Page 5 - Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality: Guideline Technical Document: N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)

12.0 References

  • Abanobi, S.E., Farber, E. and Sarma, D.S.R. (1979). Persistence of DNA damage during development of liver angiosarcoma in rats fed dimethylnitrosamine. Cancer Res., 39:1592-1596.
  • Agrelo, C., Phillips, J.C., Lake, B.G., Longland, R.C. and Gangolli, S.D. (1978). Studies on the gastrointestinal absorption of N-nitrosamines: effect of dietary constituents. Toxicology, 10:159-167.
  • Alexandrov, V.A. (1968). Blastomogenic effect of dimethylnitrosamine on pregnant rats and their offspring. Nature, 218:280-281.
  • Althoff, J., Grandjean, C. and Pour, P. (1977). Transplacental effects of nitrosamines in Syrian hamsters. Z. Krebsforsch., 90:79-86.
  • Anderson, L.M., Giner-Sorolla, A. and Ebeling, D. (1978). Effects of imipramine, nitrite, and dimethylnitrosamine on reproduction in mice. Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol., 19:311-327.
  • Anderson, L.M., Priest, L.J. and Budinger, J.M. (1979). Lung tumorigenesis in mice after chronic exposure in life to a low dose of dimethylnitrosamine. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 62:1553-1555.
  • Anderson, L.M., Harrington, G.W., Pylypiw, H.M., Hagiwara, A. and Magee, P.N. (1986). Tissue levels and biological effects of N-nitrosodimethylamine in mice during chronic low or high dose exposure with or without ethanol. Drug Metab. Dispos., 14(6):733-739.
  • Anderson, L.M., Hagiwqra, A., Robert, M., Kovatch, R.M., Rehm, S. and Rice, J.M. (1989). Transplacental initiation of liver, lung, neurogenic, and connective tissue tumors by N-nitroso compounds in mice. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol., 12:604-620.
  • Anderson, L.M., Carter, J.P., Logsdon, D.L., Driver, C.L. and Kovatch, R.M. (1992). Characterization of ethanol's enhancement of tumorigenesis by N-nitrosodimethylamine in mice. Carcinogenesis, 13:2107-2111.
  • Anderson, L.M., Souliotis, V.L., Chhabra, S.K., Moskal, T.J., Harbaugh, S.D. and Kyrtopoulos, S.A. (1996). N-Nitrosodimethylamine-derived O6-methylguanine in DNA of monkey gastrointestinal and urogenital organs and enhancement by ethanol. Int. J. Cancer, 66:130-134.
  • APHA, American Water Works Association and Water Environment Federation (2005). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 21st edition. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
  • Arai, M., Aoki,Y., Nakanishi, K., Miyata, Y., Mori, T. and Ito, N. (1979). Long-term experiment of maximal non-carcinogenic dose of dimethylnitrosamine for carcinogenesis in rats. Gann, 70:549-558.
  • Asakura, S., Sawada, S., Daimon, H., Fukuda, T., Ogura, K., Yamatsu, K. and Furihata, C. (1994). Effects of dietary restriction on induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and replicative DNA synthesis (RDS) in rat liver. Mutat. Res., 322:257-264.
  • Atkinson, R. (1985). Kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals with organic compounds under atmospheric conditions. Chem. Rev., 85:69-201.
  • ATSDR (1989). Toxicological profile for N-nitrosodimethylamine. Prepared by the Syracuse Research Corporation in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC. 119 pp.
  • Ayanaba, A. and Alexander, M. (1974). Transformation of methylamines and formation of a hazardous product, dimethylnitrosamine, in samples of treated sewage and lake water. J. Environ. Qual., 3:83-89.
  • Barbin, A., Béréziat, J.-C. and Bartsch, H. (1983). Evaluation of DNA damage by the alkaline elution technique in liver, kidneys and lungs of rats and hamsters treated with N-nitroso-dialkylamines. Carcinogenesis, 4:541-545.
  • Barnes, J.M. and Magee, P.N. (1954). Some toxic properties of dimethylnitrosamine. Br. J. Ind. Med., 11:167-174 [cited in ATSDR, 1989].
  • Barrett, S., Hwang, C., Guo, Y., Andrews, S.A. and Valentine, R. (2003). Occurrence of NDMA in drinking water: a North American survey, 2001-2002. In: Proceedings of the American Water Works Association's Annual Conference, Anaheim, CA, June 15-19, 2003. American Water Works Association, Denver, Colorado.
  • Bauknecht, T., Vogel, W., Bayer, U. and Wild, D. (1977). Comparative in vivo mutagenicity testing by SCE and micronucleus induction in mouse bone marrow. Hum. Genet., 35:299-307.
  • Bermudez, E., Mirsalis, J.C. and Eales, H.C. (1982). Detection of DNA damage in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes following in vivo and in vitro exposure to genotoxic agents. Environ. Mutagen., 4:667-679.
  • Biaudet, H., Mouillet, L. and Debry, G. (1997). Migration of nitrosamines from condoms to physiological secretions. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 59:847-853.
  • Bolognesi, C., Rossi, L. and Santi, L. (1988). A new method to reveal the genotoxic effects of N-nitrosodimethylamine in pregnant mice. Mutat. Res., 207:57-62.
  • Bolton, J.R. and Stefan, M.I. (2000). UV-photodegradation as a treatment technology for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). In: Proceedings of the American Water Works Association Water Quality and Technology Conference, Salt Lake City, UT, November 5-9, 2000. American Water Works Association, Denver, Colorado.
  • Braithwaite, I. and Ashby, J. (1988). A non-invasive micronucleus assay in the rat liver. Mutat. Res., 203:23-32.
  • Brambilla, G., Cavanna, M., Pino, A. and Robbiano, L. (1981). Quantitative correlation among DNA damaging potency of six N-nitroso compounds and their potency in inducing tumor growth and bacterial mutations. Carcinogenesis, 2:425-429.
  • Brambilla, G., Carlo, P., Finollo, R. and Sciabà, L. (1987). Dose-response curves for liver DNA fragmentation induced in rats by sixteen N-nitroso compounds as measured by viscometric and alkaline elution analyses. Cancer Res., 47:3485-3491.
  • Brantom, P.G. (1983). Dose-response relationships in nitrosamine carcinogenesis. Ph.D. thesis, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom. British Industrial Biological Research Association (BIBRA), Carshalton, Surrey, United Kingdom, 158 pp.
  • Brendler, S.Y., Tompa, A., Hutter, K.F., Preussmann, R. and Pool-Zobel, B.L. (1992). in vivo and in vitro genotoxicity of several N-nitrosamines in extrahepatic tissues of the rat. Carcinogenesis, 13:2435-2441.
  • Brunnemann, K.D. and Hoffmann, D. (1978). Analysis of volatile nitrosamines in tobacco smoke and polluted indoor environments. Chemical studies on tobacco smoke LIX. IARC Sci. Publ., 19:343-356.
  • Budavari, S., O'Neil, M.J., Smith, A.S. and Heckelman, P.E. (1989). The Merck index-An encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals. 11th edition. Merck and Co., Inc., Rahway, New Jersey.
  • Butterworth, B.E., Templin, M.V., Constan, A.A., Sprankle, C.S., Wong, B.A., Pluta, L.J., Everitt, J.I. and Recio, L. (1998). Long-term mutagenicity studies with chloroform and dimethylnitrosamine in female lac I transgenic B6C3F1 mice. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 31:248-256.
  • Callahan, M.A., Slimak, M.W., Gabel, N.W., May I.P., Fowler, C.F., Freed, J.R., Jennings, P., Durfee, R.L., Whitemore, F.C., Maestri, B., Mabey, W.R., Holt, B.R. and Gould, C. (1979). Water related environmental fate of 129 priority pollutants. Versar, Inc., Springfield, VA (EPA-440-4-79-029a,b).
  • Carter, R.L., Percival, W.H. and Roe, F.J.C. (1969). Exceptional sensitivity of mink to the hepatotoxic effects of dimethylnitrosamine. J. Pathol., 97:79-88 [cited in ATSDR, 1989].
  • Cassens, R.G. (1997). Residual nitrite in cured meats. Food Technol., 51:53-55.
  • Cesarone, C.F., Bolognesi, C. and Santi, L. (1979). DNA repair synthesis in mice spermatids after treatment with N-methyl-N-nitroso-urea and N,N-dimethylnitrosamine: preliminary results. Toxicology, 12:183-186.
  • Cesarone, C.F., Bolognesi, C. and Santi, L. (1982). Evaluation of damage to DNA after in vivo exposure to different classes of chemicals. Arch. Toxicol. Suppl. 5:355-359.
  • Charrois, J.W.A., Arend, M.W., Froese, K.L. and Hrudey, S.E. (2004). Detecting N-nitrosamines in drinking water at nanogram per liter levels using ammonia positive chemical ionization. Environ. Sci. Technol., 38(18):4835-4841.
  • Charrois, J.W.A. and Hrudey, S.E. (2007). Breakpoint chlorination and free-chlorine contact time: implications for drinking water N-nitrosodimethylamine concentrations. Water Res., 41:674-682.
  • Charrois, J.W.A., Boyd, J.M., Froese, K.L. and Hrudey, S.E. (2007). Occurrence of N-nitrosamines in Alberta public drinking-water distribution systems. J. Environ. Eng. Sci. 6:103-114.
  • Chen Z. and Valentine, R.L. (2007). Formation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from humic substances in natural water. Environ. Sci. Technol., 41(17):6059-6065.
  • Cheng, R., Hwang, C.J., Andrews-Tate, C., Guo Y.C., Carr, S. and Suffet, I.H. (2006). Alternative methods for the analysis of NDMA and other nitrosamines in water. J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 98(12):82-96.
  • Chhabra, S.K., Souliotis, V.L., Jones, A.B., Anderson, L.M. and Kyrotopoulos, S.A. (1995). O-Methylguanine DNA-adduct formation and modulation by ethanol in placenta and fetal tissues after exposure of pregnant patas monkeys to N-nitrosodimethylamine. Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 36:150.
  • Choi, J. and Valentine, R.L. (2002a). Formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from reaction of monochloramine: a new disinfection by-product. Water Res., 36(4):817-824.
  • Choi, J. and Valentine, R.L. (2002b). A kinetic model of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation during water chlorination/chloramination. Water Sci. Technol., 46(3):65-71.
  • Choi, J. and Valentine, R.L. (2003). N-Nitrosodimethylamine formation by free-chlorine-enhanced nitrosation of dimethylamine. Environ. Sci. Technol., 37(21):4871-4876.
  • Clapp, N.K. and Toya, R.E. (1970). Effect of cumulative dose and dose rate on dimethyl-nitrosamine oncogenesis in RF mice. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 45:495-498.
  • Clayton, G. and Clayton, F. (eds.). (1981). Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. 3rd edition. John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York. pp. 2786-2788.
  • Cliet, I., Fournier, E., Melcion, C. and Cordier, A. (1989). in vivo micronucleus test using mouse hepatocytes. Mutat. Res., 216:321-326.
  • Cliet, I., Melcion, C. and Cordier, A. (1993). Lack of predictivity of bone marrow micronucleus test versus testis micronucleus test: comparison with four carcinogens. Mutat. Res., 292:105-111.
  • Coccia, P., Salmona, M., Diomede, L., Citti, L., Mariani, L. and Romano, M.. (1988). Liver DNA alkylation after a single carcinogenic dose of dimethylnitrosoamine to newborn and adult CFW Swiss mice. Chem. Biol. Interact., 68:259-271.
  • Collaborative Study Group for the Micronucleus Test (1986). Sex difference in the micronucleus test. Mutat. Res., 172:151-163.
  • Conestoga-Rovers & Associates (1994). Treatability test report for Conestoga-Rovers & Associates on Rayox UV/oxidation treatment of Uniroyal off-site groundwater. Conestoga-Rovers & Associates, Waterloo, Ontario, December [cited in IPCS, 2002].
  • Cooper, S.W., Kimbrough, R.D. (1980). Acute dimethylnitrosamine poisoning outbreak. J Forensic Sci 25:874-882.
  • Daugherty, J.P. and Clapp, N.K. (1976). Studies on nitrosamine metabolism: I. Subcellular distribution of radioactivity in tumor-susceptible tissues of RFM mice following administration of (14C)dimethylnitrosamine. Life Sci., 19:265-271 [cited in ATSDR, 1989].
  • De Stefani, E., Deneo-Pellegrini, H., Carzoglio, J.C., Ronco, A. and Mendilaharsu, M. (1996). Dietary nitrosodimethylamine and the risk of lung cancer: a case-control study from Uruguay. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 5:679-682.
  • Devereux, T.R., Anderson, M.W. and Belinsky, S.A. (1991). Role of ras protooncogene activation in the formation of spontaneous and nitrosamine-induced lung tumours in the resistant C3H mouse. Carcinogenesis, 12:299-303.
  • DHS (2002). Studies on the occurrence of NDMA in drinking water. Drinking Water Program, California Department of Health Services, Sacramento, California.
  • Diaz Gomez, M.I., Swann, P.F. and Magee, P.N. (1977). The absorption and metabolism in rats of small oral doses of dimethylnitrosamine. Biochem. J., 164:497-500.
  • Diaz Gomez, M.I., Tamayo, D. and Castro, J.A. (1986). Administration of N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, or N-nitrosonornicotine to nursing rats: their interactions with liver and kidney nucleic acids from sucklings. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 76(6):1133-1136.
  • DMER and AEL (1996). Pathways analysis using fugacity modelling of N-nitrosodimethylamine for the second Priority Substances List. Prepared for the Chemicals Evaluation Division, Commercial Chemicals Evaluation Branch, Environment Canada, Hull, Quebec. Don Mackay Environmental Research, Peterborough, Ontario; and Angus Environmental Limited, Don Mills, Ontario. 63 pp.
  • Doolittle, D.J., Bermudez, E., Working, P.K. and Butterworth, B.E. (1984). Measurement of genotoxic activity in multiple tissues following inhalation exposure to dimethylnitrosamine. Mutat. Res., 141:123-127.
  • ECETOC (1990). Human exposure to N-nitrosamines, their effects, and a risk assessment for N-nitrosodiethanolamine in personal care products. European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Brussels (Technical Report No. 41) [cited in IPCS, 2002].
  • Environment Canada (1997). Results of the CEPA Section 16 Notice respecting the second Priority Substances List and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Use Patterns Section, Commercial Chemicals Evaluation Branch, Environment Canada, Hull, Quebec.
  • Environment Canada and Health Canada (2001). Priority substances list assessment report-N-Nitrosodimethylamine. Ottawa, Ontario.
  • Fitzgerald, D.J. and Robinson, N.I. (2007). Development of a tolerable daily intake for N-nitrosodimethylamine using a modified benchmark dose methodology. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A, 70(19):1670-1678.
  • Fleming, E.C., Pennington, J.C., Wachob, B.G., Howe, R.A. and Hill, D.O. (1996). Removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine from waters using physical-chemical techniques. J. Hazard. Mater., 51(1/3):151-164.
  • Fristachi, A. and Rice, G. (2007). Estimation of the total intake of NDMA attributable to drinking water. J. Water Health 5:341-355.
  • Fussgänger, R.D. and Ditschuneit, H. (1980). Lethal exitus of a patient with N-nitroso-dimethylamine poisoning 2.5 years following the first ingestion and signs of intoxication. Oncology, 37:273-277.
  • Gerecke, A.C. and Sedlak, D.L. (2003). Precursors of N-nitrosodimethylamine in natural waters. Environ. Sci. Technol., 37(7):1331-1336.
  • Goff, E.U., Coombs, J.R. and Fine, D.H. (1980). Determination of N-nitrosamines from diesel engine crankcase emissions. Anal. Chem., 52:1833-1836.
  • Gombar, C.T., Harrington, G.W., Pylypiw, H.M., Jr., Anderson, L.M., Palmer, A.E., Rice, J.M., Magee, P.N. and Burak, E.S. (1990). Interspecies scaling of the pharmacokinetics of N-nitrosodimethylamine. Cancer Res., 50(14):4366-4370.
  • González, C.A., Riboli, E., Badosa, J., Batiste, E., Cardona, T., Pita, S., Sanz, J.M., Torrent, M. and Agudo, A. (1994). Nutritional factors and gastric cancer in Spain. Am. J. Epidemiol., 139:466-473.
  • Goodman, M.T., Hankin, J.H., Wilkens, L.R. and Kolonel, L.N. (1992). High-fat foods and the risk of lung cancer. Epidemiology, 3:288-299.
  • Haggerty, H.G. and Holsapple, M.P. (1990). Role of metabolism in dimethylnitrosamine-induced immunosuppression: a review. Toxicology, 63:1-23.
  • Hakura, A., Suzuki, S. and Satoh, T. (1999). Advantage of the use of human liver S9 in the Ames test. Mutat. Res., 438:29-36.
  • Hakura, A., Suzuki, S., Sawada, S., Sugihara, T., Hori, Y., Uchida, K., Kerns, W.D., Sagami, F., Motooka, S. and Satoh, T. (2003). Use of human liver S9 in the Ames test: assay of three procarcinogens using human S9 derived from multiple donors. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 37:20-27.
  • Hanst, P.L., Spence, J.W. and Miller, M. (1977). Atmospheric chemistry of N-nitroso dimethylamine. Environ. Sci. Technol., 11(4):403-405.
  • Hard, G.C. and Butler, W.H. (1970a). Cellular analysis of renal neoplasia: light microscope study of the development of interstitial lesions induced in the rat kidney by a single carcinogenic dose of dimethylnitrosamine. Cancer Res., 30:2806-2815.
  • Hard, G.C. and Butler, W.H. (1970b). Toxicity of dimethylnitrosamine for the rat testis. J. Pathol., 102:201-207.
  • Haruta, S., Chen, W., Gan, J., Simunex, J., Chang, A.C. and Wu, L. (2008). Leaching risk of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMS) in soil receiving reclaimed Wastewater. Ecotoxicology and Environental Safety 69:374-380.
  • Hashimoto, S., Yokokura, T., Kawai, Y. and Mutai, M. (1976). Dimethylnitrosamine formation in the gastro-intestinal tract of rats. Food Cosmet. Toxicol., 14:553-556.
  • Health Canada (1999). Supporting documentation (exposure) for N-nitrosodimethylamine. Priority Substances Section, Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (August 1999 draft.
  • Health Canada (2008) Unit risks for NDMA. Memorandum from M. Walker (Head, Biostatistics Unit, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch), September 24, 2008.
  • Herron, D.C. and Shank, R.C. (1980). Methylated purines in human liver DNA after probable dimethylnitrosamine poisoning. Cancer Res., 40:3116-3117.
  • Hoffmann, D., Brunnemann, K.D., Adams, J.D. and Hecht, S.S. (1984). Formation and analysis of N-nitrosamines in tobacco products and their endogenous formation in consumers. IARC Sci. Publ., 57:743-762.
  • Hoffmann, D., Adams, J.D. and Brunnemann, K.D. (1987). A critical look at N-nitrosamines in environmental tobacco smoke. Toxicol. Lett., 35:1-8.
  • Howard, P.H., Boethling, R.S., Jarvis, W.F., Meylan, W.M. and Michalenko, E.M. (eds.). (1991). Handbook of environmental degradation rates. Lewis Publishers Inc., Chelsea, Michigan.
  • IARC (1978). Some N-nitroso compounds. International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risk Chem. Hum., 17:125-175.
  • IARC (1987). Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity: an updating of IARC Monographs volumes 1-42. International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risk Chem. Hum. Suppl. 7.
  • Inui, N., Nishi, Y., Taketomi, M. and Mori, M. (1979). Transplacental action of sodium nitrite on embryonic cells of Syrian golden hamster. Mutat. Res., 66:149-158.
  • IPCS (2002). N-Nitrosodimethylamine. International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, Geneva (Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 38).
  • Ireland, D. (1989). Information report on drinking water quality, Elmira, Ontario. Regional Operations Division, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Cambridge, Ontario. November 14 (unpublished).
  • Ito, N., Fukushima, S., Tsuda, H. and Shirai, T. (1982). Induction of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in rats treated with N-nitroso compounds. IARC Sci. Publ., 41:597-601.
  • Johansson-Brittebo, E. and Tjälve, H. (1979). Studies on the distribution and metabolism of 14C-dimethylnitrosamine in foetal and young mice. Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol., 45:73-80.
  • Jorquera, R., Castonguay, A. and Schuller, H.M. (1993). Effects of age and ethanol on DNA single-strand breaks and toxicity induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone or N-nitrosodimethylamine in hamster and rat liver. Cancer Lett., 74:175-181.
  • Khanna, S.D. and Puri, D. (1966). The hepatotoxic effects of dimethylnitrosamine in the rat. J. Pathol. Bacteriol., 91:605-608 [cited in ATSDR, 1989].
  • Kimoto, W.I., Dooley, C.J., Carré, J. and Fiddler, W. (1980). Role of strong ion exchange resins in nitrosamine formation in water. Water Res., 14(7):869-876.
  • Klus, H., Begutter, H., Scherer, G., Tricker, A.R. and Adlkofer, F. (1992). Tobacco-specific and volatile N-nitrosamines in environmental tobacco smoke of offices. Indoor Environ., 1:348-350.
  • Knekt, P., Järvinen, R., Dich, J. and Hakulinen, T. (1999). Risk of colorectal and other gastro-intestinal cancers after exposure to nitrate, nitrite and N-nitroso compounds: a follow-up study. Int. J. Cancer, 80:852-856.
  • Kommineni, S., Ela, W.P., Arnold, R.G., Huling, S.G., Hester, B.J. and Betterton, E.A. (2003). NDMA treatment by sequential GAC adsorption and Fenton-driven destruction. J. Environ. Eng. Sci., 20(4):361-373.
  • Kornbrust, D. and Dietz, D. (1985). Aroclor 1254 pretreatment effects on DNA repair in rat hepatocytes elicited by in vivo or in vitro exposure to various chemicals. Environ. Mutagen., 7:857-870.
  • Kornelsen, P.J., Hallett, D.J. and Brecher, R.W. (1989). Special report to Regional Municipality of Waterloo. Contamination of Elmira drinking water with N,N-dimethylnitrosamine. ELI Eco Logic International Inc., Rockwood, Ontario. December 14.
  • Krishna, G., Kropko, M.L. and Theiss, J.C. (1990). Dimethylnitrosamine induced micronucleus formation in mouse bone marrow and spleen. Mutat. Res., 242:345-351.
  • Krishnan, K. (2004). Development of a two tier approach for evaluating the relevance of multiroute exposures in establishing drinking water goals for volatile organic chemicals. Contract report submitted to Water Quality and Health Bureau, Safe Environments Programme, Health Canada. December (Contract No. 602-453088364).
  • Kunisaki, N., Matsuura, H. and Hayashi, M. (1978). Absorption and decomposition of N-nitrosodimethylamine in rats. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi, 19(1):62-67 (in Japanese).
  • Lachmaniuk, P. (1998). Ontario drinking water surveillance program: 1990-July 1998 survey of Ontario water treatment plants. Unpublished data. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, Ontario [cited in IPCS, 2002].
  • Laishes, B.A., Koropatnick, D.J. and Stich, H.F. (1975). Organ-specific DNA damage induced in mice by the organotropic carcinogens 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and dimethylnitrosamine. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 149:978-982.
  • La Vecchia, C., D'Avanzo, B., Airoldi, L., Braga, C. and Decarli, A. (1995). Nitrosamine intake and gastric cancer. Eur. J. Cancer Prev., 4:469-474.
  • Lee, C., Choi, W., Kim, Y.G. and Yoon, J. (2005). UV photolytic mechanism of N-nitrosodimethylamine in water: dual pathways to methylamine versus dimethylamine. Environ. Sci. Technol., 39(7):2101-2106.
  • Lee, C., Schmidt, C., Yoon, J. and Von Gunten, U. (2007a). Oxidation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors with ozone and chlorine dioxide: kinetics and effect on NDMA formation potential. Environ. Sci. Technol., 41(6):2056-2063.
  • Lee, C., Yoon, J. and Von Gunten, U. (2007b). Oxidative degradation of N-nitrosodimethylamine by conventional ozonation and the advanced oxidation process ozone/hydrogen peroxide. Water Res., 41:581-590.
  • Lee, V.M., Keefer, L.K. and Archer, M.C. (1996). An evaluation of the roles of metabolic denitrosation and α-hydroxylation in the hepatotoxicity of N-nitrosodimethylamine. Chem. Res. Toxicol., 9:1319-1324.
  • Liang, S., Min, J.H., Davis, M.K., Green, J.F. and Remer, D.S. (2003). Use of pulsed-UV processes to destroy NDMA. J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 95(9):121-131.
  • Lijinsky, W. (1999). N-Nitroso compounds found in the diet. Mutat. Res., 443:129-138.
  • Lijinsky, W. and Reuber, M.D. (1984). Carcinogenesis in rats by nitrosodimethylamine and other nitrosomethylalkylamines at low doses. Cancer Lett., 22:83-88.
  • Lindamood, C., III, Bedell, M.A., Billings, K.C., Dyroff, M.C. and Swenberg, J.A. (1984). Dose response for DNA alkylation, [³H]thymidine uptake into DNA, and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in hepatocytes of rats and mice continuously exposed to dimethylnitrosamine. Cancer Res., 44:196-200.
  • Loury, D.J., Smith-Oliver, T. and Butterworth, B.E. (1987). Assessment of unscheduled and replicative DNA synthesis in rat kidney cells exposed in vitro or in vivo to unleaded gasoline. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol., 87:127-140.
  • Magee, P.N. and Barnes, J.M. (1962). Induction of kidney tumours in the rat with dimethyl-nitrosamine (N-nitrosodimethylamine). J. Pathol. Bacteriol., 84:19-31.
  • Mallik, M. and Tesfai, K. (1981). Transformation of nitrosamines in soil and in vitro by soil microorganisms. Bull. Environ. Contam. Technol., 27:115-121.
  • Martino, P.E., Diaz Gomez, M.I., Tamayo, D., Lopez, A.J. and Castro, J.A. (1988). Studies on the mechanism of the acute and carcinogenic effects of N-nitrosodimethylamine on mink liver. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, 23:183-192.
  • McBean, E. (1999). Personal communication (e-mail sent May 30, 1999). Conestoga-Rovers & Associates, Waterloo, Ontario [cited in IPCS, 2002].
  • McKone, T.E. and Knezovich, J.P. (1991). The transfer of trichloroethylene from a shower to indoor air: experimental measurements and their implications. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 40:282-286.
  • McLean, A.E.M. and Magee, P.N. (1970). Increased renal carcinogenesis by dimethyl nitrosamine in protein deficient rats. Br. J. Exp. Pathol., 51:587-590.
  • Mehta, R., Silinskas, K.C., Zucker, P.F., Ronen, A., Heddle, J.A. and Archer, M.C. (1987). Micronucleus formation induced in rat liver and esophagus by nitrosamines. Cancer Lett., 35:313-320.
  • Mirsalis, J.C. and Butterworth, B.E. (1980). Detection of unscheduled DNA synthesis in hepatocytes isolated from rats treated with genotoxic agents: an in vivo-in vitro assay for potential carcinogens and mutagens. Carcinogenesis, 1:621-625.
  • Mirsalis, J.C., Tyson, C.K., Steinmetz, K.L., Loh, E.K., Hamilton, C.M., Bakke, J.P. and Spalding, J.W. (1989).
  • Measurement of unscheduled DNA synthesis and S-phase synthesis in rodent hepatocytes following in vivo treatment: testing of 24 compounds. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 14:155-164.
  • Mirsalis, J.C., Provost, G.S., Matthews, C.D., Hamner, R.T., Schindler, J.E., O'Loughlin, K.G., MacGregor, J.T. and Short, J.M. (1993). Induction of hepatic mutations in lacI transgenic mice. Mutagenesis, 8:265-271.
  • Mitch, W.A. and Schreiber, I.M. (2008). Degradation of tertiary alkylamines during chlorination/chloramination: implications for formation of aldehydes, nitriles, halonitroalkanes, and nitrosamines. Environ. Sci. Technol., 42(13):4811-4817.
  • Mitch, W.A. and Sedlak, D.L. (2004). Characterization and fate of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors during municipal wastewater treatment. Environ. Sci. Technol., 38(5):1445-1454.
  • Mitch, W.A., Sharp, J.O., Trussell, R.R., Valentine, R.L., Alvarez-Cohen, L. and Sedlak, D.L. (2003a). N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) as a drinking water contaminant: a review. Environ. Eng. Sci., 20(5):389-404.
  • Mitch, W.A., Gerecke, A.C. and Sedlak, D.L. (2003b). A N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursor analysis for chlorination of water and wastewater. Water Res., 37:3733-3741.
  • Moiseev, G.E. and Benemanskii, V.V. (1975). Concerning the carcinogenic activity of small concentrations of nitrosodimethylamine during inhalation. Voprosy Onkologii, 21:107-109 [translated for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Scientific Translation Service, Santa Barbara, CA].
  • Moore, G. (1999). Personal communication. Regulatory Affairs and Innovations Division, Pest Management Regulatory Agency, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario [cited in IPCS, 2002].
  • Morrison, V. and Ashby, J. (1994). Reconciliation of five negative and four positive reports of the activity of dimethylnitrosamine in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. Mutagenesis, 9:361-365.
  • Najm, I. and Trussell, R.R. (2001). NDMA formation in water and wastewater. J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 93(2):92-99.
  • Nakatsuru, Y., Matsukama, S., Nemoto, N., Sugano, H., Sekiguchi, M. and Ishikawa, T. (1993). O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase protects against nitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 90:6468-6472.
  • Neal, S.B. and Probst, G.S. (1983). Chemically-induced sister-chromatid exchange in vivo in bone marrow of Chinese hamsters. An evaluation of 24 compounds. Mutat. Res., 113:33-43.
  • Neft, R.E. and Conner, M.K. (1989). Induction of sister chromatid exchange in multiple murine tissues in vivo by various methylating agents. Teratog. Carcinog. Mutagen., 9:219-237.
  • Nishie, K. (1983). Comparison of the effects of N-nitrosodimethylamine on pregnant and nonpregnant Holtzman rats. Food Chem. Toxicol., 21(4):453-462.
  • Odagiri, Y., Adachi, S., Katayama, H. and Takemoto, K. (1986). Detection of the cytogenetic effect of inhaled aerosols by the micronucleus test. Mutat. Res., 170:79-83.
  • OEHHA (2006). Public health goals for chemicals in drinking water-N-Nitrosodimethylamine. Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology Branch, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, California. Available at
  • Oliver, J. (1979). Volatilization of some herbicide-related nitrosamines from soils. J. Environ. Qual., 8(4):596-601.
  • OME (1990). Technical memorandum from A. Ng to G. De Brou dated April 27, 1990, regarding the Elmira (1990) survey: Results of the mobile TAGA; with covering memorandum dated May 5, 1990, from L. Lusis to E. Piché regarding the Elmira NDMA survey report, April 1990. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, Ontario [cited in IPCS, 2002].
  • OME (1991). N-Nitrosodimethylamine. Hazardous Contaminants Coordination Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, Ontario. 64 pp. (Scientific Criteria Document for Multimedia Standard Development No. 01-90).
  • OME (1992). Technical memorandum from A. Ng to M. Lusis dated July 24, 1992, regarding the Kitchener (1992) survey: NC Rubber Products Inc.-Results of the mobile TAGA6000; with covering memorandum dated July 28, 1992, from M. Lusis to D. Ireland regarding the mobile TAGA6000 survey of NC Rubber Products Inc. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, Ontario [cited in IPCS, 2002].
  • OME (1994). Removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine from the Ohsweken (Six Nations) water supply. Final report. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, Ontario. November. 10 pp. + appendix (ISBN 0-7778-3439-1).
  • OME (1996). Ontario drinking water surveillance program: 1994-1996 survey of Ontario water treatment plants. Unpublished data. Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Energy, Toronto, Ontario. 9 pp. [cited in IPCS, 2002].
  • OME (2009). Ontario drinking water surveillance program data, last consulted March 2009.
  • Pancholy, S.K. (1978). Formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines in soils. Soil Biol. Biochem., 10:27-32.
  • Parsa, I., Friedman, S. and Cleary, C.M. (1987). Visualization of O6-methylguanine in target cell nuclei of dimethylnitrosamine-treated human pancreas by a murine monoclonal antibody. Carcinogenesis, 8:839-846.
  • Pedal, I., Besserer, K., Goerttler, K., Heymer, B., Mittmeyer, H.J., Oehmichen, M. and Schmahl, D. (1982). Fatal nitrosamine poisoning. Arch. Toxicol., 50:101-112 [cited in ATSDR, 1989].
  • Pegg, A.E. and Perry, W. (1981). Alkylation of nucleic acids and metabolism of small doses of dimethylnitrosamine in the rat. Cancer Res., 41:3128-3132.
  • Peto, R., Gray, R., Brantom, P. and Grasso, P. (1991a). Effects on 4080 rats of chronic ingestion of N-nitrosodiethylamine or N-nitrosodimethylamine: a detailed dose-response study. Cancer Res., 51:6415-6451.
  • Peto, R., Gray, R., Brantom, P. and Grasso, P. (1991b). Dose and time relationships for tumor induction in the liver and esophagus of 4080 inbred rats by chronic ingestion of N-nitrosodiethylamine or N-nitrosodimethylamine. Cancer Res., 51:6452-6469.
  • Petzold, G.L. and Swenberg, J.A. (1978). Detection of DNA damage induced in vivo following exposure of rats to carcinogens. Cancer Res., 38:1589-1594.
  • Phillips, J.C., Lake, B.G., Heading, C.E., Gangolli, S.D. and Lloyd, A.G. (1975). Studies on the metabolism of dimethylnitrosamine in the rat. I. Effects of dose, route of administration and sex. Food Cosmet. Toxicol., 13:203-209.
  • Pobel, D., Riboli, E., Cornée, J., Hémon, B. and Guyader, M. (1995). Nitrosamine, nitrate and nitrite in relation to gastric cancer: a case-control study in Marseille, France. Eur. J. Epidemiol., 11:67-73.
  • Pool, B.L., Brendler, S.Y., Liegibel, U.M., Tompa, A. and Schmezer, P. (1990). Employment of adult mammalian primary cells in toxicology: in vivo and in vitro genotoxic effects of environmentally significant N-nitrosodialkylamines in cells of the liver, lung, and kidney. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 15:24-35.
  • Richardson, S.D. (2003). Disinfection by-products and other emerging contaminants in drinking water. Trends Anal. Chem., 22(10):666-684.
  • Risch, H.A., Jain, M., Choi, N.W., Fodor, J.G., Pfeiffer, C.J., Howe, G.R., Harrison, L.W., Craib, K.J.P. and Miller, A.B. (1985). Dietary factors and the incidence of cancer of the stomach. Am. J. Epidemiol., 122:947-957.
  • Robbiano, L., Mereto, E., Morando, A.M., Pastore, P. and Brambilla, G. (1997). An in vivo micronucleus assay for detecting the clastogenic effect in rat kidney cells. Mutat. Res., 390:51-57.
  • Rogers, M.A.M., Vaughan, T.L., Davis, S. and Thomas, D.B. (1995). Consumption of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosodimethylamine and the risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 4:29-36.
  • Sacher, F., Schmidt, C.K., Lee, C. and Gunten, U.V. (2008). Strategies for minimizing nitrosamine formation during disinfection. Awwa Research Foundation, Denver, CO (Report No. 91209).
  • Sato, S., Taketomi, M. and Morita, T. (1992). Simplified mouse peripheral reticulocyte micronucleus test with dimethylnitrosamine. Mutat. Res., 278:103-107.
  • Sawada, S., Yamanaka, T., Yamatsu, K., Furihata, C. and Matsushima, T. (1991). Chromosome aberrations, micronuclei and sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in rat liver induced in vivo by hepatocarcinogens including heterocyclic amines. Mutat. Res., 251:59-69.
  • Schmidt, C.K. and Brauch, H.-J. (2008). N,N-Dimethylsulfamide as precursor for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation upon ozonation and its fate during drinking water treatment. Environ. Sci. Technol., 42(17):6340-6346.
  • Schmidt, J.D. and Murphy, G.P. (1966). Urinary lactic dehydrogenase activity in rats with dimethylnitrosamine induced renal tumors. Invest. Urol., 4:57-63.
  • Schreiber, I.M. and Mitch, W.A. (2005). Influence of the order of reagent addition on NDMA formation during chloramination. Environ. Sci. Technol., 39(10):3811-3818.
  • Schreiber, I.M. and Mitch, W.A. (2006a). Nitrosamine formation pathway revisited: the importance of chloramines speciation and dissolved oxygen. Environ. Sci. Technol., 40(19):6007-6014.
  • Schreiber, I.M. and Mitch, W.A. (2006b). Occurrence and fate of nitrosamines and nitrosamine precursors in wastewater-impacted surface waters using boron as a conservative tracer. Environ. Sci. Technol., 40(10):3203-3210.
  • Schreiber, I.M. and Mitch, W.A. (2007). Enhanced nitrogenous disinfection byproduct formation near the breakpoint: implications for nitrification control. Environ. Sci. Technol., 41(20):7039-7046.
  • Sedlak, DL., Deeb, R., Hawley, E., Mitch, W., Durbin, T., Mowbray, S. and Carr, S. (2005). Sources and fate of nitrosodimethylamine and its precursors in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Water Environ. Res., 77(1):32-39.
  • Sen, N.P., Seaman, S.W., Bergeron, C. and Brousseau, R. (1996). Trends in the levels of N-nitrosodimethylamine in Canadian and imported beers. J. Agric. Food Chem., 44(6):1498-1501.
  • Sen, N.P. and Baddoo, P.A. (1997). Trends in the levels of residual nitrite in Canadian cured meat products over the past 25 years. J. Agric. Food Chem., 45:4714-4718.
  • Sen, N.P. and Seaman, S. (1981). Volatile N-nitrosamimes in dried foods. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 64(5):1238-1242.
  • Sharpless, C.M. and Linden, K.G. (2003). Experimental and model comparisons of low- and medium-pressure Hg lamps for the direct and H2O2 assisted UV photodegradation of N-nitrosodimethylamine in simulated drinking water. Environ. Sci. Technol., 37(9):1933-1940.
  • Siddiqui, M. and Atasi, K. (2001). NDMA occurrence and formation-A review. In: Proceedings of the American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Washington, DC. American Water Works Association, Denver, CO.
  • Souliotis, V.L., Chhabra, S., Anderson, L.M. and Kyrtopoulos, S.A. (1995). Dosimetry of O6-methylguanine in rat DNA after low-dose, chronic exposure to N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Implications for the mechanism of NDMA hepatocarcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis, 16:2381-2387.
  • Spiegelhalder, B., Eisenbrand, G. and Preussmann, R. (1982). Urinary excretion of N-nitrosamines in rats and humans. IARC Sci. Publ., 41:443-449.
  • Spiegelhalder, B. and Preussmann, R. (1984). Contamination of toiletries and cosmetic products with volatile and non volatile N-nitroso carcinogens. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol., 108:160-163.
  • Stehlik, G., Richter, O. and Altmann, H. (1982). Concentration of dimethylnitrosamine in the air of smoke-filled rooms. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 6:495-500.
  • Steinle-Darling, E., Zedda, M., Plumbee, M.H., Ridgway, H.F. and Reinhard, M. (2007). Evaluating the impacts of membrane type, coating, fouling, chemical properties and water chemistry on reverse osmosis rejection of seven nitrosoalkylamines, including NDMA. Water Res., 41:3959-3967.
  • Swenberg, J.A., Hoel, D.G. and Magee, P.N. (1991). Mechanistic and statistical insight into the large carcinogenesis bioassays on N-nitrosodiethylamine and N-nitrosodimethylamine. Cancer Res., 51:6409-6414.
  • Tanaka, A., Hisanaga, A., Inamasu, T., Hirata, M. and Ishinishi, N. (1988). A comparison of the carcinogenicity of N-nitrosodiethylamine and N-nitrosodimethylamine after intratracheal instillation into Syrian golden hamsters. Food Chem. Toxicol., 26:847-850.
  • Tate, R.L., III. and Alexander, M. (1975). Stability of nitrosamines in samples of lake water, soil, and sewage. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 54:327-330.
  • Tates, A.D., Neuteboom, I., Hofker, M. and den Engelse, L. (1980). A micronucleus technique for detecting clastogenic effects of mutagens/carcinogens (DEN, DMN) in hepatocytes of rat liver in vivo. Mutat. Res., 74:11-20.
  • Tates, A.D., Neuteboom, I., de Vogel, N. and den Engelse, L. (1983). The induction of chromosomal damage in rat hepatocytes and lymphocytes. I. Time-dependent changes of the clastogenic effects of diethylnitrosamine, dimethylnitrosamine and ethyl methanesulfonate. Mutat. Res., 107:131-151.
  • Tates, A.D., Neuteboom, I., Rotteveel, A.H.M., de Vogel, N., Menkveld, G.J. and den Engelse, L. (1986). Persistence of preclastogenic damage in hepatocytes of rats exposed to ethylnitrosourea, diethylnitrosamine, dimethylnitrosamine and methyl methanesulfonate. Correlation with DNA O-alkylation. Carcinogenesis, 7:1053-1058.
  • Terao, K., Aikawa, T. and Kera, K. (1978). A synergistic effect of nitrosodimethylamine on sterigmatocystin carcinogenesis in rats. Food Cosmet. Toxicol., 16:591-596.
  • Terracini, B., Palestro, G., Gigliardi, M.R. and Montesano, R. (1966). Carcinogenicity of dimethylnitrosamine in Swiss mice. Br. J. Cancer, 20:871-876.
  • Thomas, R.G. (1982). Volatilization from water. In: W.J. Lyman, W.F. Reehl and D.H. Rosenblatt (eds.). Handbook of chemical property estimation methods. McGraw-Hill, New York, New York. pp. 15-27.
  • Tinwell, H., Lefevre, P.A. and Ashby, J. (1994). Mutation studies with dimethyl nitrosoamine in young and old lac I transgenic mice. Mutat. Res., 307:501-508.
  • Tricker, A.R., Ditrich, C. and Preussmann, R. (1991). N-Nitroso compounds in cigarette tobacco and their occurrence in the mainstream tobacco smoke. Carcinogenesis, 12(2):257-261.
  • Tricker, A.R. and Preussmann, R. (1992). Volatile N-nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke: occurrence and formation. Clin. Invest. 70:283-289.
  • Trzos, R.J., Petzold, G.L., Brunden, M.N. and Swenberg, J.A. (1978). The evaluation of sixteen carcinogens in the rat using the micronucleus test. Mutat. Res., 58:79-86.
  • Tugulea, A.M., Aranda-Rodriguez, R., Jay, B., Kubwabo, C. and Koudjonou, B. (2008). Emerging disinfection by-products (NDMA, MX) in Canadian drinking water - a survey of fifteen distribution systems. Proceeding, 13th Canadian National Drinking Water Conference, October, Quebec City, Québec.
  • Tugulea, A.M., Aranda-Rodriguez, R., Kubwabo,C., Bérubé, D., Koudjonou, B., Giddings, M. and Lemieux, F., (2010). National Survey of Disinfection By-Products and Selected Emerging Contaminants in Canadian Drinking Water-First Year Results, Proceedings, 14th Canadian National Drinking Water Conference, October - November, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
  • U.S. EPA (2004). Method 521: Determination of nitrosamines in drinking water by solid phase extraction and capillary column gas chromatography with large volume injection and chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Version 1.0. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. (EPA Document No.
  • van Rheenan, D.L. (1962). Determination of biogenic amines in faeces of normal dairy cattle. Nature, 193:170-171.
  • Wang, X., Suzuki, T., Itoh, T., Honma, M., Nishikawa, A., Furukawa, F., Takahashi, M., Hayashi, M., Kato, T. and Sofuni, T. (1998). Specific mutational spectrum of dimethylnitrosamine in the lacI transgene of Big Blue C57BL/6 mice. Mutagenesis, 13:625-630.
  • Webster, R.P., Gawde, M.D. and Bhattacharya, R.K. (1996). Protective effect of rutin, a flavonol glycoside, on the carcinogen-induced DNA damage and repair enzymes in rats. Cancer Lett., 109:185-191.
  • WHO (2008). N-Nitrosodimethylamine in drinking-water. Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. World Health Organization, Geneva.
  • Wilczak, A., Assadi-Rad, A., Lai, H.H., Hoover, L.L., Smith, J.F., Berger, R., Rodigari, F., Beland, J.W., Lazzelle, L.J., Kincannon, E.G., Baker, H. and Heaney, C.T. (2003). Formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in chloraminated water coagulated with DADMAC cationic polymer. J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 95(9):94-107.
  • Wild, D. (1978). Cytogenetic effects in the mouse of 17 chemical mutagens and carcinogens evaluated by the micronucleus test. Mutat. Res., 56:319-327.
  • Yoo, J.-S.H., Ning, S.M., Patten, C.J. and Yang, C.S. (1987). Metabolism and activation of N-nitrosodimethylamine by hamster and rat microsomes: comparative study with weanling and adult animals. Cancer Res., 47:992-998
  • Zhao,Y-Y., Boyd, J.M., Woodbeck, M., Andrews, R.C., Qin, F., Hrudey, S.E. and Li, X. F. (2008). Formation of N-Nitrosamines from eleven disinfection treatments of seven different surface waters. Environ. Sci. Technol., 42(13):4857-4862.
  • Zhu, J.H., Yan, D., Xai, J.R., Ma, L.L. and Shen, B. (2001). Attempt to adsorb N-nitrosamines in solution by use of zeolites. Water Res., 44(5):949-956.

Appendix A: List of acronyms

2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
American National Standards Institute
advanced oxidation processes
body weight
cytochrome P450
deoxyribonucleic acid
Environmental Protection Agency
F air:water
air to water NDMA concentration
K aw
Henry's law constant
K ow
n-octanol/water partition coefficient
K p
skin permeability coefficient
LC 50
median lethal concentration
lower confidence limit
LD 50
median lethal dose
lowest-observed-effect concentration
maximum acceptable concentration
4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)acetic acid
natural organic matter
NSF International
part per million
ribonucleic acid
reverse osmosis
liver homogenate prepared by 9000 × g centrifugation
Standards Council of Canada
TD 05
tumorigenic dose 05; the dose level that causes a 5% increase in tumour incidence over background
tolerable daily intake
TDL 05
95% lower confidence limit on the TD 05
United States Environmental Protection Agency
World Health Organization


Page details

Date modified: