National case definition: Typhoid

Date of last revision/review: May 2008

National notification

Only confirmed cases of disease should be notified.

Type of surveillance

Routine case-by-case notification to the federal level

Case classification

Confirmed case

Clinical illness with laboratory confirmation of infection:

Laboratory comments

Further strain characterization is required for epidemiologic, public health and control purposes.

Clinical evidence

Typhoid is characterized by insidious onset of sustained fever, headache, malaise, anorexia, splenomegaly, constipation or diarrhea, and non-productive cough. Relative bradycardia and rose spots (less than 25% of individuals) may be seen.  Atypical presentations occur, and the severity of the illness varies.

Chronic carrier state (< 5% of population) is usually linked to the biliary or urinary tract and should be distinguished from short-term faecal carriage.

ICD code(s)

ICD-10 code(s)

ICD-9 code(s)


Paratyphoid fever caused by Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C is reported under Salmonella sp.


Case definitions for diseases under national surveillance. CCDR 2000;26(Suppl 3):  55.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR 1997. Case definitions for infectious conditions under public health surveillance. Retrieved May 2008, from  

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