The role of migrant labour supply in the Canadian labour market

Text version: Figure 1: Composition of the Canadian labour force, 2011

Labour force
Very recent immigrants (5 years or less) 569,900
Recent immigrants (between 5 and 10 years) 634,900
Established immigrants (more than 10 years) 2,757,400
Born in Canada 14,415,500
Non-landed immigrants 321,600

Text version: Figure 2: Employment rates – Canada, monthly

Employment rate (level) – In percentage (%)
Months from peak 1981 Recession (%) 1990 Recession (%) 2008 Recession (%)
0 61 62 64
1 60 62 64
2 60 62 64
3 60 62 64
4 60 62 64
5 60 62 63
6 59 62 63
7 59 61 64
8 59 61 64
9 59 61 63
10 58 61 63
11 58 60 63
12 57 60 62
13 57 60 62
14 57 60 62
15 56 60 62
16 56 60 62
17 56 60 61
18 56 60 61
19 56 60 61
20 56 60 61
21   59 61
22   59 61
23   59 62
24   59 62
25   59 62
26   59 62
27   59 62
28   58 62
29   58 62
30   58 62
31   58 62
32   58 62
33   58 62
34   58 62
35   58 62
36   58 62
37   58 62
38   58 62
39   58  
40   58  
41   58  
42   58  
43   58  
44   58  
45   58  
46   58  
47   58  
Difference from pre-recession peak (level) – In percentage (%)
Months from peak 1981 Recession (%) 1990 Recession (%) 2008 Recession (%)
0 0.0 0.0 0.0
1 -0.3 -0.1 -0.1
2 -0.2 -0.1 -0.1
3 -0.5 -0.4 -0.1
4 -0.7 -0.4 -0.2
5 -0.8 -0.5 -0.5
6 -1.2 -0.7 -0.5
7 -1.5 -0.9 -0.3
8 -1.7 -1.2 -0.3
9 -2.0 -1.5 -0.6
10 -2.4 -1.7 -0.8
11 -2.7 -2.0 -1.3
12 -3.2 -2.3 -1.7
13 -3.5 -2.5 -2.0
14 -3.9 -2.4 -1.9
15 -4.1 -2.4 -2.1
16 -4.3 -2.5 -2.3
17 -4.4 -2.6 -2.5
18 -4.4 -2.6 -2.5
19 -4.4 -2.8 -2.5
20 -4.4 -2.8 -2.7
21   -3.0 -2.5
22   -3.2 -2.5
23   -3.3 -2.4
24   -3.5 -2.4
25   -3.7 -2.4
26   -3.8 -2.1
27   -3.8 -2.1
28   -3.9 -1.8
29   -4.0 -2.0
30   -4.2 -1.9
31   -4.3 -2.0
32   -4.3 -2.1
33   -4.4 -2.1
34   -4.3 -2.3
35   -4.3 -2.1
36   -4.3 -2.1
37   -4.3 -2.1
38   -4.4 -2.0
39   -4.4  
40   -4.4  
41   -4.5  
42   -4.5  
43   -4.4  
44   -4.4  
45   -4.3  
46   -4.5  
47   -4.5  

Text version: Figure 3: Unemployment rates – Canada, monthly

Unemployment rate (level) – In percentage (%)
Months from peak 1981 Recession (%) 1990 Recession (%) 2008 Recession (%)
0 7 7 6
1 8 8 6
2 8 8 6
3 8 8 6
4 9 8 6
5 9 8 6
6 9 9 6
7 9 9 6
8 10 9 6
9 10 10 6
10 11 10 6
11 12 10 7
12 12 10 7
13 12 10 8
14 13 10 8
15 13 11 8
16 13 10 8
17 13 11 9
18 13 10 9
19 13 10 9
20 13 10 8
21 13 10 9
22 12 10 9
23 12 11 8
24   11 8
25   11 8
26   11 8
27   12 8
28   11 8
29   12 8
30   12 8
31   11 8
32   12 8
33   12 8
34   11 8
35   11 8
36   11 8
37   12 8
38   12 8
39   12 8
40   12  
41   11  
42   11  
43   11  
44   11  
45   11  
46   11  
47   11  
Difference from pre-recession trough (level) – In percentage (%)
Months from peak 1981 Recession (%) 1990 Recession (%) 2008 Recession (%)
0 0.0 0.0 0.0
1 1.2 0.2 0.1
2 1.3 0.5 0.3
3 1.3 0.3 0.2
4 1.7 0.5 0.3
5 1.6 0.8 0.4
6 1.9 1.2 0.3
7 2.3 1.6 0.4
8 2.8 1.9 0.4
9 3.4 2.2 0.5
10 4.1 2.5 0.6
11 5.0 2.9 0.8
12 5.1 3.1 1.4
13 5.4 3.0 1.9
14 5.9 2.9 2.2
15 5.9 3.2 2.2
16 6.0 3.1 2.6
17 5.6 3.2 2.8
18 5.7 3.0 2.8
19 5.5 3.1 2.9
20 5.5 3.1 2.6
21 5.5 3.0 2.8
22 5.4 3.1 2.7
23 5.1 3.2 2.6
24   3.7 2.5
25   3.4 2.4
26   3.6 2.4
27   4.2 2.3
28   4.0 2.3
29   4.2 2.1
30   4.3 2.2
31   4.1 2.3
32   4.8 2.2
33   4.4 2.1
34   3.8 1.8
35   3.7 1.8
36   3.9 2.0
37   4.3 2.0
38   4.3 1.9
39   4.4 1.8
40   4.4  
41   4.1  
42   4.1  
43   3.9  
44   3.9  
45   4.1  
46   4.0  
47   3.8  

Text version: Figure 4: Canadian unemployment rate, 1980-2011

Year Unemployment Rate (%)
1980 8
1981 8
1982 11
1983 12
1984 11
1985 11
1986 10
1987 9
1988 8
1989 8
1990 8
1991 10
1992 11
1993 11
1994 10
1995 10
1996 10
1997 9
1998 8
1999 8
2000 7
2001 7
2002 8
2003 8
2004 7
2005 7
2006 6
2007 6
2008 6
2009 8
2010 8
2011 7

Text version: Figure 5: Older worker participation rates, 1976-2011

Year 50-54 years 55-59 years 60-64 years 65-69 years
1976 68 60 45 16
1977 68 60 44 15
1978 68 59 43 14
1979 69 60 45 15
1980 70 60 43 14
1981 71 60 43 13
1982 71 60 42 14
1983 72 60 42 13
1984 72 59 41 13
1985 72 61 39 12
1986 72 60 39 12
1987 74 61 37 12
1988 74 61 37 11
1989 76 61 36 11
1990 76 61 37 12
1991 76 61 36 12
1992 76 61 35 12
1993 77 60 35 11
1994 76 60 35 12
1995 77 60 33 12
1996 76 60 33 12
1997 77 60 35 12
1998 77 60 35 12
1999 78 61 36 12
2000 79 63 36 11
2001 80 63 37 12
2002 81 64 40 14
2003 83 68 42 16
2004 83 68 44 16
2005 83 68 44 17
2006 83 69 45 18
2007 84 71 47 19
2008 84 72 48 21
2009 84 72 50 22
2010 84 73 51 24
2011 84 73 51 24

Text version: Figure 6: New labour-market entrants: school leavers and immigrants, 1996-2020

Year Immigrants School leavers
1996 75,462 386,415
1997 76,881 384,528
1998 66,572 388,357
1999 60,149 387,798
2000 71,439 391,753
2001 93,097 408,442
2002 95,367 420,611
2003 74,602 445,483
2004 90,106 447,486
2005 90,779 443,161
2006 100,327 449,044
2007 94,735 459,123
2008 99,171 457,489
2009 97,784 443,447
2010 100,864 435,220
2011 102,060 452,171
2012 102,858 463,742
2013 104,054 469,380
2014 104,851 471,468
2015 106,047 472,999
2016 106,844 475,237
2017 108,040 478,692
2018 109,236 481,373
2019 110,034 483,857
2020 111,230 487,790

Source: Canadian Occupational Projection System (COPS)

[End of text version – back to Composition of the Canadian labour force]

Text version: Figure 7: Landings of permanent residents intending to work by skill level, 1980-2011

Year No skill/occupational detail known Skill level D - elemental and labourers Skill level C - intermediate and clerical Skill level B - skilled and technical Skill level A - professionals Skill level 0 - managerial
1980 11,313 4,745 14,829 21,678 8,173 2,599
1981 9,311 3,303 13,182 18,120 10,163 2,850
1982 9,560 3,051 12,017 16,648 11,140 2,960
1983 9,533 3,000 8,226 8,845 5,429 2,087
1984 10,482 3,805 9,245 8,579 4,599 1,746
1985 10,488 3,681 9,325 8,510 4,715 1,677
1986 12,767 4,872 11,838 10,723 5,925 2,100
1987 17,552 6,756 17,230 20,018 10,351 4,726
1988 18,124 4,226 13,533 23,739 10,870 5,654
1989 27,294 5,579 18,058 28,621 12,312 6,014
1990 42,204 5,947 17,781 29,000 13,345 6,804
1991 67,911 6,853 17,367 22,352 12,582 5,191
1992 86,656 5,838 15,757 18,436 11,882 5,966
1993 73,401 4,260 15,811 19,371 15,220 6,256
1994 53,682 1,833 10,963 19,461 17,916 5,069
1995 53,193 1,443 8,384 21,350 22,157 3,287
1996 53,413 1,109 7,828 24,101 28,569 3,625
1997 45,451 1,037 7,096 23,214 31,224 3,305
1998 39,759 759 5,234 16,252 26,009 2,592
1999 44,464 880 5,064 14,496 32,775 2,866
2000 49,959 1,118 6,622 16,712 42,341 3,915
2001 53,482 1,152 6,931 18,248 46,702 4,873
2002 48,727 906 5,869 16,534 41,788 4,143
2003 55,168 796 5,767 13,473 38,191 3,944
2004 60,249 675 5,844 13,968 37,810 5,903
2005 68,283 833 6,342 15,348 38,210 8,599
2006 68,319 607 6,538 14,492 31,219 8,366
2007 63,785 691 7,247 15,271 28,415 8,611
2008 61,396 792 9,917 17,093 29,060 11,172
2009 64,515 1,134 10,501 18,680 27,332 11,530
2010 71,143 1,811 11,048 19,076 32,274 14,866
2011 62,811 2,621 10,141 17,911 28,872 12,860

Text version: Figure 8: Average entry employment earnings ($2008) by immigration category and tax year

In dollars ($)
Years Skilled Workers (pa) Provincial Nominees (pa) Family class Refugees Canadian average
1981 45,633   21,264 20,019 35,582
1982 43,277   19,301 16,924 34,650
1983 40,675   16,940 15,864 33,877
1984 40,833   16,804 15,153 34,175
1985 37,287   17,524 15,041 34,386
1986 41,071   18,072 15,711 34,240
1987 43,891   18,662 17,463 34,528
1988 41,331   19,468 19,354 35,335
1989 37,886   19,353 18,906 35,571
1990 35,739   19,433 17,860 35,165
1991 30,027   16,911 14,829 34,229
1992 31,322   15,567 14,133 34,632
1993 32,511   15,197 14,316 34,496
1994 30,649   15,364 13,986 34,969
1995 29,519   15,325 13,880 35,188
1996 28,194   15,203 14,131 35,330
1997 28,240   15,714 14,179 35,939
1998 30,677   16,678 14,317 36,807
1999 32,195   17,678 14,934 37,293
2000 34,335 30,427 18,444 15,567 38,124
2001 33,492 30,248 17,980 15,189 38,122
2002 26,923 33,847 17,097 15,320 38,000
2003 25,686 32,533 16,416 15,067 37,803
2004 25,129 33,037 16,767 16,246 38,473
2005 27,801 40,144 17,887 16,679 39,275
2006 27,853 40,139 18,644 17,981 40,247
2007 30,876 40,030 18,813 17,037 40,876
2008 33,839 42,717 19,893 17,409 41,316

Source: Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB)

[End of text version – back to Average entry employment earnings]

Text version: Figure 9: Number of foreign nationals (present on December 1st) with Canadian work permits, 1980-2011

Year Foreign workers Students with work permits Refugee claimants with work permits Other humanitarian with work permits
1980 29,592 4,249 0 1,733
1981 36,468 4,839 0 3,079
1982 35,770 4,769 0 4,623
1983 34,552 4,762 0 6,784
1984 34,473 4,499 0 12,166
1985 40,800 4,772 0 20,207
1986 49,241 4,984 0 31,807
1987 61,478 5,169 0 37,342
1988 76,440 8,581 0 42,697
1989 89,392 13,356 4,695 100,649
1990 107,763 12,577 19,097 96,942
1991 104,076 10,901 33,314 6,854
1992 93,660 11,314 40,128 3,680
1993 76,664 11,388 32,117 2,641
1994 71,974 10,690 36,933 2,891
1995 71,168 8,580 36,885 2,546
1996 70,276 4,587 38,592 2,711
1997 73,464 3,173 37,558 2,624
1998 77,062 3,679 36,447 2,462
1999 81,987 4,329 37,577 6,108
2000 89,669 5,611 42,092 3,866
2001 96,390 6,338 51,173 3,139
2002 101,099 6,847 63,530 4,143
2003 109,679 7,434 72,487 3,427
2004 125,034 9,784 73,319 3,174
2005 140,690 13,342 65,711 3,086
2006 160,854 23,340 58,748 3,052
2007 199,246 32,222 56,465 3,160
2008 249,796 36,448 63,214 2,960
2009 281,349 40,697 76,721 2,697
2010 282,771 47,762 76,400 3,095
2011 300,101 60,122 72,393 2,536

Text version: Figure 10: Foreign workers (present on December 1st) by skill level, 1980-2011

Year Managerial Professionals Skilled and Technical Intermediate and Clerical Elemental and Labourers Not stated and CIC synthetic codes
1980 2,783 10,414 4,851 7,533 3,793 214
1981 3,165 12,663 6,206 10,633 3,639 162
1982 3,155 12,691 5,234 11,202 3,227 261
1983 3,218 12,062 5,323 10,773 2,657 518
1984 3,391 12,222 5,366 10,114 2,786 591
1985 3,976 13,276 6,051 11,922 2,972 2,597
1986 4,360 13,966 8,066 13,963 3,664 5,215
1987 4,818 15,353 9,954 19,916 5,019 6,412
1988 5,863 17,429 12,678 25,657 6,005 8,781
1989 6,755 20,021 11,463 32,094 7,454 11,578
1990 7,438 22,587 12,137 35,567 9,744 20,266
1991 7,458 21,575 11,070 34,689 10,558 18,691
1992 7,155 19,648 9,383 31,493 7,322 18,624
1993 6,718 18,513 7,908 25,368 4,261 13,838
1994 6,708 19,388 7,567 21,901 2,825 13,546
1995 6,505 18,732 7,776 21,453 1,816 14,839
1996 6,797 19,645 8,188 20,238 1,224 14,140
1997 7,017 22,837 8,002 21,323 911 13,331
1998 7,396 24,917 8,608 22,331 524 13,230
1999 7,565 25,162 9,489 24,572 388 14,790
2000 7,959 27,069 10,610 25,341 335 18,331
2001 8,544 28,460 11,012 28,835 446 19,077
2002 8,851 27,927 10,098 31,645 409 22,155
2003 9,012 27,723 10,698 33,655 879 27,698
2004 9,737 28,775 11,620 36,839 951 37,095
2005 10,561 30,950 13,834 41,574 1,161 42,579
2006 11,548 33,790 17,236 47,566 2,841 47,800
2007 12,974 36,505 25,206 58,467 8,525 57,487
2008 13,944 38,019 33,255 69,766 18,934 75,730
2009 14,583 37,968 33,946 70,993 23,295 100,361
2010 15,222 40,064 30,187 66,533 17,907 112,513
2011 16,844 39,115 32,452 65,444 16,542 129,704
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