Departmental Plan Report 2022-2023

Table of contents

From the Minister

Polar Knowledge Canada's (POLAR) 2022-23 Departmental Plan provides parliamentarians and Canadians with information on the work POLAR plans to complete over the course of the 2022-23 fiscal year. It describes the organization's programs and services for Canadians and provides transparency on how POLAR will support the fulfillment of mandate commitments and the Government of Canada's priorities.

POLAR's mission is to advance and mobilize knowledge of the polar regions through leadership, partnerships and collaboration on polar science and technology. In support of this mission, POLAR operates the world-class Canadian High Arctic Research Station (CHARS) in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, a hub for science, technology and innovation in Canada's North – a facility for which all Canadians should be proud.

POLAR has a unique role to advance the collective understanding of polar environments by mobilizing current knowledge produced by others to address the gaps and concerns of Northern communities. POLAR recognizes the global implications of its work and will continue to draw on a wide variety of expertise from Canada and around the world. To be successful in its role, POLAR will continue to lead with innovative approaches and research that is both cross-disciplinary and collaborative. POLAR will continue its work to build and maintain partnerships beyond disciplines and borders, to support meaningful inclusion of Indigenous traditional knowledge in research, and to synthesize and share information to advance polar research for the benefit of all Canadians. Furthermore, POLAR will continue to prioritize procurement with Inuit firms in the operations of the CHARS facility and in its programs.

The Government of Canada is committed to reconciliation with Indigenous Peoples, building a cleaner, greener future through sustained and collaborative efforts, promoting economic development, and creating jobs. POLAR is making progress towards these priorities in the North and Arctic, while strengthening Canada's leadership in polar science and technology. As the Minister of Northern Affairs, Minister responsible for Prairies Economic Development Canada, and Minister responsible for the Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency, I am honoured to have POLAR as part of my portfolio.

The Honourable Daniel Vandal, P.C., M.P., Minister of Northern Affairs, Minister responsible for Prairies Economic Development Canada, and Minister responsible for the Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency

From the President and CEO

Polar Knowledge Canada was established as Canada's federal agency to strengthen Canadian leadership in polar science and technology, with a mandate to advance knowledge of the Arctic in order to improve economic opportunities, environmental stewardship and the quality of life of its residents and all other Canadians. POLAR operates Canadian High Arctic Research Station in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, a place I now call my home. As a northern organization that both conducts and funds research, POLAR is uniquely placed to provide leadership on how research in the Arctic is conducted and on the expectations on who will receive federal funding for Arctic research.

Since being appointed as the President and CEO of POLAR, one of my top priorities has been, and will continue to be, building strong, lasting, and meaningful relationships with Indigenous partners rooted in collaboration, respect, integrity, and co-development in every aspect of our work. POLAR will ensure that as a science-based organization in the Arctic, we serve the priorities of Indigenous communities and include Indigenous ways of knowing and creating knowledge. Indigenous communities are on the front line of climate change; they are the experts as we work collectively towards solutions for a sustainable future.

With their profound connections to the land and wildlife, northern and Indigenous communities are experiencing the impacts of a rapidly changing Arctic climate with intensity. POLAR will continue to work with its northern and Indigenous partners to better understand their priorities, to advance the objectives of the 2020-2025 Science and Technology Framework. Additionally, POLAR will work with Indigenous, Government and research partners, towards advancing clean energy, technology and infrastructure solutions for remote northern communities.

In addition, POLAR will remain focused on increasing Nunavut Inuit employment, in accordance with our obligations under Article 23 of the Nunavut Agreement. With the addition of the Inuit Employment Plan Secretariat at POLAR, we can support the development of innovative recruitment strategies, training, and retention programs for Inuit employees as the Government of Canada and POLAR strives to be an employer of choice in Canada's North.

As POLAR's President and CEO, I am pleased to present POLAR's 2022-23 Departmental Plan.

Jennifer C. Hubbard, President and CEO, Polar Knowledge Canada

Plans at a glance

In 2020, POLAR publicly released its Strategic Plan and 2020-2025 Science and Technology Framework. The Strategic Plan is a high-level guidance and decision-making document to help POLAR align its resources and objectives with its long-term vision: A sustainable future guided by knowledge and collaboration.

To achieve this vision, POLAR will focus its efforts on collaborative and interdisciplinary science that is driven by the needs of northern communities and the questions significant to Canadians. POLAR will add unique value to polar research by integrating information from various science and technology disciplines into broadly accessible products to communicate new polar knowledge.

POLAR also will continue to work with Indigenous groups to ensure that Indigenous knowledge is incorporated into the policies developed and the decisions made by the organization, and is integrated into scientific approaches to advance Northern research. Key to the fulfillment of its mission and vision, POLAR operates Canadian High Arctic Research Station (CHARS) in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, providing resources and services for in-house and visiting scientists and researchers.

As part of this strategic planning exercise, POLAR has set the following targets for 2022-23:

For more information on Polar Knowledge Canada's plans, see the "Core responsibilities: planned results and resources, and key risks" section of this plan.

Core responsibilities: planned results and resources, and key risks

This section contains information on the department's planned results and resources for each of its core responsibilities. It also contains information on key risks related to achieving those results.

Polar Science and Knowledge


Polar Knowledge Canada is Canada's polar science agency operating out of the world-class Canadian High Arctic Research Station in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut. Polar Knowledge Canada performs and publishes multi-disciplinary polar research. Through our grants and contributions program, we fund external partners such as academia, northern communities and organizations who conduct research and related projects. Polar Knowledge Canada aims to include Indigenous and local knowledge wherever possible and increase domestic and international research coordination and collaboration by leveraging resources with partners. Through workshops, conferences, social media, and other tools, Polar Knowledge Canada shares and promotes the exchange of knowledge across polar scientific and policy communities and the general public. Throughout all of its core activities, Polar Knowledge Canada aims to fund and train the next generation of polar research personnel, with a focus on northern youth.

Planning highlights

Canada's polar science and technology research is publicly available and being applied

The polar science and technology research that is performed at the CHARS campus will be publicly available and shared within Canada and internationally through a wide range of publications, events, meetings and other means.

In 2022-23, POLAR will continue to strengthen research collaboration and ensure research is accessible. POLAR will communicate and promote polar research through public reports and educational videos. POLAR will develop educational resources for youth that are linked to its research activities. POLAR will implement its internal data management architecture and supporting policies and procedures. The information that is shared will be informed by, and include as appropriate, both Indigenous knowledge and local knowledge, as well as science and technology data that supports evidence-based decision making and policy development.

Canada's Arctic science includes Indigenous and local knowledge

POLAR will ensure that Indigenous and local knowledge is incorporated into the research that it performs and funds and will provide opportunities to advance Inuit employment and training in science, policy and administrative positions that support POLAR in meeting the Government of Canada's Inuit employment obligations under Article 23 of the Nunavut Agreement.

In 2022-23, POLAR will continue to implement its Inuit Employment Plan to support the increase in the representation of Nunavut Inuit employees at POLAR's headquarters in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut by reducing employment barriers for Nunavut Inuit. POLAR will also support the development of new and existing Inuit employees with guidance from its Inuit Advisory Committee, and will ensure the retention of Inuit employees at POLAR through the creation of onboarding programs and improvements to policies, practices and procedures. Through its grant and contribution funding, POLAR will continue to advocate for Indigenous Knowledge and local knowledge to be included in Arctic research, domestically and internationally, by prioritizing projects that include this knowledge. While continuing to work with Indigenous groups and partners, POLAR will include and integrate Indigenous knowledge and local knowledge in the advancement of science and technology, and incorporate their findings into the policies and the decisions made by the organization.

Canada fosters domestic and international knowledge exchange and partnerships in polar science and technology

Operating and maintaining the CHARS campus as a world-class centre for polar science will allow POLAR to strengthen and expand national and international research collaborations and, in turn, gain knowledge and expertise to address regional and circumpolar challenges.

In support of this result, in 2022-23, POLAR will conduct research and monitoring activities in the areas of permafrost, ecology, ecosystems, and biodiversity through collaboration with academic, national, international, and Indigenous organizations. POLAR will monitor to better understand factors influencing wildlife health and influences of environmental changes on Indigenous food security and community wellness. POLAR will build upon its work to advance clean energy, technology, and infrastructure solutions for remote northern communities. POLAR will collaborate with other federal departments and Indigenous organizations to advance federal science priorities, including the implementation of Canada's Arctic and Northern Policy Framework. POLAR will continue to operate CHARS and promote its use to Canadian and international researchers.

The next generation of Canadian polar researchers is developed

POLAR's grants and contributions programs and the CHARS campus will continue to support students in technical, science and research programs at colleges and universities. POLAR has specific initiatives delivered via the CHARS campus to encourage youth engagement, including science camps for local youth, summer employment, casual hires, and student placements. POLAR also has early-career researcher exchange programs to build a base of early career polar researchers.

In 2022-23, POLAR will continue to promote interest in polar science and technology opportunities through support to external partners for science and technology projects and capacity-building initiatives involving early career researchers. POLAR will also continue to develop youth interest in polar science and research by expanding and developing science and technology programming, engaging youth in science-based activities, and working with key partners on activities geared towards youth. POLAR will complete a cycle of the annual Northern Scientific Training Program, which includes awarding grants for 2022-23 recipients and launching a new call for applications for grants to be awarded in 2023-24.

Gender-based analysis plus

GBA+ is used to support POLAR's work to meet its obligations under Article 23 of the Nunavut Agreement. Although POLAR will continue to give preference to applicants who self-identify as Inuit under the Nunavut Agreement, increasing Inuit representation remains challenging given that there are science-specific classifications and degree or post-graduate (M.Sc., Ph.D.) education requirements for a number of POLAR's positions. The risk of not meeting this obligation is compounded by the fact that CHARS is in a small, northern community with a limited local labour pool for science and policy-focused positions. There is also a risk that stakeholder expectations regarding the benefits derived from CHARS cannot be met as they are extremely high in terms of employment opportunities for local people, economic development in Nunavut, and support for local businesses and organizations.

Additionally, GBA+ analysis is a key tool to support improvements in both POLAR's programs and its internal services and operations. POLAR continues to use GBA+ as both an analytical process and as a tool for meaningful engagement to provide information, data and trends that will inform mitigation measures and activities in support of departmental results. Specifically, in order to increase Indigenous participation in their activities, POLAR commits to:

In order to increase the number of youth pursuing polar science and technology-related careers, POLAR commits to:

Furthermore, GBA+ integration will continue to be undertaken on all Treasury Board Submissions, Cabinet documents, budget submissions, and in policy and program architecture and implementation.

United Nations' (UN) 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the UN Sustainable Development Goals

In 2015, all United Nations (UN) member states came together and adopted Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Many Government of Canada priorities align with the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the SDGs, including gender equality, diversity and inclusiveness, environmental sustainability, and economic prosperity. While POLAR is not a lead in these activities, POLAR is committed to working alongside lead departments to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts. POLAR is committed to advance clean energy, technology and infrastructure solutions for remote northern communities by facilitating the development and testing of energy, housing, water and waste treatment technologies suitable for the unique environmental and socio-cultural conditions in the North. This strategy contributes to advancing Canadian Indicator Framework ambition 13.3 "Canadians are well-equipped and resilient to face the effects of Climate change".

Results-based innovations1

While POLAR has not identified opportunities for results-based innovations related to the achievement of planned results associated with its "Polar Science and Knowledge" core responsibility in the coming fiscal year, POLAR continues to find new ways to support its mandate. Efforts are being made to advance co-development and to improve to the consideration of First Nations, Inuit and Métis unique realities in all aspects of POLAR's work. Where possible, POLAR will leverage lessons learned from results-based innovations completed by other federal organizations with similar mandates and responsibilities.

Key risk(s)

Relationship, Reputational and Operational Risks – Much of POLAR's operations and planned activities rely on collaboration and partnerships with other federal organizations, northern and Indigenous organizations and communities, and academia. These relationships include specific obligations outlined in treaties and self-government agreements, signed memoranda of understanding with Indigenous organizations, service agreements with other federal organizations, and others.

There is a risk that POLAR will be unable to complete planned activities due to internal capacity challenges or dependency on inputs from other organizations over which POLAR has limited control. As POLAR prepares to take over the custodianship of CHARS infrastructure, this includes the risk of being unable to fully operationalize the research station without adequate long-term funding. Should theses risks materialize, important partners, particularly Indigenous groups and communities, may perceive POLAR as not fulfilling its commitments.

POLAR will mitigate these relationship, reputational and operational risks by:

Planned results for Polar Science and Knowledge

The following table shows, for Polar Science and Knowledge the planned results, the result indicators, the targets and the target dates for 2022–23, and the actual results for the three most recent fiscal years for which actual results are available.

The financial, human resources and performance information for Polar Knowledge Canada's program inventory is available on GC InfoBase.

Planned budgetary spending for Polar Science and Knowledge

The following table shows, for Polar Science and Knowledge budgetary spending for 2022–23, as well as planned spending for that year and for each of the next two fiscal years.

Financial, human resources and performance information for Polar Knowledge Canada's program inventory is available on GC InfoBase.

Planned human resources for Polar Science and Knowledge

The following table shows, in full time equivalents, the human resources the department will need to fulfill this core responsibility for 2022–23 and for each of the next two fiscal years.

Financial, human resources and performance information for Polar Knowledge Canada's program inventory is available on GC InfoBase.

Internal services: planned results


Internal services are the services that are provided within a department so that it can meet its corporate obligations and deliver its programs. There are 10 categories of internal services:

Planning highlights

The following are POLAR's key planned internal services highlights for fiscal year 2022-23:

POLAR has been mandated to manage CHARS infrastructure by the Canadian High Arctic Research Station Act. As such, expenses associated with the management of the CHARS real property asset fall within the Internal Services portfolio. Finalizing the transfer of custodianship of CHARS, including the development and implementation of Real Property Building Management Plans that lay out the management of CHARS-related real property assets over the next five years will be a priority for POLAR. The use of CHARS is foundational to POLAR's Departmental Results Framework, as it provides a hub for collaboration on polar science and technology. With the operational delays due to the COVID-19 pandemic, POLAR is focusing on ensuring full operational readiness of CHARS in 2022-23.

The implementation of POLAR's Inuit Employment Plan contributes to the Government of Canada priority of reconciliation and will ensure that the operations and activities undertaken by POLAR are informed and guided by Indigenous knowledge and will contribute towards POLAR becoming compliant with Article 23 of the Nunavut Agreement. The evaluation of POLAR's transfer payment programs will provide POLAR with important information to ensure its programs are relevant and modern, and that they are effectively and efficiently contributing to achieving the results outlined in POLAR's departmental results framework.

Planned budgetary spending for internal services

Planned human resources for internal services

Planned spending and human resources

This section provides an overview of the department's planned spending and human resources for the next three fiscal years and compares planned spending for 2022–23 with actual spending for the current year and the previous year.

Planned spending

Departmental spending 2019–20 to 2024–25

The following graph presents planned spending (voted and statutory expenditures) over time.

This graph is described in the surrounding text

The graph illustrated POLAR's spending trend over a six-year period starting in 2019-20 and ending in 2024-25. The graph is based on two years of actual spending, one year of forecast spending and three years of planned spending.

In fiscal year 2019-20, the actual spending was $1.1 million from statutory spending with $29.4 million in voted spending. In 2020-21, actual spending was $1.1 million from statutory spending and $21.2 million from voted spending.

In fiscal year 2021-22, the forecasted spending is $2.5 million from statutory spending with $30.8 million in voted spending. In 2022-23, 2023-24 and 2024-25, planned spending is $2.5 million for statutory spending with $29.9 million in voted spending.

POLAR is required by the Canadian High Arctic Research Station Act to incorporate the financial implications of CHARS within its planned spending of Internal Services.

Budgetary planning summary for core responsibilities and internal services (dollars)

From 2019-20 to 2020-21, POLAR's expenditures decreased by $8.3M. The decrease in spending is mainly due to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions on POLAR's operations, the delivery of its transfer payment programs, and the loss of the field research season in 2020-21.

In 2021-22, the planned spending is $2.5 million for statutory spending with $29.8 million in voted spending. Adjustments to pandemic related restrictions throughout the year allowed the resumption of some activities in 2021-22, while other restrictions continued. The $732K increase in statutory spending between 2020-21 and 2021-22 is due to obtaining a new authority to spend revenues received through the conduct of its operations permitted under section 6 (2) of the Canadian High Arctic Research Station Act.

For 2022-23, 2023-24, and 2024-25 planned spending is $2.5 million for statutory spending, with $29.9 million in voted spending. This is forecasted based on a renewed ability to travel and conduct in-person activities, and the reopening of CHARS to researchers and visitors.

Planned human resources

The following table shows information on human resources, in full-time equivalents (FTEs), for each of Polar Knowledge Canada's core responsibilities and for its internal services for 2022–23 and the other relevant years.

Human resources planning summary for core responsibilities and internal services

The increase in full-time equivalents (FTE) is due mainly to additional capacity needed to support the development of programs, reduce reliance on external human resources services, and manage CHARS. As POLAR approaches a steadier state of operations, it continues to review its staffing levels to better understand its resourcing requirements in support of achieving planned results.

Estimates by vote

Information on Polar Knowledge Canada's organizational appropriations is available in the 2022–23 Main Estimates.

Future-oriented condensed statement of operations

The future oriented condensed statement of operations provides an overview of Polar Knowledge Canada's operations for 2021–22 to 2022–23.

The forecast and planned amounts in this statement of operations were prepared on an accrual basis. The forecast and planned amounts presented in other sections of the Departmental Plan were prepared on an expenditure basis. Amounts may therefore differ.

A more detailed future oriented statement of operations and associated notes, including a reconciliation of the net cost of operations with the requested authorities, are available on Polar Knowledge Canada's website.

Future oriented condensed statement of operations for the year ending March 31, 2023 (dollars)

Total expenses for the 2022-23 planned results do not include amortization of CHARS as custodianship has not yet been transferred to POLAR. In addition, the value of CHARS has yet to be determined.

Corporate information

Organizational profile

Appropriate minister: The Honourable Daniel Vandal, P.C., M.P.

Institutional head: Jennifer C. Hubbard, President and Chief Executive Officer

Ministerial portfolio: Minister of Northern Affairs

Enabling instrument[s]: Canadian High Arctic Research Station Act

Year of incorporation / commencement: 2015

Other: POLAR is overseen by a nine-member Board of Directors, including a Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson. The Board approves the Agency's science and technology plan and annual work plans and budget. The Board is accountable to the Minister of Northern Affairs. All members are appointed by Order-in-Council to hold office for terms not exceeding five years and are eligible for re-appointment for a second term of office. Members of the Board of Directors hold office on a part-time basis.

Raison d'être, mandate and role: who we are and what we do

"Raison d'être, mandate and role: who we are and what we do" is available on POLAR's website.

For more information on the department's organizational mandate letter commitments, see the Minister's mandate letter (2021).

Operating context

Information on the operating context is available on POLAR's website.

Reporting framework

POLAR's Departmental Results Framework and Program Inventory of record for 2022–23 are shown below.

Internal Services

Departmental Results Framework

Core Responsibility: Polar science and knowledge

Program Inventory

Supporting information on the program inventory

Financial, human resources and performance information for POLAR's Program Inventory is available in GC InfoBase.

Supplementary information tables

The following supplementary information tables are available on Polar Knowledge Canada's website:

Federal tax expenditures

The tax system can be used to achieve public policy objectives through the application of special measures such as low tax rates, exemptions, deductions, deferrals and credits. The Department of Finance Canada publishes cost estimates and projections for these measures each year in the Report on Federal Tax Expenditures. This report also provides detailed background information on tax expenditures, including descriptions, objectives, historical information and references to related federal spending programs as well as evaluations and GBA Plus of tax expenditures.

Organizational contact information

Cambridge Bay Headquarters

Polar Knowledge Canada - Canadian High Arctic Research Station
1 Uvajuq Road
P.O. Box 2150
Cambridge Bay, NU, X0B 0C0
Telephone: (867) 983-7425

Ottawa Office

Polar Knowledge Canada
170 Laurier Avenue West, Suite 200
Ottawa, ON, K1P 5V5
Telephone: (613) 943-8605



Appendix: definitions

appropriation (crédit)

Any authority of Parliament to pay money out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund.

budgetary expenditures (dépenses budgétaires)

Operating and capital expenditures; transfer payments to other levels of government, organizations or individuals; and payments to Crown corporations.

core responsibility (responsabilité essentielle)

An enduring function or role performed by a department. The intentions of the department with respect to a core responsibility are reflected in one or more related departmental results that the department seeks to contribute to or influence.

Departmental Plan (plan ministériel)

A document that sets out a department's priorities, programs, expected results and associated resource requirements, covering a three year period beginning with the year indicated in the title of the report. Departmental Plans are tabled in Parliament each spring.

departmental result (résultat ministériel)

A change that a department seeks to influence. A departmental result is often outside departments' immediate control, but it should be influenced by program-level outcomes.

departmental result indicator (indicateur de résultat ministériel)

A factor or variable that provides a valid and reliable means to measure or describe progress on a departmental result.

departmental results framework (cadre ministériel des résultats)

A framework that consists of the department's core responsibilities, departmental results and departmental result indicators.

Departmental Results Report (rapport sur les résultats ministériels)

A report on a department's actual performance in a fiscal year against its plans, priorities and expected results set out in its Departmental Plan for that year. Departmental Results Reports are usually tabled in Parliament each fall.

experimentation (expérimentation)

The conducting of activities that explore, test and compare the effects and impacts of policies and interventions in order to inform decision-making and improve outcomes for Canadians. Experimentation is related to, but distinct from, innovation. Innovation is the trying of something new; experimentation involves a rigorous comparison of results. For example, introducing a new mobile application to communicate with Canadians can be an innovation; systematically testing the new application and comparing it against an existing website or other tools to see which one reaches more people, is experimentation.

full time equivalent (équivalent temps plein)

A measure of the extent to which an employee represents a full person year charge against a departmental budget. Full time equivalents are calculated as a ratio of assigned hours of work to scheduled hours of work. Scheduled hours of work are set out in collective agreements.

gender-based analysis plus (GBA Plus) (analyse comparative entre les sexes plus [ACS Plus])

An analytical process used to assess how diverse groups of women, men and gender-diverse people experience policies, programs and services based on multiple factors including race, ethnicity, religion, age, and mental or physical disability.

government-wide priorities (priorités pangouvernementales)

For the purpose of the 2022–23 Departmental Plan, government-wide priorities are the high-level themes outlining the government's agenda in the 2021 Speech from the Throne: protecting Canadians from COVID-19; helping Canadians through the pandemic; building back better – a resiliency agenda for the middle class; the Canada we're fighting for.

horizontal initiative (initiative horizontale)

An initiative in which two or more federal organizations are given funding to pursue a shared outcome, often linked to a government priority.

non budgetary expenditures (dépenses non budgétaires)

Net outlays and receipts related to loans, investments and advances, which change the composition of the financial assets of the Government of Canada.

performance (rendement)

What an organization did with its resources to achieve its results, how well those results compare to what the organization intended to achieve, and how well lessons learned have been identified.

plan (plan)

The articulation of strategic choices, which provides information on how an organization intends to achieve its priorities and associated results. Generally, a plan will explain the logic behind the strategies chosen and tend to focus on actions that lead up to the expected result.

planned spending (dépenses prévues)

For Departmental Plans and Departmental Results Reports, planned spending refers to those amounts presented in the Main Estimates.

A department is expected to be aware of the authorities that it has sought and received. The determination of planned spending is a departmental responsibility, and departments must be able to defend the expenditure and accrual numbers presented in their Departmental Plans and Departmental Results Reports.

program (programme)

Individual or groups of services, activities or combinations thereof that are managed together within a department and that focus on a specific set of outputs, outcomes or service levels.

program inventory (répertoire des programmes)

An inventory of a department's programs that describes how resources are organized to carry out the department's core responsibilities and achieve its planned results.

result (résultat)

An external consequence attributed, in part, to an organization, policy, program or initiative. Results are not within the control of a single organization, policy, program or initiative; instead, they are within the area of the organization's influence.

statutory expenditures (dépenses législatives)

Expenditures that Parliament has approved through legislation other than appropriation acts. The legislation sets out the purpose of the expenditures and the terms and conditions under which they may be made.

target (cible)

A measurable performance or success level that an organization, program or initiative plans to achieve within a specified time period. Targets can be either quantitative or qualitative.

voted expenditures (dépenses votées)

Expenditures that Parliament approves annually through an Appropriation Act. The vote wording becomes the governing conditions under which these expenditures may be made.


  1. The Treasury Board Secretariat uses the term "experimentation" when requesting that departments test new approaches and measure impact to instill a culture of measurement, evaluation and innovation in program and policy design and delivery and to improve outcomes by learning what does and doesn't work. However, POLAR refers to experimentation as "results-based innovation" given that the term "experimentation" has negative connotations and is not appropriate in the Indigenous context because of Canada's colonial history, including the impact of residential schools.
  2. This Performance Indicator is a 3-year aggregate. The 2019-20 reporting year was the first year a three-year dataset was reported.
  3. This indicator was amended in 2019-2020 to combine the two indicators previously under this Departmental Result. As such, 2020-21 is the first reporting year results are available for this indicator.
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