Wreiber, K., Von Euler, A., Engstrand, L. and Linder, E. (2002). Free-living amoebae promote growth and survival of Helicobacter pylori. Scand. J. Infect. Dis., 34: 253-256.

Wojcicka, L., Hofmann, R., Baxter, C., Andrews, R.C., Auvray, I., Lière, J., Miller, T., Chauret, C. and Baribeau, H. (2007). Inactivation of environmental and reference strains of heterotrophic bacteria and Escherichia coli O157:H7 by free chlorine and monochloramine. J. Water Supply: Res. Technol. - Aqua, 56(2): 137-150.

Xagoraraki, I., Harrington, G.W., Assavasilavasukul, P. and Standridge, J.H. (2004). Removal of emerging waterborne pathogens and pathogen indicators by pilot-scale conventional treatment. J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 96(5): 102-113.

Xi, C., Zhang, Y., Marrs, C., Ye, W., Simon, C., Foxman, B. and Nriagu, J. (2009). Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in drinking water treatment and distribution systems. Appl. Environ. Microbiol, 75(17): 5714-5718.

Yoder, J., Roberts, V., Craun, G.F., Hill, V., Hicks, L.A., Alexander, N.T., Radke, V., Calderon, R.L., Hlavsa, M.C., Beach, M.J. and Roy, S.L. (2008). Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking--United States, 2005-2006. MMWR Surveill. Summ., 57: 39-62.

Yu, C.P., Farrell, S.K., Robinson, B. and Chu, K.H. (2008). Development and application of real-time PCR assays for quantifying total and aerolysin gene-containing Aeromonas in source, intermediate, and finished drinking water. Environ. Sci. Technol., 42: 1191-1200.

Zimmer-Thomas, J.L., Slawson, R.M. and Huck, P.M. (2007). A comparison of DNA repair and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 following exposure to both low- and medium-pressure UV irradiation. J. Water Health, 5(3): 407-415.

C.2 List of acronyms

AIDS
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
CFU
colony-forming unit
CT
concentration × time
DAEC
diffuse adherent E. coli
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid
EAEC
enteroaggregative E. coli
EHEC
enterohaemorrhagic E. coli
EIEC
enteroinvasive E. coli
EPA
Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.)
EPEC
enteropathogenic E. coli
ETEC
enterotoxigenic E. coli
HIV
human immunodeficiency virus
HPC
heterotrophic plate count
Mac
Mycobacterium avium complex
PCR
polymerase chain reaction
RNA
ribonucleic acid
UV
ultraviolet

Footnotes

Report a problem or mistake on this page
Please select all that apply:

Thank you for your help!

You will not receive a reply. For enquiries, contact us.

Date modified: