Annual Report on Official Languages 2021-2022
On this page
- Message from the Minister
- 2021-2022 Highlights
- Section 1 – Official Languages in the Federal Public Service
- Section 2 ‒ Supporting the Vital Forces of Communities
- 2.1 Giving communities a voice
- 2.2 Employment and economic development
- 2.3 Promoting vibrant media that inform and connect communities
- 2.4 Fostering cultural outreach
- 2.5 Increasing Francophone immigration
- Section 3 – Strengthening Access to Services
- 3.1 Support for minority language education
- 3.2 Agreements with the provinces and territories on minority language services
- 3.3 Improving access to justice
- 3.4 Access to health care and social services in the minority official language
- Section 4 – Promotion of Official Languages
- Appendix 1: 2021-2022 Summary of Government Investments in Official Languages (including initiatives of Action Plan 2018-2023)
- Appendix 2: 2021-2022 Expenditures of the Official Languages Support Programs by Component
- Appendix 3: 2021-2022 Expenditures of the Official Languages Support Programs by Province and Territory
- Appendix 4: 2021-2022 Education Expenditures
- Appendix 5: School Enrolment in 2020-2021
List of Figures
- Figure 1 : 2021-2022 Highlights
- Figure 2: Key Mechanisms for Interdepartmental Coordination by Region
- Figure 3: Supporting the Vital Forces of Communities: New Action Plan Investments
- Figure 4: Some Key Figures on Canadian Heritage and Canada Council for the Arts Support to Community Artists in 2021-2022
- Figure 5: Strengthening Access to Services: New Action Plan Investments
- Figure 6: Promotion of Official Languages: New Action Plan Investments
- Figure 7: Increase in the Number of Enrolments in French Immersion Programs Offered Outside Quebec Since 2003
List of Tables
- Table 1: 2021-2022 Summary of Government Investments in Official Languages
- Table 2: Expenditures of Canadian Heritage Official Languages Support Programs – Grand Total (in dollars)
- Table 3: Expenditures of the Development of Official Language Communities Program by Component (in dollars)
- Table 4: Expenditures of the Enhancement of Official Languages Program by Component (in dollars)
- Table 5: Official Languages Support Programs Expenditures by Province and Territory (in dollars)
- Table 6: Expenditures of the Development of Official Language Communities Program by Province and Territory (in dollars)
- Table 7: Expenditures of the “Community Life” Component of the Development of Official Language Communities Program by Province and Territory (in dollars)
- Table 8: Expenditures of the Enhancement of Official Languages Program by Province and Territory (in dollars)
- Table 9: Breakdown of Education Expenditures (in dollars) ‒ Support to Provincial and Territorial Governments
- Table 10: Breakdown of Education Expenditures (in dollars) ‒ Support to Organizations
- Table 11: Minority Language Education Expenditures by Province and Territory – Intergovernmental Cooperation
- Table 12: Second Language Learning Expenditures by Province and Territory ‒ Intergovernmental Cooperation
- Table 13: Enrolments in Second Language Instruction Programs in Majority Language School Systems – All of Canada
- Table 14: Enrolments in Second Language Instruction Programs in Majority Language School Systems by Province or Territory
- Table 15: Enrolment in Minority Language Education Programs – All of Canada
- Table 16: Enrolments in Minority Language Education Programs by Province and Territory
Annual Report on Official Languages 2021-2022 [PDF version - 3.1 MB]
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
- Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency
- Official Languages Act
- Action Plan
- Action Plan for Official Languages 2018–2023: Investing in Our Future
- Association des collèges et universités de la francophonie canadienne
- Association Franco-Yukonnaise
- Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency
- Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
- Comité consultatif national en établissement francophone
- Community Health and Social Services Network
- Council of Ministers of Education, Canada
- Consortium national de formation en santé
- Employment and Social Development Canada
- Inclusive Diversification and Economic Advancement in the North
- Fédération des aînées et aînés francophones du Canada
- Fédération culturelle canadienne-française
- Fédération des communautés francophones et acadienne
- FedDev Ontario
- Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario
- Federal Economic Development Initiative for Northern Ontario
- French as a Second Language
- Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada
- Ministers’ Council on the Canadian Francophonie
- Official Languages Health Program
- Public Prosecution Service of Canada
- Quebec Association for Suicide Prevention
- Quebec Community Groups Network
- RDÉE Canada
- Réseau de développement économique et d’employabilité Canada
- Francophone Immigration Networks
- Saskatchewan Health Authority
- Société Santé en français
- Welcoming Francophone Communities
- Young Canada Works at Building Careers in English and French
- Young Canada Works in Both Official Languages
Message from the Minister
As Minister of Official Languages and Minister responsible for the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency, I am pleased to present the Annual Report on Official Languages 2021-2022. These past few years have been marked by the ongoing efforts of the Department of Canadian Heritage and federal institutions to deliver on our Government’s unwavering commitment to Canada’s two official languages and the development of official language minority communities.
In 2021-2022, the Government of Canada invested to get Canadians back to work and to ensure that their lives and prospects were not permanently stunted by the pandemic. Federal institutions were sensitive to the needs of communities and maintained a dialogue with their representatives, allowing them to design and roll out recovery programs that took into account the needs and priorities of these communities.
This was the fourth year of implementation of a historic investment of more than $2.7 billion in initiatives under the Action Plan for Official Languages 2018–2023: Investing in Our Future, complemented by significant investments in official languages of 389 million dollars over three years in Budget 2021. This Annual Report highlights the progress and results achieved in relation to those many initiatives as well as the ongoing work of federal institutions in support of communities and our two official languages.
I am especially proud of the work done in the last years to modernize the Official Languages Act. On March 1, 2022, Bill C-13 was introduced, An Act to amend the Official Languages Act, to enact the Use of French in Federally Regulated Private Businesses Act and to make related amendments to other Acts. This bill encompasses the legislative proposals outlined in English and French: Towards a Substantive Equality of Official Languages in Canada, a document released by the government on February 19, 2021, aimed at achieving equal status for both official languages in Canada. This official languages reform will be furthered by our recently announced Action Plan for Official Languages 2023-2028. The elaboration of this new action plan was guided by in-person consultations spanning all provinces and territories, seven virtual thematic discussions, a closing summit in Ottawa attended by upwards of 300 stakeholders from across the country, and an online questionnaire that received over 5,200 responses.
I encourage you to read this report in order to learn more about the achievements of Canadian Heritage and all federal institutions in supporting the official languages.
The Honourable Ginette Petitpas Taylor
While the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic continued to be felt in 2021-2022, the Government of Canada invested the funds required to support Canadians through it. Federal institutions were responsive to the needs and priorities of communities and designed recovery programs accordingly.
In addition to prioritizing the support of Canadian citizens during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the Government of Canada has also remained committed to updating and enhancing important legislation, such as the Official Languages Act (Act). As part of these efforts, Bill C-13, An Act to amend the Official Languages Act, to enact the Use of French in Federally Regulated Private Businesses Act and to make related amendments to other Acts was introduced on March 1, 2022. This bill encompasses the legislative proposals outlined in English and French: Towards a Substantive Equality of Official Languages in Canada a document released by the Government on February 19, 2021, aimed at achieving equal standing for both official languages in Canada.
Despite pandemic-related challenges, the implementation of initiatives outlined in the Action Plan for Official Languages 2018-2023: Investing in Our Future continued throughout the year. Federal institutions were able to allocate funding as planned. The Annual Report follows the framework established in the Action Plan, starting with an overview of coordination efforts, followed by a description of initiatives aimed at supporting minority language communities and improving access to minority language services, and concluding with an examination of the progress of English and French in Canada.
Section 1 – Official Languages in the Federal Public Service
Effects of the pandemic continued to be felt in 2021–2022. Closures and restrictions disrupted the recovery in all sectors and undermined worker retention, including for the communities. To get Canada back to work and ensure that Canadians’ lives and prospects are not permanently stunted by this pandemic, the Government of Canada invested up to $100 billion over three years in Recovery and Reopening Funds.
Budget 2021 brought forward significant new investments in official languages totalling $389.9 million over three years to be delivered by Canadian Heritage to:
- enhance the vitality of communities;
- support French immersion and French as a second language programs in schools;
- support quality post-secondary education in the minority language.
Federal institutions remained sensitive to the needs of the communities and organizations during these unprecedented times. They worked in a coordinated and concerted way to maintain a dialogue with community representatives and made funding available to communities through recovery measures. Canadian Heritage continued to remind federal institutions of their duties under Part VII of the the Act and created outreach opportunities and tools to help federal institutions carry out those duties. Canadian Heritage worked to ensure that an official languages lens was brought to bear in policies and program development as the recovery initiatives were implemented.
Under section 42 of the Official Languages Act, Canadian Heritage is responsible for providing horizontal coordination of official languages within the federal government by consulting with and supporting federal institutions on the implementation of Part VII of the Act.
The deputy heads of those institutions are responsible for taking positive measures under Part VII based on their mandate and the potential of their programs and activities.
1.1 Modernization of the Official Languages Act
The important work of modernizing the Act continued, thanks to Canadian Heritage’s coordination and collaboration efforts, reaching crucial milestones in 2021–2022 with the introduction in the House of Commons of Bill C-13, An Act to amend the Official Languages Act, to enact the Use of French in Federally Regulated Private Businesses Act and to make related amendments to other Acts, which was introduced on March 1, 2022.
Bill C-13 includes the legislative measures announced in the official languages reform document, English and French: Towards a Substantive Equality of Official Languages in Canada, which was released by the Government on February 19, 2021, and seeks to achieve substantive equality of official languages in Canada.
“Our government made a commitment to move forward quickly to modernize the Official Languages Act, and this ambitious reform is concrete proof of that commitment. Thanks to true teamwork, we are taking an important step to achieve substantive equality of English and French.”
The modernization of the Act is a collaboration with key partners, such as the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, the Department of Justice Canada, and Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. These federal institutions play crucial roles in official languages at the federal level. They will be central to the implementation of a strengthened and modernized statute, whether in terms of oversight and compliance or in terms of the implementation of measures that support the promotion of both official languages within Canadian society, enhance the vitality of official language minority communities and foster the growth of Canada’s Francophone population. In addition, many other federal institutions have the potential to support key sectors for the vitality of communities and the advancement of official languages within their respective mandates. These institutions contributed to Bill C-13 and will have a key role in its implementation.
- The recognition of linguistic dynamics in the provinces and territories and existing rights regarding Indigenous languages
- The willingness to provide opportunities for learning both official languages
- Support for community institutions, including the English-speaking community of Quebec
- The protection and promotion of French throughout Canada, including in Quebec
- The Government of Canada as an example through strengthening of the compliance of federal institutions
- An Act for the Canada of today and tomorrow: Regular review of the Act and its implementation
1.2 Targeted support for federal institutions
The Minister of Official Languages and Minister responsible for the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency and Canadian Heritage had ongoing dialogue with stakeholders to take the pulse of the communities and keep abreast of emerging needs during the pandemic.
The Deputy Minister of Canadian Heritage, as champion of the public service official languages community, a role assigned to her by the Clerk of the Privy Council, demonstrated ongoing leadership to ensure that official languages remain a priority in the context of the pandemic and the historic time when the Act is being modernized. The governance committees, including the Committee of Assistant Deputy Ministers on Official Languages, met regularly to ensure the horizontal coordination of official languages priorities, such as the modernization of the Act, the implementation of the current Action Plan and the development of the Government’s next five-year official languages strategy.
Canadian Heritage continued to provide federal institutions with targeted support in performing their duties under section 41 of the Act by establishing links and partnerships with the coordinators of federal institutions and, at the senior management level through the governance committees.
Section 41 of the Act sets out the Government of Canada’s commitment to:
- enhancing the vitality of communities in Canada and supporting and assisting their development; and
- fostering the full recognition and use of both English and French in Canadian society.
Federal institutions have a duty to take positive measures to implement this commitment while respecting the jurisdiction and powers of the provinces and territories.
Canadian Heritage continued to work to ensure that an official languages lens was applied in policies and program development across all federal institutions. A public service-wide awareness campaign was held to promote the Guide for Drafting Memoranda to Cabinet ‒ Official Languages Impact Analysis, released in 2020–2021. The tool, developed by Canadian Heritage, in collaboration with the Treasury Board Secretariat and the Department of Justice, encourages the systematic application of an official languages lens to all Government initiatives. The guide was shared through the official languages networks and the network of parliamentary teams in collaboration with the Privy Council Office. The guide was also presented at a meeting of the Committee of Assistant Deputy Ministers for Official Languages and subsequently shared with deputy heads.
It is important that analyses are supported by sound evidence and that access to data is facilitated. Canadian Heritage developed the Official Language Minority Communities Dashboard using an interactive interface to effectively present numerous indicators developed from the 2016 Census of Canada data for all provinces and territories, as well as the economic regions of the country. The data paint a detailed, accurate community portrait in the selected region. The dashboard will contribute to the official languages analyses done by federal institutions and was shared within the public service via the official languages networks and specifically targets analysts, officers, and researchers.
Canadian Heritage worked with the Treasury Board Secretariat to develop a tool on official language requirements for transfer payments, including in agreements with provinces and territories, which was published in November 2022.
As for positive measures, analysis of the 2020-2021 Official Languages Reviews, submitted by federal institutions, indicated that 73% of institutions reported taking positive measures to implement section 41. While federal institutions with a high potential for implementing Part VII all reported taking positive measures, and achieving concrete results, a few institutions with more limited potential also reported taking measures. In addition to continuing to work closely with high-potential institutions, Canadian Heritage conducted targeted outreach to institutions with more limited potential throughout the year to encourage them to explore the potential within their mandate. As a result, nearly 94% of federal institutions reported taking positive measures in their 2021-2022 Official Languages Review.
1.3 Canadian Heritage’s Interdepartmental Coordination Network
Canadian Heritage’s Interdepartmental Coordination Network (Network 42) brings together Canadian Heritage employees from across the country who are responsible for implementing section 42 of the Act: to coordinate positive measures taken by federal institutions under article 41. Network 42 creates opportunities for dialogue and builds bridges between federal institutions and the communities in the National Capital Region, as well as in all provinces and territories. It also participates in communities of practice and coordinates or presides over a wide range of coordination mechanisms.
This year, Network 42 took several steps to increase awareness, accountability, and engagement among the senior management of federal institutions. Canadian Heritage representatives played an increasingly important role in promoting official languages and raising awareness of community issues and priorities among senior officials of federal institutions in the regions by organizing official languages committee and subcommittee meetings in collaboration with the secretariats of the various Federal Councils. They provided regular updates on upcoming events, priorities, and best practices to members of their regional Federal council.
Network 42 also worked to strengthen existing relationships and develop new partnerships between federal institutions and the communities, both nationally and regionally. Community representatives were invited to regional interdepartmental networks and they also took part in national interdepartmental events, such as Linguistic Duality Week. Canadian Heritage coordinated working group meetings under the Collaboration Agreement for the Development of Arts and Culture in the Francophone Minority Communities of Canada 2018-2023. Working groups serve to maintain dialogue and partnerships between signatory institutions and the communities across Canada. In the Quebec Region, the Montreal Regional Office co-led the Working Group on Arts, Culture and Heritage with the English Language Arts Network and the Quebec Anglophone Heritage Network to ensure that senior management are made aware of community issues and priorities.
1.4 Promotion and tools
While the pandemic continued to pose challenges in organizing in-person events to promote official languages, Canadian Heritage turned once more to virtual events to comply with health measures, and by doing so, was able to reach broader audiences across the country. For example, on Linguistic Duality Day, Canadian Heritage held, with its partners, a virtual armchair discussion on official languages as a symbol of inclusion at the heart of Canadian values; it was attended by approximately 2,500 employees and members of the public. This event aimed to present official languages as complementary to efforts to promote Indigenous languages and cultures and diversity that are sources of pride for our country.
In addition, the Best Practices Forum on Official Languages, organized by the Council of the Network of Official Languages Champions, Canadian Heritage, and the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, in collaboration with the Canada School of Public Service, was held virtually again this year, allowing more than 2,000 employees to share best and innovative practices across federal institutions.
Canadian Heritage also organized a virtual armchair discussion bringing together a panel of community leaders and artists from across Canada, employees, and members of the public to celebrate the International Day of La Francophonie. Participants spoke about the artistic and cultural vitality of Francophone communities in Canada and the importance of art and culture as vehicles for inclusion.
Overall, these events and celebrations provided important visibility for official languages, and opportunities to build bridges between the public service and Canadian society.
Canadian Heritage developed tools to raise awareness and support federal institutions to build commitment and leadership for official languages in the public service.
- In collaboration with the Council of the Network of Official Languages Champions and Franco-Ontarian comedy group Improtéine, a video entitled Are you the next Section 41 leader? Was produced to foster positive measures in support of the vitality and development of communities. The video was the focus of a public service–wide awareness campaign, and the Deputy Minister of Canadian Heritage, as champion of the official languages community of the public service, brought it to the attention of all deputy heads.
- The Framework for the Promotion of Linguistic Duality in Canadian Society was made public on the Canada.ca website. It is a reference tool that defines the concept of linguistic duality by articulating issues specific to the relationship between the country’s two broad official language communities. It is applicable at several levels (cross-Canadian, regional, local), concerns all Canadians, and is intended for both individuals and organizations (public, private and non-profit). The Framework was presented to various official languages networks in the public service, as well as to community partners, including members of the Leading English Education and Resource Network in Quebec.
Section 2 ‒ Supporting the Vital Forces of Communities
The presence of vibrant communities across the country plays a significant role in shaping our cultural and social fabric and our vision for Canada. Currently, there are one million Francophones residing in provinces and territories with an Anglophone majority and a similar number of English-speaking Quebecers. This year, federal institutions made direct contributions to support these communities, often through initiatives based on the “by and for” delivery model. This approach involves communities in all aspects of decision-making and project implementation, ensuring that their priorities and interests are considered.
2.1 Giving communities a voice
In 2021-2022, the core funding provided to organizations under the Action Plan by way of the Canadian Heritage’s Official Languages Support Programs remained stable for most organizations. This followed a 20% increase for 276 organizations in 2018-2019, as well as additional targeted increases for another 139 organizations and the addition of 25 new organizations to the list of recipients in 2019-2020. That said, this year, five new organizations received recurrent core funding for the first time and 20 organizations received a permanent increase in core funding. These included:
- Ontario: The Program gave priority to organizations from racialized communities and three organizations received recurrent core funding for the first time, including the Mouvement ontarien des femmes immigrantes francophones, which aims to create favourable conditions to improve the situation of Francophone immigrant girls and women and to promote their integration and active participation in all spheres of society.
- West: Two new organizations received program funding for the first time in 2021-2022: the Coalition des femmes de l’Alberta, which works in various strategic sectors and carries out projects and activities to support Francophone women in the province, and the Association francophone des rocheuses du Sud, which offers multiple activities in French and brings together Francophones and Francophiles in Fernie and the surrounding area in British Columbia.
- Quebec: Playwrights’ Workshop in Montreal received a significant increase in annual programming funding, starting in 2021-2022, by integrating two recurring community initiatives previously funded on a project basis. This organization offers a variety of theatrical activities and experiences for the English-speaking community as well as workshops to various clienteles, including English-speaking youth in the region.
- New Brunswick: The province’s three French-language school community centers received a recurring increase in program funding. These centers serve Francophones in the Saint John, Fredericton and Miramichi regions.
- National: Three national organizations were targeted for a recurring increase to their program funding, starting in 2021-2022: the Association des groupes en arts visuels francophones, the Association des producteurs francophones du Canada, and the Front des réalisateurs indépendants du Canada.
One defining trait of many new initiatives under the Action Plan 2018-2023 is the adoption of the “by and for” approach. This approach involves communities in all decision-making and delivery processes for initiatives and projects, ensuring that their priorities and interests are always fully considered. For example, the Social Partnership Initiative in Official Language Minority Communities at Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC) pools expertise and funding from government and other sources for redistribution to innovative projects that address community priorities. It is delivered through agreements with two intermediary organizations, the Fédération des aînées et aînés francophones du Canada (FAAFC) and the Quebec Community Groups Network (QCGN). This year, FAAFC-supervised projects reached 381,474 Francophones and Francophiles across the country, provided services to 13,632 individuals in over 75 Francophone communities, and engaged 176 partners to support these projects. These projects also counted 486 direct volunteer-driven interventions, which is a measure of the support received by their community.
Under the Action Plan, ESDC is also responsible for initiatives supporting early childhood development administered through an agreement with the Réseau de développement économique et d’employabilité Canada (RDÉE Canada) to support projects aimed at encouraging the creation and expansion of early childhood service in communities. This year, funding from this initiative allowed the Fédération des parents francophones de l’Alberta to work with its partners to create 62 new family childcare spaces and five new jobs in Calgary and Edmonton. Another project enabled the Fédération des parents francophones du Manitoba to work with its partners to create four new family daycare services with 20 new spaces and 60 new pre-school spaces.
2.2 Employment and economic development
Economic vitality, development, and employment go hand-in-hand, which is why community job creation, entrepreneurship, job training, and project start-up funding programs are so critical. Cultivating new partners and other economic development initiatives are all a part of initiatives to support this vital sector.
The Enabling Fund for Official Language Minority Communities at ESDC aims to promote learning, skills development, and employment. This year, the Fund disbursed some $14.3 million through a network of 14 organizations across Canada, enabling those organizations to establish or maintain active partnerships with organizations in the public, private and not-for-profit sectors that provided services to over 77,000 individuals, businesses or organizations.
The Skills for Success program from ESDC aims to empower Canadians of all skill levels to enhance their abilities and be better equipped to secure, retain, and excel in their employment. With funding from this program, the Coalition ontarienne de Formation des Adultes expanded its Plateforme pancanadienne de formation à distance to communities in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. The Francophone eLearning platform aims to improve participants’ employability in light of local labour market demands. To date, some 163 individuals enrolled, and 4 cohorts have completed their training.
The Economic Development Initiative, renewed under the Action Plan with a budget of $30.5 million, entered its fourth year in 2021-2022. Coordinated by Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada, the regional development agencies across the country worked closely with partners to complete their projects. For example:
- Canadian Northern Economic Development (CanNor) approved $285,500 in funding over three years for the Conseil de développement économique des Territories du Nord-Ouest to develop entrepreneurship and capacity building. CanNor also approved $99,999 in funding over two years for the Association Franco-Yukonnaise (AFY) to support Yukon businesses offering French services and to update or develop their websites in French and English. In addition, CanNor approved $300,000 over two years to the AFY for a French language tourism marketing campaign so they can establish and maintain a strong market presence and develop the Yukon brand to attract more Francophone visitors.
- PacifiCan and PrairiesCan continued to fund a three-year pan-west pilot project with the Francophone Economic Development Organization to identify and support community economic development projects with direct, tangible impacts on Francophone communities which facilitate community engagement, further developing and strengthening communities in the West. In April 2021, 21 projects totaling $563,000 were approved in the areas of trade and investment, tourism, green economy, youth, immigration, and community capacity building, with a focus on economic development.
- In Southern Ontario, FedDev was able to provide business support to 168 entrepreneurs, while another 694 participated in workshops and training sessions. This year marked the conclusion of a project with la Fondation franco-ontarienne that directly helped 16 community women entrepreneurs start their business through micro-loans of up to $15,000. This helped support over 70 jobs despite the challenges posed by the pandemic.
- Also in Ontario, FedNor approved four new projects for a total investment of $276,607. This included a project by the Conseil de la Coopération de l’Ontario that furthered the development of collective entrepreneurship in Northern Ontario. It supported 52 small- or medium-sized enterprises and cooperatives and helped maintain or create 131 jobs in Northwestern Ontario, through the office it established in Thunder Bay.
- In Quebec, Canada Economic Development for Quebec Regions was also very active in the communities, with investments totaling just over $2 million. This included support to the Council for Anglophone Magdalen Islanders for the enhancement of the Musée de l’Île d’Entrée tourist offering, which highlights the English-speaking community’s heritage.
- The Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency approved 13 new projects worth a total of $1,061,517 that created several partnerships and helped leverage an additional $1,151,334. The institution provided $91,082 to the Madawaska County New Brunswick Community Business Development Corporation for its “Starting a Business” program, comprising business start-up planning and small business management training with the goal of starting at least 10 businesses in Northwestern New Brunswick.
Canadian Heritage funds two initiatives under the Youth Employment and Skills Strategy: Young Canada Works in Both Official Languages and Young Canada Works at Building Careers in English and French. Together, these two programs received $2.9 million in funding, with an additional $3.8 million in emergency funding, to help the programs and their beneficiaries respond to the unprecedented challenges posed by the pandemic. Through both of these programs, a total of 938 youth jobs were created and 153 internships took place, contributing to job creation and economic recovery among youth.
2.3 Promoting vibrant media that inform and connect communities
Media plays an increasingly vital role for all Canadians, including members of official language communities even more so in uncertain times, such as the last few years. The Community Media Strategic Support Fund, part of the Action Plan, administered by the Association de la presse francophone, supported a total of 19 community radio and newspaper projects across the country, an overall investment of $1.5 million. Among the 23 media outlets that benefited from these initiatives, the Fund supported a project to foster partnership and collaboration between four New Brunswick community radio stations (CJPN, CKMA, CHQC and CKRH) and to implement a new governance framework for these four radio stations. Additionally, nine one-year domestic internships were created in 2021-2022 in various French and English community newspapers and radio stations in minority language situations. For example, The Low Down, an English-language newspaper in rural Quebec, allowed the publisher to increase local news coverage for the English-speaking community.
“When the pandemic hit, we had to close down for several weeks – the staff at Canadian Heritage went out of their way to find a solution to help us keep our intern at the end of his contract, and that was one of the reasons we were able to re-open and return to the important job of reporting local news. The program has been a lifeline for The Low Down and local journalism.”
For its part, the Canada Periodical Fund managed at Canadian Heritage supported 23 periodicals in official language communities through its Aid to Publishers component for a total of $709,009. This included Le Gaboteur in Newfoundland, Your News in Quebec, Le Goût de vivre in Ontario, and Le Franco in Alberta.
This year, CBC and Radio-Canada launched the Community Bureau Initiative in Quebec. Through this initiative, a CBC journalist is based in each community and is dedicated to listening, learning, and sharing stories to build and sustain relationships with people in underserved, underrepresented areas, to strengthen journalism to reflect all Quebecers, and to broaden the range of topics. Three bureaus were established in Brossard, Lévis, and the Laurentians, and another bureau is planned for Park-Extension in Montreal.
2.4 Fostering cultural outreach
Arts and culture initiatives bring communities together and enhance their vitality and identity. Bill C-13 recognizes culture as one of the essential sectors for the development of communities. To support positive measures in this field and promote collaboration between federal institutions and communities, Canadian Heritage and the Fédération Culturelle canadienne-française (FCCF) coordinate the Collaboration Agreement for the Development of Arts and Culture in Francophone Minority Communities in Canada 2018-2023. Six federal institutions (Canadian Heritage, National Arts Centre, Canada Council for the Arts, National Film Board, CBC/Radio-Canada, and Telefilm Canada) have signed the agreement and participate in working groups co-chaired by federal and community representatives to advance the priorities set by the committee of signatories. In 2021-2022, the Agreement's well-established consultation mechanisms allowed for ongoing dialogues with stakeholders about emerging needs and for federal institutions to focus their stimulus efforts.
Budget 2021 announced $500 million in Recovery and Reopening Funds over two years, including $6.5 million for official language minority community organizations. This funding is intended to support organizations and help them mitigate the impacts of the pandemic. Through the Recovery Fund, 40 organizations working in the arts and culture sector within communities received additional temporary financial assistance from Canadian Heritage. The purpose of this financial assistance was to supplement the COVID-19 emergency supports already put in place by the Government to assist organizations struggling to ensure their operational viability. Two major projects were supported by the Recovery Fund:
- $375,000 went to the Association de la Presse francophone to strengthen the core capacity of 25 community media outlets.
- $415,755 went to the English Language Arts Network for the development of an independent community-based digital arts centre that will help artists and arts organizations produce high-quality content for artistic expression and promotion.
Arts and culture
To increase the number of local and regional cultural activities in communities and schools, the Action Plan provided $11 million over five years, doubling Canadian Heritage’s Community Cultural Action Fund. The new funding provided over $3 million this year in the form of micro-grants to cultural and community organizations involved in the PassePART program (delivered by the Fédération culturelle canadienne-française) and the ArtistsInspire Grants program (delivered by the English Language Arts Network), which supported activities in 706 Francophone schools outside Quebec (105,000 students reached) and 213 English-speaking schools in Quebec (25,000 students reached). Here are just a few examples:
- More than 5,000 students from 45 Francophone schools participated in one of the many French-language art workshops given by the Artshine mobile art school. The workshops focused on introducing students to different techniques and art forms, as well as highlighting Francophone artistic heritage.
- Students in grades 7 to 9 at the Centre scolaire secondaire communautaire Paul-Émile-Mercier created several magnificent hanging sculptures under the supervision of Franco-Yukonais artist Michel Gignac and Lumel Studios. A master in the art of repurposing recycled materials and creating exploded works with wood or glass, Mr. Gignac had structured the project in several stages. The hanging sculpture project took place over several months and brought together some twenty students.
This year, the Canada Council for the Arts disbursed a total of $552,585 under the Market Access Strategy Fund to support 22 projects. These initiatives reached artists and organizations in 12 communities across Canada. The fund supported a wide range of activities, including participation in showcase events, networking meetings, promotional materials, translations, marketing strategies, and performances. Overall, this year, the Council provided $41.1 million in financial support through regular programs and strategic funding to community artists, groups, and organizations. This represents a 25.9% increase in funding to communities from the previous year.
This year, Canadian Heritage’s Canada Media Fund invested $17 million in the production of French-language programs outside Quebec. The program supported 29 productions and 10 development projects. In addition, $14.9 million went to the production of English-language programs in Quebec, supporting 16 projects. As part of the Collaboration Agreement for the Development of Arts and Culture in Francophone Minority Communities in Canada 2018-2023, the Canada Media Fund also actively participates in the Media Arts Working Group, which is a mechanism for consultation and collaboration between the Francophone community and federal institutions on the measures to be put in place to foster the vitality of the artistic and cultural sector of the Canadian Francophonie.
For its part, the National Film Board of Canada completed 13 works by artists from official language communities across Canada, notably several films by Indigenous women:
- Alanis Obomsawin’s short documentary, Honour to Senator Murray Sinclair, showcases the Senator’s role in raising awareness about the atrocities committed against Indigenous children in Canada’s residential school system. The film was premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival, where Obomsawin received the Jeff Skoll Award in Impact Media for her leadership in social impact cinema.
- Mary Two-Axe Earley: I Am Indian Again, directed by Courtney Montour, shares the story of Mary Two-Axe Earley, a key figure in Canada’s human rights movement. The film was an official selection at several festivals and received awards for best documentary at the American Indian Film Festival and the ImagineNATIVE Film + Media Arts Festival.
- Meneath: The Hidden Island of Ethics, directed by Terril Calder, is an animated short about a lively Métis baby girl who is convinced she is destined for Hell. The film was first shown at the Toronto International Film Festival and later premiered at the Berlin International Film Festival.
Telefilm Canada supported once again this year the Course des régions, a short film competition for Francophone youth aged 18 to 35 from across Canada. Three participants from the communities took part in this mentoring and personalized coaching experience, and distinguished themselves: Michael Fenwick, from Newfoundland and Labrador, was a finalist for the audience award, Sophie Dumesny, from Ontario, received the Franco-Canadian award and Valérie Lecomte, also from Ontario, was a finalist for an award. The winners’ films will be broadcast on UnisTV.
TV5, which is partially funded by Canadian Heritage, contributes to Canada’s international outreach by offering French-Canadian artists, artisans, and producers a prime showcase abroad. In 2021–2022, 159 French-Canadian productions were broadcast on TV5MONDE, made available in 200 countries and territories around the world. Many of these programs were produced or co-produced outside Quebec. TV5MONDEplus, the broadcaster’s web platform, launched in 2020 thanks to the Government of Canada’s investment of $14.6 million over five years, was announced in 2018. This free, globally accessible video-on-demand platform is dedicated to the discoverability of French-language content in the digital space. It features more than 6,620 hours, including 1,990 hours from Canada, representing approximately 30% of the platform’s total programming. Several Canadian programs have been in the top 10 in terms of viewership since the launch.
On behalf of Canadian Heritage, the Canada Council for the Arts administers the National Translation Program for Book Publishing. The program invested $800,000 this year to help Canadian publishers translate works by Canadian authors into the other official language. This year, the program facilitated the translation of 70 titles. Of these translations, 38 involved first-time business collaborations between the original publisher of the title and the publisher that translated it.
Each year, the Musical Showcases program, managed by Canadian Heritage, allows community artists to showcase their talent to industry professionals and audiences they would not otherwise have access to. While there were several attempts to reopen cultural venues in 2021-2022, the pandemic continued to have significant impacts on live music showcases, particularly at large scale musical events and those at the international level. As a result, the relaunch of Musical Showcases happened via two delivery modes, both virtual and live. The planned funding of $1.1 million remained available to record live shows in order to broadcast them on multiple digital platforms and reach a large audience both in Canada and abroad. In the year, more than 150 artists from the communities performed in more than 379 musical showcases, presented mainly in virtual mode because of the pandemic, at regional, national, and international events.
2.5 Increasing Francophone immigration
Immigration catalyzes the growth and development of official language communities throughout Canada. By encouraging French-speaking immigrants to settle in Francophone communities, immigrants and communities alike have unique opportunities to thrive and it contributes to the survival of the French language in these regions.
“As part of our efforts to restore the demographic weight of Francophone communities outside Quebec, we introduced an ambitious modernization plan to build upon the Francophone Immigration Strategy and create a legislated obligation to adopt a Francophone immigration policy containing objectives, targets and indicators, ensuring strong and prosperous Francophone communities for generations to come.”
During the year, the IRCC made efforts to engage and support French-speaking communities and organizations through various initiatives. Bilateral meetings were held with the Fédération des communautés francophones et acadienne du Canada (FCFA) and annual forums with Réseaux en immigration francophone (RIF) to share best practices and enhance their capacities. IRCC regional offices actively engaged with funded service providers and other stakeholders to remain informed on the priorities, needs, and issues important to the French-speaking communities in each region. During the year, the Comité consultatif national en établissement francophone (CCNEF) held interactive workshops to facilitate discussions about issues in the Francophone immigration sector and strategies to improve Francophone settlement programming and policies.
Recruitment abroad and stakeholder engagement
As part of the Immigration to Official Language Minority Communities initiative, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) performs outreach abroad and within Canada. The Department organized 277 events to promote Francophone immigration, including the Destination Canada Mobility Forum, the largest promotional activity held virtually again this year with record attendance: 8,495 people were selected to participate live, while another 37,000 viewed the Forum recordings. A total of 4,000 job offers were shared. In February 2022, IRCC organized the first-ever Early Childhood and Education Job Fair which highlighted employment opportunities in community school boards, daycares, and language schools across Canada. The fair was a success: 6,700 people were invited to participate in the live events, and no less than 85 job offers were shared.
This year, IRCC also took steps to promote French-language studies in Canadian Francophone colleges and universities outside Quebec via a pilot event, in partnership with the Association des collèges et universités de la francophonie Canadienne. The pilot held in Senegal in November 2021 was a remarkable success and was subsequently replicated in other countries. A total of six events were organized, reaching nearly 250 potential students.
Within Canada, the IRCC continued to make domestic employers and other stakeholders more aware of departmental policies and initiatives designed to facilitate Francophone immigration to Canadian provinces outside of Quebec, including participation in the Tournée de liaison and the Destination Canada recruitment support events among domestic employers. Francophone immigration to communities was promoted as one component of:
- some 300 outreach activities for employers as well as sectorial employers and other economic stakeholders;
- six activities for Francophone community organizations outside Quebec;
- 200 presentations for international students in designated learning institutions; and
- 10 activities for community stakeholders participating in the Rural and Northern Immigration Pilot.
Welcoming and integrating newcomers
IRCC continued to implement and consolidate the Francophone Integration Pathway, as part of the Action Plan, through capacity building in the francophone settlement sector, the Welcoming Francophone Communities (WFCs) initiative and adapted language training for French-speaking newcomers settling in Francophone communities.
This year IRCC funded national organizations to strengthen the capacities of Francophone communities as they continued to provide access to training and tools and promote information sharing and best practices in French among Francophone service providers and settlement workers. In the health and justice sectors, as well as in national advocacy organizations representing Francophone parents, seniors, and women, various projects were implemented to better understand newcomers’ needs and promote cross-sector collaboration.
IRCC and the communities generated multiple learning and information sharing opportunities to support resettlement, including a webinar linking the housing crisis and the arrival of Afghan refugees hosted by the FCFA and strategic dialogues on refugee resettlement hosted by the CCNEF. The 15e Symposium sur l’immigration francophone was held in March 2022, where the IRCC Afghanistan Settlement Branch made a presentation on Francophone immigration and refugee resettlement in the communities. These efforts aimed at connecting the mainstream sectors to the Settlement Sector and fostering cross-sector collaboration in Francophone communities.
The WFCs initiative was launched by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada to help French-speaking and bilingual newcomers settle into 14 participating communities. The initiative follows a community-centred approach, involving WFCs in all stages of the project’s development. Due to the pandemic, the WFC initiative has been extended for one year, until March 31, 2024, to allow recipients more time to implement their community action plans and provide additional funding for COVID-19 vaccination efforts. A mid-term study conducted by PRA Inc. showed that the community-based approach has led to a large-scale community mobilization, greater diversity of leaders, and a foundation for real action to welcome and integrate newcomers. The sharing of best practices between WFCs has also had a positive cross-pollination effect. Some highlights from this year:
- New Brunswick’s Haut-Saint-Jean region: 100 volunteers mobilized to welcome 13 Togolese families.
- Clare, Nova Scotia: a new public space to promote exchanges between newcomers and long-time residents was developed.
- Hamilton, Ontario: continued to develop their Incubator Hub to provide an opportunity for French-speaking newcomers to learn about entrepreneurship and develop skills to support future employment.
- The Atlantic Region Association of Immigrant Serving Agencies and the Atlantic Committee on Francophone Immigration organized a bilingual meeting highlighting the importance of the Francophone integration process. Similar events were also held in British Columbia and Saskatchewan.
- The Affiliation of Multicultural Societies and Service Agencies of British Columbia received funding for a new “Francophone Integration Pathway” project which provided information and resources to assist French-speaking newcomers to find existing services in French.
IRCC also supports French-speaking newcomers settling in Francophone communities through funding for language training services. In 2021-2022, seven francophone organizations in Francophone communities received funding to provide language training services to French-speaking newcomers. Six organizations provide direct services, while one provides indirect support through educational workshops and resources. IRCC’s Francophone Integration Pathway also supported the development of standardized French as a Second Language (FSL) teacher training and professional development for FSL teachers. Despite the closure of in-person services due to the pandemic, 515 clients received language training services through online services, meeting the target of 500 clients. The pandemic has not impacted clients’ attendance and participation in language training.
Section 3 – Strengthening Access to Services
Improving access to services in the minority language requires cooperation between federal, provincial, and territorial governments in these key areas. The Ministers’ Council on the Canadian Francophonie (MCCF) is the only intergovernmental forum dedicated to issues affecting the Canadian Francophonie. It brings together federal, provincial, and territorial Ministers responsible for French-language services, the Francophonie, or official languages within their governments. Under the co-chairmanship of the Minister of Official Languages and Minister responsible for the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency, the MCCF’s member Ministers meet annually to discuss various issues and maintain a dialogue that fosters the development of public policies that strengthen official languages in Canada. At the 2021 meeting hosted in Quebec City, the provincial and territorial Ministers called on the federal government to increase intergovernmental cooperation on French language services to ensure their sustainability, continuity and growth.
Access to services in the official minority language is essential to the vitality of communities and the pandemic has generated additional pressures and emerging needs. Additional funding was announced in Budget 2021 to increase federal, provincial, and territorial collaboration in order to better support French immersion and French as a Second Language programs in schools and quality post-secondary education in the minority language.
3.1 Support for minority language education
A community that learns together can better grow together over generations—an area where support for minority language learning plays a significant role. From early childhood to post-secondary education, to continuing education, Canada continues to invest in the social and economic development of communities with pertinent, positive, and responsive agreements for education in the communities.
Canadian Heritage funded this year’s États généraux sur le postsecondaire en contexte francophone minoritaire. Organized in 2021-2022 by the Association des collèges et universités de la francophonie canadienne in partnership with the Fédération des communautés francophones et acadienne du Canada, the purpose of the États généraux was to take stock of the current situation and to find coherent, systematic, and sustainable solutions to ensure the continuity of the post-secondary sector. The process generated a great deal of interest in Francophone communities and educational institutions: nearly 1,400 people participated in the États généraux, including 70 experts from across the country. The final report (PDF format) (available in French only) released October 2022, contains 32 recommendations, 21 of which concern the Government of Canada. Canadian Heritage intends to carefully analyze the recommendations and discuss them with its provincial and territorial counterparts.
To help decision-makers, Statistics Canada is fully committed to applying its expertise to meet the needs expressed by community organizations to enumerate children eligible for instruction in the minority official language under section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. To accomplish this, the 2021 Census questionnaire contained a brand-new block of questions to help estimate the number of these eligible children at five geographic levels. Discussions with community organizations, provincial and territorial representatives of Francophone school boards outside Quebec and Anglophone representatives in Quebec informed the development of a strategy to disseminate this new data so that the products are aligned with the needs of the educational infrastructure and teaching services.
In 2021, the Government announced $121.3 million over three years to support post-secondary minority language Education. These funds will support projects that will boost institutional capacity to provide high-quality post-secondary minority language education, maintain access to available programs, promote collaboration among institutions, and address urgent needs to help stabilize the post-secondary minority language sector.
Canadian provinces and territories help strengthen communities in various ways, including by providing minority language students with high-quality instruction or training in their first official language. Provinces and territories can take advantage of support from the Government of Canada to pursue their minority language education objectives.
Canadian Heritage provided $244.9 million through the Minority Language Education component of the Development of Official Language Communities Program and most of these funds ($205 million) were made available to provinces and territories through bilateral agreements negotiated under the Protocol for Agreements for Minority Language Education and Second Language Instruction 2019–2020 to 2022–2023.
The Protocol contains the guiding principles for intergovernmental cooperation in minority language education and second language instruction, including the importance of transparency and accountability to taxpayers, collaboration and consultation with key stakeholders, recognition of the education continuum, and respect for the provinces’ and territories’ exclusive jurisdiction in education.
These agreements help ensure that more than 255,000 students benefit from quality education in community school boards. The agreements also support program development at colleges and universities that serve minority communities across Canada. Canadian Heritage also supports one-time projects of importance in developing minority language education. For example, in 2021-2022:
- A project with the Government of New Brunswick ($18.5 million over three years) to allow the Université de Moncton to maintain and expand its 56 priority programs, and online and mediated course offerings. The project will also support the mediatization of learning tools, the updating of teaching materials, the acquisition of materials and equipment necessary to deliver courses, and ongoing faculty training in new and innovative pedagogical methods. Directly benefiting Francophone students, this project will provide new $2,000 scholarships for over 1,000 students over three years, in addition to supporting promotional efforts to recruit students from New Brunswick, the Atlantic region and elsewhere in Canada.
- A project with the Government of Alberta ($10.3 million) will enable the University of Alberta’s Campus Saint-Jean (CSJ) to hire new staff to support its administrative, educational, and operational activities as well as invest in greater physical and technological equipment for its shared spaces. These courses and services will equip the CSJ to better support the needs of the Alberta Francophone and Francophile students and communities, making quality post-secondary education in French more accessible.
- A project with the Government of Ontario ($10 million) will allow the Collège La Cité to undertake a digital transformation process of applied learning and business intelligence to implement tools for student registration, tracking, assessment, and certification based on the accumulation of learning units in popular microprograms. The Collège La Cité, in collaboration with the Université de l'Ontario français and the Groupe Média TFO, will also design a flexible online program of three cumulative micro-certifications in digital citizenship.
This year, programs funded by the Action Plan also improved school infrastructure, made schools more open to their community, and showed students that they can make a difference in their community:
- Thanks to the Investing in Canada Plan, the Support for Community Educational Infrastructure initiative made it possible to roll out three new projects in five communities across the country. For instance, Canadian Heritage contributed $829,000 to support the creation of the Province of Ontario’s Rivière-des-Français/French River Youth, Economic and Community Development Centre. The funding enabled the renovation of the greenhouse, the renovation and refurbishment of the cafeteria, and the development of the trades and technology workshops. These spaces are accessible outside school hours and enabled Francophone organizations and institutions in the region to offer community and cultural services to residents, as well as event hosting such as performances and large community celebrations.
- Also in Ontario, Canadian Heritage funding ($1,175,586) made possible an addition to the Rideau River Public Elementary and Secondary School gymnasium and multi-purpose room. The gymnasium was equipped with a stage, so it can also serve as an auditorium for events, presentations, and performances, while the multi-purpose room can be used as a community health and wellness centre. The addition of these spaces will provide the student community of Rideau River School and the Francophone community of Kemptville with a safe and secure sports complex as well as a Francophone community and cultural gathering place.
- The Support for Community Spaces (Infrastructure) initiative supported 22 new projects. This included an amount of $1,935,000 for the renovation and upgrade of the chemistry laboratories at the Université de Saint-Boniface in Manitoba. This two-year project will renovate and upgrade two teaching laboratories, the research and instrumentation laboratory, and the storage and preparation rooms in the Experimental Sciences Department at the university. The institution will also renew the furniture in these spaces as well as a range of specialized equipment essential to teaching and research.
- This Action Plan initiative also supported the creation of a Carrefour d’excellence pour l’enseignement et l’apprentissage en français at the University of Ottawa ($3,259,360). Open to communities in Ontario and across Canada, it will be developed as a space for creation, collaboration, and training to respond to the need for modern, relevant, engaging, and high-quality education, specifically adapted to French-language learners in a linguistic minority setting. It will include classrooms and collaborative spaces that will be used by Francophone and Francophile immersion students, teachers, researchers, and professionals.
“For generations, French-speakers from all regions of Canada have attended top-quality Francophone post-secondary institutions, and we are more committed than ever to protecting them. As a proud Acadian, I know just how important the Université de Saint-Boniface is to the vitality of the Franco-Manitoban community, and we will continue to protect those institutions that are crucial to the strength of official language minority communities from coast to coast to coast.”
Teachers play a pivotal role in minority language education. As part of Action Plan’s Recruitment of Teachers for Minority Community Schools strategy, Canadian Heritage supported 25 projects, for a total investment of approximately $9.2 million. This includes the second year of a project with the Government of Ontario, to create a mentoring program for associate teachers and teacher candidates in the province’s French language school boards. Approved funding of $1.8 million for this project will facilitate the successful integration and increased participation of these groups by providing them with ongoing support tailored to their specific needs. The funding will be allocated among Ontario’s 12 French-language school boards based on the average number of teacher candidates accepted into each board over the preceding two years.
Canadian Heritage also funded projects programming from organizations in the non-governmental sector in support of minority language education. Thanks to funding from the Cooperation with the Non-Governmental Sector in Support of Minority Language Organizations initiative ($1.8 million), four programs and 10 projects received funding this year including:
- The Association canadienne d’éducation de langue française received $17,000 to produce a booklet that highlighted Francophone youth associations’ essential contribution to promoting and creating spaces for living and engaging in French, rooted in the contemporary concerns and aspirations of young Francophones in minority settings. The booklet was distributed across Canada to promote awareness among school staff about the contribution of youth associations to community successes, in addition to facilitating the implementation or consolidation of partnerships between youth organizations and Francophone schools and school boards.
- The Réseau des cégeps et des collèges francophones du Canada received of $60,000 for improving the transition to post-secondary education in French. In conjunction with a University of Ottawa Faculty of Education researcher and professor, the project aims to conduct cross-Canada consultations with Francophone Grade 12, college, and university students enrolled in Francophone post-secondary institutions, and education stakeholders in the communities, in order to better understand why students decide to pursue post-secondary education in French or opt for English post-secondary studies. A key expected result from this project is an attraction and retention strategy to equip Francophone post-secondary institutions in minority settings to better reach and meet the needs of nearly 15,000 Francophone students.
3.2 Agreements with the provinces and territories on minority language services
For community members, obtaining services in their language is of utmost importance. The provinces and territories are front-line players when it comes to providing the services essential to the vitality of official language communities across Canada and they can rely on the cooperation of the federal government.
Although discussions with Quebec did not lead to an agreement, 12 bilateral agreements between the federal government and the provinces and territories did result in more availability of minority language services across the country. Under the Intergovernmental Cooperation on Minority Language Services (federal/provincial and territorial agreements), $14.5 million was allocated in 2021–2022 to various provincial and territorial initiatives. As a result of the increased funding for the program under the Action Plan, over $10.4 million in additional funding went to support initiatives in Canada’s three territories this year.
- In British Columbia, four projects received $38,000 to support French language transmission, and $30,000 for a new parent kit and drop-in activities in French. As an example of a project, the City of Richmond delivered a weekly seasonal program for preschoolers. The province also received $92,000 to translate its Youth Criminal Justice Act guide and accompanying public materials.
- In Manitoba, $275,000 in funding enabled 5,983 Francophones to benefit from ongoing access to French language resources and services, including educational resources. Further, $82,500 was spent to support the province’s efforts to develop and deliver French language services to the public. For example, through the Société de la francophonie manitobaine’s 233-ALLÔ information service, there were 2,386 requests for information about provincial French language services.
- The Nova Scotia Department of Active Transportation received $50,000 to provide bilingual public signage on provincial highways in the municipalities of Clare and Argyle, among other regions. This project will increase French language visibility and promote the linguistic and cultural identity of the province’s Acadian and Francophone regions.
3.3 Improving access to justice
Access to justice in the language of one’s choice is important to Canadians, and the federal government has consistently worked to close gaps faced by communities navigating the justice system, by investing in and working with provincial and territorial counterparts, not-for-profit organizations and educational institutions to improve access to justice. Funds enable professional training and development, access to accurate, reliable, and easy-to-find legal information in the official language of choice and help improve second language skills for a wide range of legal professions to expand the array of legal services and procedures offered in both official languages.
- The Department of Justice continued to improve the financial stability and operational capacity of the 12 organizations (11 provincial/territorial organizations and one national organization) that are receiving core funding under the Action Plan for a total of $940,000. Through this funding, multiple notable accomplishments were seen this year: for example, the Association des juristes d’expression française adapted their free legal information services to online delivery to adapt to the pandemic, and the Fédération des associations de juristes d’expression française de common law expanded their network to organizations outside its traditional reach.
- The Access to Justice in Both Official Languages Support Fund administered by the Department of Justice disbursed a total of $7.9 million to 59 projects, including 32 awareness-raising projects and public legal information activities:
- two Family Justice training projects
- three judgment translation projects
- three curriculum development projects
- four linguistic tool development projects
- 15 justice professionals training projects.
Especially worth noting is the realization of six projects supporting public legal information that were specifically designed to support racialized members of official language minority communities. Through these six projects, approximately 800 individuals, the majority of whom were women, benefited from a series of free legal information services.
The Public Prosecution Service of Canada (PPSC) participates as counsel in the management and activities of associations of French-speaking jurists, which includes lawyers, judges, legal translators, interpreters, court administrators, officials, law professors, students, and more. Prosecutors from the PPSC’s regional offices and headquarters assist these associations by participating in training and outreach activities and working to provide tools that they can offer to community legal professionals, such as JURISOURCE.CA. The PPSC works to promote the active offer of services in French in the field of justice, in addition to promoting language rights, supporting equal access to justice in French, equipping justice professionals, and informing litigants and the general public.
The Court Challenges Program funded by Canadian Heritage and administered independently by the University of Ottawa awarded a total of $807,000 for 13 funded applications. By providing much needed financial support to cases of national importance aimed at clarifying and affirming official language and human rights in Canada, the program assists Francophone communities outside Quebec and the English-speaking community of Quebec by providing recourse to help them assert their rights. Among the causes it supported this year was litigation that targeted the constitutionality of a provincial government’s English-only COVID-19 health briefings and press conferences.
3.4 Access to health care and social services in the minority official language
Access to health care and social services in minority official languages across Canada is critical to the practical well-being of community members and ensures everyone’s dignity in the face of health or social uncertainty. Health care professionals of all kinds—from doctors and nurses to physiotherapists and rehabilitation experts—addressing patients in their official language of choice ensures that accurate information is shared with all. Language plays a key role in maintaining and restoring the health of Canadians. When clients are able to communicate in their first official language, it becomes more convenient for them to seek assistance, describe their experiences and medical conditions, convey their requirements and preferences, and ultimately, manage their own healthcare.
To achieve its goals, Health Canada relies on health networks. Each network funded by Health Canada unites a region’s community to mobilize health care institutions, facilities, and service providers to improve health conditions in the communities. A total of 39 Community Health Networks across Canada collaborated with various health sector stakeholders to provide support, resources, and tools to inform the planning, development, and implementation of initiatives.
This year, Société Santé en français (SSF) and Community Health and Social Services Network (CHSSN) received funding to support networking initiatives that mobilize the capacities of the health system and partners, including provincial and territorial governments to improve access to health services for communities in their official language of choice.
For Francophones living outside Quebec, there are 16 SSF networks. Here are examples of initiatives led by two of them:
- Newfoundland and Labrador: SSF worked to adapt the “Health Connect” platform to services for the Francophone and Acadian communities, enabling users to register in French and see their file, including medications and appointments.
- Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick: An agreement between the Centre de formation médicale du Nouveau-Brunswick and the Prince Edward Island health authority stakeholders welcomed a medical student for PEI as part of the centre.
For the English-speaking community of Quebec, the CHSSN’s 23 networks and 10 satellites:
- worked in collaboration with the Quebec Association for Suicide Prevention (QASP) to adapt the suicide.ca website, posters, and information, and create a new interactive bilingual suicide prevention texting service available 24/7 on suicide.ca
- supported the adaptation of the Sentinel Suicide Prevention Training material for English-speaking farmers in Quebec, and a collaboration between the QASP and the Quebec Farmers’ Association.
Training and retention
Health Canada supported five new academic institutions through the Enhancement of the Official Languages Health Program – Training and Retention of Health Human Resources. These institutions offer training opportunities in remote or underserved regions:
- Collège Éducacentre de la Colombie-Britannique (British Columbia)
- York University’s Glendon Campus (Ontario)
- Hearst University (Ontario)
- Collège Mathieu (Saskatchewan)
- La Cité universitaire francophone at the University of Regina (Saskatchewan).
Health Canada also continued to support the Association des collèges et universités de la francophonie canadienne ‒ Consortium national de formation en santé (ACUFC-CNFS) and McGill University to provide focused training and retention initiatives to increase bilingual health professionals and improve access to services in communities. Some results include:
- 16 member institutions of the ACUFC-CNFS recorded 838 additional graduates from 104 health training programs (French communities).
- 95% of graduate health professionals surveyed were employed in communities.
- over 1,798 health and social service professionals have completed English training courses, with a 93% completion rate, through the Dialogue McGill initiative (English communities).
- 78 scholarship applications for the Recruitment and Retention Program for Health and Social Services Professionals (McGill University) were received, and 66 candidates received the allocated internship support scholarships, which included the stipulation of returning to or staying in a region of Quebec for a minimum of one year (English communities).
Health Canada continued to encourage innovative projects that improve access to health services for the communities through another component of its Official Languages Health Program (OLHP), supported by an additional $4 million over five years under the Action Plan. The Enhancement of the Official Languages Health Program, Innovative Projects to Improve Access to Health Services in Official Language Minority Communities ($1,000,000) supported notable initiatives including:
- Newfoundland and Labrador: In September 2021, a “Warm Line” French-language peer support service was launched, enabling the province’s Francophone community to access peer support.
- Saskatchewan Health Authority (SHA): In partnership with Tel-Aide Outaouais, SHA continued offering empathetic listening and assistance phone services to the Fransaskois community, ensuring this communities’ access to French psychological support services. Also in Saskatchewan, the Francophone Wellness Network of Northern Ontario and the SHA signed an agreement to adapt and provide the active offer of health-service training in French, for a variety of key health sectors.
- Quebec: The Montérégie Integrated Health and Social Services Center produced videos, pamphlets, and a microsite to ensure that English-speaking seniors and their loved ones can identify age-related health issues and environmental risks; these tools have been translated into both official languages and 10 other additional languages.
Health Canada’s Atlantic Regional office established a “Service Loan and Language Internship” program that places a federal employee with an organization on a part-time basis, at no cost to the organization. The employee benefits from immersion in the practice and context of their second official language while contributing to the organization’s capacity, thereby strengthening relationships between the department and the community.
Health Canada also launched a call for micro-grants for community access to health services; a total of 15 proposals met eligibility criteria and applicants received $1,000 each. Initiatives improved health service access and the specific needs and priorities of patients:
- Nova Scotia: The “Bienvenue et santé!” initiative collected contact information for French-speaking health care workers and developed an additional web page and brochures to circulate; community members can confidently request services in French.
- Ontario: The Association de Navigateurs Francophones de l’Ontario offered mental health workshops to provide recent Francophone immigrants in the Toronto area with the necessary tools to better manage the emotional impact of the pandemic.
- Quebec: Seniors Respite Montérégie offered CPR workshops for caregivers, essential training for the care of seniors with dementia who live in the community.
Early childhood health
Despite the pandemic, the SSF and the CHSSN were both able to ensure the success of the Healthy Early Years program funded by the Public Health Agency of Canada under the Action Plan. In 2021–2022, they funded a total of 54 projects, implemented by third parties, all aimed at improving access to early childhood health promotion programs for vulnerable families in the communities. A total of 6,408 parents and 4,228 children ages zero to six benefited from one of these initiatives.
Section 4 – Promotion of Official Languages
Canada’s official languages are a cornerstone to Canadian identity, harmony, and economic opportunity. Our two official languages complement efforts to promote Indigenous languages and cultures and to recognize Canadian diversity. Official languages enable cohesion, communication, and the full participation of all Canadians in society. From ensuring there are ample opportunities for all Canadians of all ages to learn our official languages in school, in their communities, or online in their spare time, to supporting projects that bring Canada’s official languages to life through culture and heritage, everyone can benefit from the wealth that speaking our official languages brings. In terms of support from the Government of Canada, initiatives fall broadly into two categories: supporting language learning and rapprochement between linguistic communities.
4.1 Support for second-language learning
The Action Plan set aside a total of $448 million over five years for the federal/provincial/territorial agreements administered by Canadian Heritage that encourage Canadians to learn their second official language. In addition, Budget 2021 provided an extra $165 million over three years to supplement these agreements, including $40 million in 2021-2022 to enhance French immersion and French as a second language programs in schools and post-secondary institutions.
In 2021-2022, 53.7% of students were enrolled in second language programs in the majority system. In 2020-2021, the most recent year for which data is available, 482,772 students were enrolled in French immersion outside Quebec. This number of enrollments represents an increase of 70.7% since 2003-2004, the year of the first Action Plan for Official Languages. To help increase the bilingualism rate among young Canadians, just over $92.7 million was allocated this year to a wide range of initiatives in each of the 13 provincial and territorial jurisdictions. Projects that were launched this year included:
- The Government of Prince Edward Island used additional funding ($1,105,348 for the period 2021-2023) to provide more staff to rural schools to maintain or increase access to French immersion programs, and to develop programs and provide materials to increase student engagement in French programs in Grades 7 to 12.
- The Government of Manitoba undertook a series of initiatives to renew its French Immersion Program policy, and additional funding ($6,252,218 for the period 2021-2023) also allowed for virtual interactive French workshops for students in all regions of Manitoba, developing their French skills and contributing to multilingual identity and appreciation of Francophone cultures.
- The Government of the Northwest Territories used additional funding ($943,017 for 2021-2023) to increase the number of schools offering core French programs, increase the number of students enrolled in core French, and increase the number of grade levels and students enrolled in French immersion.
In this same area, Canadian Heritage also supports the work of non-governmental organizations through Cooperation with the Non-Governmental Sector (second language organizations) under the Action Plan. One notable example of a funded project was ÉPELLE-MOI CANADA – Le Français dans un environnement immersif (3D) ! Through this project, approximately 200 young people from Ontario, British Columbia, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick aged 6 to 16 bolstered their French skills via an immersive, educational, 3D environment. Groups participated in a one-hour workshop per week over a 28-week period, with activity themes determined by participants in the areas of francization, socialization, leadership, entrepreneurship, information and technology, tutoring, sports, and well-being.
The investments in the Action Plan also allowed Canadian Heritage to roll out a Teacher Recruitment Strategy in French Immersion and French as a Second Language Programs. In 2021-2022, 14 projects took place, including six provincial government projects and three community organization projects for the recruitment or retention of teachers in French as a second language and immersion schools, for a total investment of approximately $7.7 million. The following are four project examples:
- In Quebec, $466,000 will go to establish a talent acquisition Center of Excellence to support Quebec’s English-language school boards to improve recruitment efforts for French as a second language and immersion teachers, and to decrease the turnover rate of current and future teachers through recruitment campaigns.
- In Newfoundland and Labrador, a project worth $36,000 was funded at Memorial University’s Department of Modern Languages, Literatures, and Cultures to improve French-language instructional content and hire new instructors to deliver various program modules for future French teachers preparing for admission exams to Memorial University’s Faculty of Education.
- The Canadian Association of Immersion Professionals received $198,000 to offer a two-year coaching program for new French immersion teachers, particularly young teachers teaching in rural areas. The program accompanies new teachers professionally and personally, to facilitate their community integration, and provide customized coaching.
- The Canadian Association of Second-language Teachers received $173,000 for a two-year project that supported French teachers and administrators teaching in a blended environment, via resources and professional development. Tools included a teaching guide with practical short- and long-term strategies to help FSL teachers using mixed delivery models, and 20 workshops for professional development. In year two, eight short videos were created and disseminated through social media to share effective teacher practices. These activities will benefit all the Association’s members whereas the online portion of this project will reach up to 8,000 Canadians.
The Official Language Monitors (Odyssey) program, strengthened with additional funding from the Action Plan, also supported official languages in the classroom, and is complementary to the Action Plan’s Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategy. Due to increased demand from school boards for language monitor support, the Council of Ministers of Education Canada Secretariat and Canadian Heritage worked to increase the number of language monitors to 400 this year. The program received $1,206,278 in additional funding in 2021-2022 to increase the number of language assistants. The Action Plan also included an annual $3.5 million top-up for the Odyssey program, for a grand total of $53 million over five years, to enable more students to improve their second official language and encourage young Canadians to become teachers in English or French by increasing the salary of language assistants from $18,500 to $25,000. Notably, 87.6% of participants indicated they were as interested or more interested in pursuing a career in education in the future as a result of their Odyssey experience.
Created by the Action Plan, the French Second Language Post-Secondary Scholarships program is a $3 million-per-year initiative administered by the Association des collèges et universités de la francophonie canadienne. This year, 850 young people who were enrolled in their first year of a college or university program received non-renewable bursaries of $3,000 each, which allowed them to improve their bilingualism while studying in their field of interest.
Second language learning initiatives are critical for the development and maintenance of the communities, and numerous initiatives, programs, and tools are available to Canadians of all ages and educational levels. One such tool is Mauril, the mobile application for learning French and English as a second language developed by CBC/Radio-Canada and funded through the Action Plan. In June 2022, Mauril crossed the symbolic milestone of 100,000 downloads in Canada with 61% of users learning French and 39% learning English. Mauril features over 300 learning units per language, divided into eight levels from beginner to advanced, uses 100% Canadian content, and features underrepresented groups in learning units. Mauril also had a unique collaboration with PhD student Adéla Sebková, studying Canada’s Francophone linguistic diversity.
“I have learned that you can speak French, or rather one of the ‘Frenches,’ no matter what situation you are in or who you are talking to. I have also learned that language is difficult to separate from its speakers, because it is part of their identity…”
Figure 7: Increase in the Number of Enrolments in French Immersion Programs Offered Outside Quebec Since 2003 – text version
|Year||Number of Enrolments in French Immersion Programs Offered Outside Quebec|
|70.7% increase since 2003-2004|
4.2 Fostering gathering and connection
This year again, events and programs that promote gathering and connection between English-speaking and French-speaking Canadians had to adjust their activities because of the pandemic and health restrictions that continue to limit face-to-face meetings. This was notably the case for the Explorec and Destination Clic youth programs, funded by Canadian Heritage and managed by the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC), whose spring and summer in-person sessions had to be cancelled. The Action Plan, which set aside a total of $84.5 million for the two initiatives, also included an annual $4.2 million top-up for the Explore program for a grand total of $105.5 million over the five-year period, increasing the number of youth recipients to 7,045 per year and increasing the amount of each award to better reflect actual program costs. The CMEC Secretariat and Canadian Heritage worked diligently to negotiate the delivery of programs in a virtual format for the first time ever in 2021. While this was considered a success by stakeholders and allowed young Canadians to participate in language learning programs again, only 30% of the available funded placements were filled for 2021-2022. The unspent dollars were redirected to other Action Plan initiatives for the benefit of communities.
Similar efforts were undertaken by the Exchanges Canada Program, also managed by Canadian Heritage, to mitigate the impacts of the pandemic. Throughout the pandemic, the program has worked closely with funding recipients, including Experiences Canada, to determine alternative formats for planned activities. Temporary changes were made to the program’s terms and conditions so that the partner organizations it funds could adapt their programming by holding activities virtually, limiting them to a single province or territory, or reducing their duration. Despite these constraints, Experiences Canada was able to offer bilingual exchanges to 2,945 youths aged 12 to 17, many of which gave the youth a chance to practice and improve their second official language while connecting with other young people from various parts of the country.
- Canadian Heritage also supports a variety of initiatives through the Promotion of Linguistic Duality component of its Enhancement of Official Languages Program. The Department supported a total of 16 projects and 12 programming agreements for appreciation and rapprochement with a total value of just over $3.6 million. Of this amount, $70,000 went to Canadian Youth for French to formalize French Clubs in which post-secondary students from both official language communities across Canada participate. These clubs cultivate French appreciation among young Anglophones, promote bilingualism, and increase the number of bilingual Canadians.
- $70,000 went to Francophones for a Sustainable Environment to create a three-part Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics project for 100 Francophone and Anglophone students aged 7 to 18, in French and French Immersion schools in Durham, Peterborough, and Scarborough, Ontario. This fun and innovative project enabled 100 Francophone and Anglophone students to learn about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics while practicing their second language and creating lasting relationships with young people with similar interests.
- $21,500 in funding allowed the Fédération des jeunes francophones du Nouveau-Brunswick to coordinate a three-day provincial forum to update the New Brunswick Youth Strategy. In their language of choice, a total of 75 Francophone, Indigenous, and Anglophone youth identified common priority issues, held problem-solving discussions, and elected a youth action committee. The Youth Action Committee, a New Brunswick Youth Foundation employee, and a New Brunswick Department of Intergovernmental Affairs staff member worked together to develop the new strategy, consulting with various organizations, community groups, government departments, and school districts. The resulting new strategy was presented to the Legislative Assembly for adoption in Summer 2022.
The Support for Interpretation and Translation sub-components, also managed by Canadian Heritage, continued to support the efforts of not-for-profit organizations that wish to provide service in both official languages at public events and to expand the dissemination of as many documents as possible in English and French. Despite postponements and numerous adjustments made necessary by the pandemic, Canadian Heritage supported 112 translation and interpretation projects with grants totalling $465,938.
Canadians come together to celebrate their shared identity and heritage through local festivals, and Canadian Heritage’s Building Communities Through Arts and Heritage program increased access to funding for community artists and activities. The program provided funding for several new Francophone festivals, such as the Festival du homard de Shédiac/Shediac Lobster Festival for the creation of the Hom’Art festival component. In September 2021, the first edition brought together visual artists, poetry, theatre productions and live music.
During 2021-2022, significant advancements were made in the official languages domain, marked by key achievements. Many federal agencies embraced collaboration and took proactive measures by considering the official language perspective, resulting in the creation and implementation of recovery plans that addressed the needs and priorities of communities. The challenges are not over as the pandemic continues and federal institutions must continue to work together to build a stronger economic future for all Canadians.
The Action Plan initiatives are now in full operation, as is evident by the increased funding for community organizations, support for media, and funding for community infrastructure and gathering places. This positive progress will contribute to the development of the next five-year strategy by the Government, as will all that was heard during the 2022 Cross-Canada Official Languages Consultations.
In March 2022, a milestone was reached in the effort to modernize and enhance the Official Languages Act with the introduction of Bill C-13. This bill sets a high standard for the remaining journey towards modernizing and strengthening the Official Languages Act. In 2022-2023, as Canadians follow the progress of this Bill through the parliamentary process towards its adoption, they will witness the greatest reform of the language regime since the adoption of the Act in 1969 or its 1988 reform.
Appendix 1: 2021-2022 Summary of Government Investments in Official Languages (including initiatives of Action Plan 2018-2023)
|Initiatives||Total Allocated from 2018 to 2023 (in dollars)||Planned Spending 2021-2022 (in dollars)||Actual Spending 2021-2022 (in dollars)||2021-2022 Results|
|Canadian Heritage – Historical Base|
|Minority language education (federal/provincial/territorial agreements)Footnote 1||805,100,000||173,204,388||205,150,312||
|Cooperation with the non-governmental sector (minority language organizations)Footnote 2||8,750,000||1,750,000||1,547,470||
|Intergovernmental Cooperation on Minority Languages Services (federal/provincial/territorial agreements)Footnote 3||81,000,000||15,187,000||14,508,500||
|Cooperation with the community sector (minority-language organizations)Footnote 4||159,500,000||35,778,550||32,999,120||
|Strategic FundsFootnote 5||22,500,000||4,450,000||2,972,762||
|Community Cultural Action FundFootnote 6||10,000,000||2,000,000||1,332,085||
|Support for second language learning (federal/provincial/territorial agreements)||448,000,000||88,514,807||92,723,747||
|Cooperation with the non-governmental sector (second language organizations)||4,850,000||975,000||971,270||
|Summer language bursaries (Explore, Destination Clic)Footnote 7||84,500,000||16,923,407||9,691,947||
|Official language monitors (Odyssey)||35,500,000||7,114,398||7,114,398||
|Promotion of linguistic duality (appreciation and reconciliation)||18,500,000||3,650,000||3,654,301||
|Promotion of bilingual services in the voluntary sector||1,100,000||212,571||212,000||
|Support for interpretation and translation||2,500,000||500,000||470,596||
|Young Canada Works in Both Official LanguagesFootnote 8||18,630,000||7,649,400||6,711,166||
|Exchanges Canada (official-language initiative)Footnote 9||11,250,000||2,250,000||495,375||
In 2020–2021 (most recent participant data available), the Exchanges Canada Program offered opportunities for approximately 2,945 Canadian youth to participate in exchange and forum activities, many of which gave the youth a chance to practise and improve their second official language while connecting with other young people from various parts of the country.
In 2020–21, funded projects were strongly impacted by the pandemic and many, including those delivered by longstanding recipient organizations of significant funding, were either downsized, postponed, or cancelled altogether. Consequently, response rates to surveys were lower than normal, which could explain the lower results for this year (individual responses have a greater impact on the overall results).
Overall results for the Program’s three ultimate outcomes are generally within an acceptable range of the established targets and thresholds:
This year, 75% of youth participants reported enhancing their knowledge and understanding of Canada (Target: 83%); 50% reported creating ties with one another (Target: 90%); 75% reported enhancing their understanding of what Canadians have in common (Target: 81%); and 81% reported having a better appreciating how diverse Canada is (Target: 87%).
|Music Showcases Program for Artists from official language minority communities||5,750,000||1,150,000||1,150,000||
Contribution agreements between the Department of Canadian Heritage and the Canada Music Fund’s Initial recipients, FACTOR (for the Anglophone market) and Musicaction (for the Francophone market), ensure that contributions are delivered to presenters to organize music showcases for community artists.
In 2021-2022, more than 150 community artists performed in 379 music showcases, presented mainly in virtual mode because of the pandemic, at regional, national, and international events. The music showcases all included an element of digital promotion.
Since the launch of this initiative in 2008, artists from communities have been exposed to a larger audience, while communities have had access to music showcases in their language (via regional and national showcases). The target for this program is to support 200 artists and 400 showcases annually (compared to only 40 artists and 85 showcases prior to 2008). While the pandemic has significantly reduced the number of music showcases usually presented in a given year, the past year’s figures have proven that this initiative has resulted in increased access (e.g., consumption) to music of community artists in many formats (live performance, on-line access, album sales, etc.).
|National Translation Program for Book Publishing||4,000,000||800,000||800,000||
|Canadian Heritage – New Funds in Action Plan 2018–2023|
|Additional funding for community organizations||57,370,000||13,475,000||13,475,000||
|Enhancement of the Community Cultural Action Fund||11,160,000||3,150,000||3,045,787||
|Funding for Quebec English-speaking communities||5,280,000||1,134,886||1,134,886||
|Strengthening community media and radio (Strategic Support and Ensuring Succession)||14,530,000||1,891,131||1,891,131||
|Support for community spaces – infrastructureFootnote 10||67,250,000||14,800,000||20,605,267||
|Strengthening strategic investment capacity||10,000,000||2,000,000||2,000,000||
|Support for the Civic Community School InitiativeFootnote 11||5,250,000||1,000,000||1,417,780||
|Recruitment of teachers for minority community schoolsFootnote 12||31,290,000||6,595,000||9,192,232||
|Enhanced support for French language services in the territories (2017)Footnote 13||60,000,000||12,000,000||10,493,044||
|Support for educational community infrastructure ($80 million over 10 years) (2017)||28,000,000||7,892,062||7,892,062||
|Mobile application for learning French and English as a second language||16,500,000||2,784,492||2,784,492||For the second year in the pandemic, CBC-Radio-Canada continued to develop Mauril, and launched its mobile version in April 2021, then the web version in November. The public broadcaster then offered several presentation sessions online and in-person to ensure the enrolment of the public and potential users. Above all, an information campaign aimed at federal institutions made it possible to present the tool to various federal networks of interest in official languages, and to systematically install the application on the devices of several departments.|
|Enhanced support for Explore language bursariesFootnote 14||21,000,000||4,200,000||2,993,722||
|Enhanced support for Odyssey official language monitorsFootnote 15||17,500,000||3,500,000||4,706,278||
|Bursaries for post-secondary education in French as a second language||12,600,000||3,000,000||3,000,000||
|Recruitment of teachers for French immersion schools Footnote 16||31,290,000||6,595,000||8,828,211||
|Additional support for Young Canada Works in Both Official Languages (2017)Footnote 17||1,200,000||-||-||These additional funds were for the 2018-2019 year only.|
|Employment and Social Development Canada – Historical Base|
|Social Partnership Initiative in OLMC Communities||4,000,000||1,471,653||1,471,653||
The initiative is funded through two intermediary organizations that have strong and broad engagement with communities: the Fédération des aînées et aînés francophones du Canada (FAAFC) for Francophone communities and the Quebec Community Groups Network (QCGN) for the English-speaking community of Quebec.
In their third year of funding, the FAAFC developed a sustainability plan, to ensure aspects of their project will continue once Government of Canada funding has ended and finalized their communications plan, to further share learnings and resources developed through their project. The organization established new social entrepreneurial initiatives and continued to support funded initiatives that focus on issues, such as employability, leadership, and social innovation among young people; active and positive aging through “age-friendly communities;” awareness-raising of caregivers; and implementation of workshops and conferences on various topics aimed at parents.
Through the Mentorship Program that is being implemented through the community of practice, QCGN is providing additional opportunities to funded organizations for learning, which contributes to the success of the project as a whole. Organizations are currently providing presentations to each other on topics that were identified as areas where they wished to receive mentoring. Topics have included, but were not limited to, outreach; data management; and diversity, equity, and inclusion. As well, the evaluation toolkit has been a useful reference tool for both the tracking of impact and reassessments of original objectives.
|Literacy and Essential Skills Initiative for Official Language Minority CommunitiesFootnote 18||7,500,000||850,184||1,121,994||
|Enabling Fund for communities (Employability and economic development) including the increase in core funding to organizations ($4.5 million out of five)||73,500,000||14,657,755||14,315,065||The initiative aims to enhance the development and vitality of communities. It provides funding to a network of 14 organizations across Canada. These organizations provide various services to individuals, businesses and other groups that help strengthen local economies. This year, the recipient organizations established and maintained more than 4,600 active partnerships with the public, private, and not-for-profit sectors. Those partnerships resulted in $2.31 dollar leveraged for every dollar received. The leveraged funds enabled recipients to implement projects, fill gaps in service and provide concerted actions to strengthen community capacities in the areas of human resource and economic development.|
|Employment and Social Development Canada – New Funds in Action Plan 2018–2023|
|Support for early childhood development ‒ Support for the opening of daycares and daycare services||6,849,682||1,453,029||1,453,029||This year, funding from this initiative allowed the Fédération des parents francophones de l'Alberta to work with its partners to create a total 62 new family childcare spaces and five new jobs in Calgary and Edmonton. Another project enabled the Fédération des parents francophones du Manitoba to work with its partners to create four new family daycare services with 20 new spaces and 60 new preschool spaces.|
|Support for early childhood development ‒ Training and capacity building for early childhood educators||13,150,000||2,608,095||2,510,000||
This corresponds to an increase of 2,196 in the number of trained Francophone early childhood educators since the last complete status report on the early childhood sector prepared in 2019.
|Health Canada – Historical Base|
|Official Languages Health Contribution Program (Networks, Training and Access to Health Services)Footnote 19||174,300,000||34,860,000||36,466,182||
In 2021-2022, pursuing the initiatives undertaken as part of the Action Plan for Official Languages 2018-2023: Investing in our Future, Health Canada continues to support a range of initiatives, through the OLHP, in the three components
Overall, funded initiatives helped improve the availability of bilingual health service providers across the country, develop and maintain networking among health partners, and support innovative approaches to improve access to health services for communities in the official language of choice.
|Health Canada – New Funds in Action Plan 2018–2023|
|Additional Funding for community organizations||4,400,000||1,100,000||1,100,000||Idem.|
|Enhancement of the Official Languages Health Contribution Program ‒ Training and Retention of Health Human Resources||5,000,000||1,000,000||1,000,000||
In 2021-2022, the five academic institutions that joined the CNFS in 2018-2019 continued their activities to recruit and train students in health fields in remote or underserved regions. The five new CNFS member institutions as well as the training programs they offer are as follows:
|Enhancement of the Official Languages Health Contribution Program – Strengthening the Capacity of English-Language Health Networks in Quebec||3,500,000||700,000||700,000||In 2021-2022, in line with the initiatives undertaken as part of the Action Plan for Official Languages 2018-2023: Investing in our Future, Health Canada continued to support a range of initiatives through the OLHP, under the networking component, including the coordination of networks, leadership and accountability, the development of new strategies to increase or improve health services for communities, the identification of barriers to access and the development of strategies or best practices to address this. Overall, the activities carried out by the Community Health and Social Services Network (CHSSN) within the framework of the networking component have helped to promote improved access to health services for English-speaking communities in Quebec, in the official language of their choice.|
|Enhancement of the Official Languages Health Contribution Program – Innovation Projects||4,000,000||1,000,000||1,000,000||
In 2021-2022, in line with the initiatives undertaken as part of the Action Plan for Official Languages 2018-2023: Investing in our Future, Health Canada continued to support a range of initiatives through the OLHP, under the component dealing with innovative projects (including micro-grants) aimed at improving access to health services for communities. Overall, the initiatives funded have contributed to fostering improved community health (through increased access to health services in the language of choice for patients).
The funded projects mainly targeted the needs of communities in the government's priority health areas, such as mental health and home care, as shown in the examples below.
|Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada – Historical Base|
|Immigration to Official Languages Minority Communities||29,408,190||5,881,638||5,881,638||
|Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada – New Funds in Action Plan 2018–2023|
|Francophone Integration PathwayFootnote 20||36,553,615||9,322,313||8,862,810||
|Cooperation and Accountability||4,185,138||827,485||735,600||
IRCC developed and maintained three tools that aggregate data on Francophone immigrants and aim to increase systematic reporting on Francophone immigration.
In 2021, IRCC introduced a time-limited pathway to permanent residence to facilitate the transition of temporary residents with recent Canadian work experience in an essential occupation or recent graduates of a Canadian post-secondary institution with Francophone and bilingual streams to highlight the importance of Francophone immigration to communities outside Quebec. These streams do not have a cap. In addition, the Department organized Technical Information Sessions with Francophone stakeholders, and a promotional campaign reached over 325,000 people.
In 2020, French-speaking permanent residents represented 3.61% of all immigrants admitted to Canada outside Quebec, an increase from previous years. However, this proportion dropped to 1.95% in 2021. While the 2020 results represented the highest percentage ever for Francophone immigration, overall, the pandemic slowed the arrival of French-speaking permanent residents. The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the entry of immigrants into Canada, including Francophone immigrants. While 2020 and 2021 were exceptional years due to the pandemic, with generally fewer permanent residents admitted to Canada, Francophones remained above 5,000—a threshold never reached before 2019.
|Justice Canada – Historical Base|
|Networks, Training and Access to Justice Services, including additional funding for Access to Justice in Both Official Languages Support Fund (10 million over five years)Footnote 21||50,194,995Footnote 22||9,788,999||9,391,859||Through the Access to Justice in Both Official Languages Support Fund, approximately $7.9 million in funding was provided to 59 projects in 2021-2022, as part of the Government of Canada’s Action Plan on Official Languages 2018 – 2023: Investing in our Future. 32 projects raised awareness and supported public legal information activities, 2 projects supported training in Family Justice, 3 projects supported translation of judgements,3 projects contributed to curriculum development, 4 projects helped develop linguistic tools, and 15 projects provided training to justice professionals.|
|Contraventions Act FundFootnote 23||49,611,635||9,922,327||5,356,676||
Through the Contraventions Act Fund, the Department has continued to provide funding to provinces and municipalities where the Contraventions Regime is implemented so they can undertake proper steps that ensure language rights are respected in relation to the administration and enforcement of federal contraventions.
The provinces and municipality fulfilled official languages duties on behalf of the federal government by sustaining concrete measures meant to ensure that offenders’ language rights are respected. The Department currently provides funding to 6 provinces and 1 municipality where there are no provincial obligations to fulfill the offenders’ language rights. No complaints were made with respect to judicial and extra-judicial services availability in the official language of choice.
Canadians in designated areas who have received a federal contraventions ticket had access to communications in the official language of choice and to judicial services in the language of choice.
|Justice Canada – New Funds in Action Plan 2018–2023|
|Core funding to justice organizationsFootnote 24||3,750,000Footnote 22||1,000,000||940,000||The Department continued to enhance financial stability and operational capacity of 12 organizations (11 provincial/territorial and one national) through operational/core funding provided in 2021-2022. Discussions are ongoing with the remaining provincial and territorial jurisdictions (Nunavut and PEI) towards the target of having one organization/beneficiary per province/territory.|
|Innovation, Science, and Economic Development Canada – Historical Base|
|Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada (coordination)Footnote 25||1,600,000||320,000||299,854||
Realized ISED's new consultation strategy for communities. A working group composed of representatives from the relevant sectors of the Department, the RDAs, and the Follow-up Committees in place (one English-speaking and one French-speaking) was created to develop the content and to implement the consultations.
|Atlantic Canada Opportunities AgencyFootnote 26||6,200,000||1,230,000||1,191,517||
For 2021-2022, ACOA approved 13 new projects for a total commitment of $647,749. These projects created several partnerships and leveraged $1,151,334 in funding from other partners.
This year, ACOA projects approved under the Economic Development Initiative had an impact on several communities in Atlantic Canada, as recommended in the Strengthening our Communities pillar of the Action Plan. These projects have had an impact on Francophone and Acadian communities by supporting various community economic development initiatives and by supporting Francophone immigration.
|Canada Economic Development for Quebec Regions||10,200,000||2,040,000||2,360,893||The annual target is to spend the entire budget allocated to the Economic Development Initiative for the benefit of Official Language Minority Communities, or $2 040 000 in 2021-2022. In 2021-2022, $2 360 893 was spent, which is on target.|
|Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency (CanNor)||400,000||80,000||80,000||
Four community related projects were supported by CanNor in 2021-22, funded under the Economic Development Initiative, Jobs and Growth Fund, Tourism Relief Fund and IDEANorth program streams:
|Federal Economic Development Initiative for Northern OntarioFootnote 27||4,450,000||890,000||860,424||
Four projects were approved in 2021-2022, for a total investment of $276,607, leveraging $113,803 in additional funds from other sources. The projects will take place in Sudbury, New Liskeard, Earlton and Haileybury.
Final results reported by projects which were completed in 2021-2022:
|Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern OntarioFootnote 28||4,450,000||890,000||879,500||FedDev Ontario supported three active projects ($800,000) in 2021-2022 through the Economic Development Initiative.|
Pacific Economic Development Canada (PacifiCan)
Prairies Economic Development Canada (PrairiesCan)
PrairiesCan/PacifiCan continued to fund a three-year pan-west pilot project with the Francophone Economic Development Organizations (FEDOs). This three-year $1.8M project provides the FEDOs with the ability to identify and support community economic development projects that have direct and tangible impacts on Francophone communities, including projects that will help mitigate the impacts of COVID-19 for communities. This pilot initiative brings the funding decisions closer to community, thereby facilitating community engagement, and further developing and strengthening communities in the West. First round in September 2020, the FEDOs approved 17 projects for a total of $463,500. Second round in April 2021, the FEDOs approved 21 projects for a total of $563,000. An additional $50K went to 3 multi-year projects in year two. The projects develop and diversify the economy in the following areas: Trade and Investment; Tourism; Youth; Immigration; Green Economy; and Community Capacity Building with a focus on economic development.
|Public Health Agency of Canada – New Funds in Action Plan 2018–2023|
|Enhanced early childhood health promotion programmingFootnote 29||10,000,000||2,180,000||2,362,204||
Currently, the Public Health Agency of Canada is able to report on two performance indicators required by the Treasury Board:
The HEY program funds two main recipients (SSF and CHSSN). In 2021/2022, the two recipients funded 54 third-party recipients/projects, aimed at improving access for vulnerable families in communities to early childhood health promotion programming, with the goal of helping these populations acquire knowledge and skills, adopt positive healthy behaviours, and improve long-term health outcomes.
A total of 10,636 individuals, including 6,408 parents and 4,228 children benefited from programming that was funded by the HEY program in 2021-22. The participants were broken down as follows:
|Canada Council for the Arts – Historical Base|
|Market Access Strategy for Artists from Communities||2,750,000||550,000||552,585||
In 2021-22, the Canada Council for the Arts received 29 eligible applications for the MAS in total; of these, 22 were funded to 21 distinct recipients. The full budget of $552,585 was spent on grants.
Overall, in 2021-22, MAS grants reached community artists and organizations in 12 communities across the country. The fund supported a wide variety of activities including participation in showcase events, networking meetings, promotional materials, translations, marketing strategies, and performances.
|National Research Council (NRC) – Historical Base|
|Strengthening Language Industries and Technologies||10,000,000||1,871,720||1,792,748||
In 2021-2022, the NRC continued its efforts in the area of automatic language processing to help the Government move toward its socioeconomic goals and continued to refine relevant technologies. In the area of machine translation, the shift to the deep learning paradigm has resulted in substantial quality gains and has led to the delivery of several translation support systems to the Translation Bureau and the House of Commons. Other multilingual activities have focused on the automatic evaluation of spoken French or the readability of written documents. In the area of Indigenous language technologies, NRC continued to create and improve technologies and software that support the revitalization of Indigenous languages, for example by assisting in their teaching in communities, and began developing speech processing technologies for this purpose.
Work continued on natural language processing as a tool for analyzing social and ethical issues in the online world, which includes biases, stereotypes, and abusive language. Advancements were made in research into the NRC unsupervised question-answering system, with improved precision as one result. Further work was also conducted on processing medical text, specifically on detecting early cognitive decline through language with the goal of preparing support systems to allow older Canadians to live at home longer.
|Public Services and Procurement Canada (Translation Bureau) – Historical Base|
|Language Portal of CanadaFootnote 30||16,000,000||3,200,000||2,968,176||In 2021-2022, the Language Portal team published 1,984 new content items on the Language Portal website and its social media accounts, including 46 blog posts by external contributors, to support the Canadian population in improving communication in both official languages, highlight Canadian expertise in the field of language, as well as promote linguistic duality in Canada and the vitality of communities. Page views of the Language Portal and its writing tools grew to 9.2 million. In addition, the Language Portal’s social media followers and The Language Portal Weekly newsletter subscribers grew to a combined total of 52,456, as of March 31, 2022. The Language Portal delivered over 30 promotional activities, including making presentations to a variety of organizations and hosting event kiosks. The team also promoted the Language Portal’s resources by conducting more than 50 communications activities, including cross-promotional activities with official languages organizations, such as the Fédération des communautés francophones et acadienne du Canada, Canadian Parents for French and Editors Canada.|
|Statistics Canada – New Funds in Action Plan 2018–2023|
|Additional, continued support to the language statistics sectionFootnote 31||2,997,270||599,454||661,455||
In 2021-2022, Statistics Canada conducted the 2021 Census of Population and, in May 2022, finalized all steps for the launch of the Survey of the Official Language Minority Population (SOLMP). Several new partners representing communities were consulted to inform them and to seek their advice on the best ways to present and disseminate Census data which, for the first time, will include information on children eligible to receive an education in the communities. Dissemination of upcoming SOLMP data was also addressed in these consultations. Both the Advisory Committee and the Internal Committees on Language Statistics were also consulted. These consultative efforts are key to maintaining the relevance of Statistics Canada research and analysis and to better answer the various needs of communities and Canadians in general. These additional activities were possible thanks to the ongoing role played by the enhanced unit in charge of overviewing Statistics Canada’s consulting, engagement, communications, and outreach activities. Altogether, Statistics Canada was able to double its target by achieving 44 initiatives.
Dissemination products include: 4 sets of thematic data tables on languages in Canada, with a historical perspective; 4 infographics of community workers in the health and education sectors and one on the overqualification of French- and English-speaking university graduates working in Montreal; 2 fact sheets on early childhood and child care services in the communities; 1 booklet on the knowledge and use of the minority language at work by healthcare workers; 3 chapters in the 2021 external compendium ‘État de l'Acadie’; and an analysis on languages of work of employees by organization size. Lastly, 4 key presentations were made before various working groups on official languages, as well as one appearance before the Standing Senate Committee on Official Languages on the topic of the immigration of Francophones in communities.
|Total – Historical Base||2,169,194,820||451,253,797||468,135,813||-|
|Total – New Funds in Action Plan 2018–2023||484,605,705||105,807,947||114,784,990||-|
|Total of Government Investments in Official Languages||2,653,800,525||557,061,744||582,920,803||-|
Table 1 notes
- Table 1 note *
The total number of projects supported includes multi-year projects that were continuing into 2021-2022, as well as one-time supplements to programming as part of the implementation of the Arts, Culture, Heritage and Sport Recovery and Reopening Funds.
Appendix 2: 2021-2022 Expenditures of the Official Languages Support Programs by Component
|Development of Official Language Communities Program||333,869,549|
|Enhancement of Official Languages Program||136,842,287|
|Community Life||Cooperation with the Community Sector||44,686,337|
|Intergovernmental Cooperation on Minority Language ServicesFootnote 32||25,001,544|
|Fund for Quebec English-speaking communities||1,134,886|
|Strategic Fund Footnote 33||4,972,762|
|Community Media Strategic Support Fund||1,500,000|
|Community Cultural Action Fund||2,604,957|
|Community Cultural Action Micro-Grant Program for Minority Schools (Micro-Grants)||1,770,787|
|Community Spaces Fund||2,042,814|
|Civic Community School||1,417,780|
|Young Canada Works in Both Official Languages / Building Careers in English and French||3,371,681|
|Young Canada Works – Media Internships||391,131|
|Subtotal: “Community Life” Component||88,894,679|
|Minority Language Education||Intergovernmental Cooperation on Minority Language Education (Protocol)||165,902,180|
|Intergovernmental Cooperation on Minority Language Education (Complementary Projects)||39,248,132|
|Complementary Support for Language Learning||2,334,341|
|Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategy in Minority French-Language Schools||9,198,232|
|Community Educational Infrastructure Fund (Investing in Canada Plan)||7,892,062|
|Support for community spaces – infrastructure (Action Plan 2018-2023)||18,562,453|
|Cooperation with the Non-Governmental Sector||1,837,470|
|Subtotal: “Minority Language Education” Component||244,974,870|
|Promotion of Linguistic Duality||Appreciation and Reconciliation||4,638,724|
|Promotion of Bilingual Services||313,650|
|Support for Interpretation and Translation||470,596|
|Subtotal: “Promotion of Linguistic Duality”||5,422,970|
|Second Language Learning||Intergovernmental Cooperation on Second Language Learning (Protocol)||91,142,184|
|Intergovernmental Cooperation on Second Language Learning (Complementary Projects)||1,581,563|
|Complementary Support for Language Learning||22,172,004|
|Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategy in French Immersion and French Second Language Programs||8,828,211|
|Cooperation with the Non-Governmental Sector||1,355,870|
|French Second Language Post-Secondary Scholarships||3,000,000|
|Young Canada Works in Both Official Languages / Building Careers in English and French||3,339,485|
|Subtotal: “Second Language Learning” Component||131,419,317|
Appendix 3: 2021-2022 Expenditures of the Official Languages Support Programs by Province and Territory
|Province or Territory||Development of Official Language Communities Program||Enhancement of Official Languages Program||Sub-Total by Province or Territory|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||4,652,952||3,022,697||7,675,649|
|Prince Edward Island||5,030,016||1,976,523||7,006,539|
|Complementary Support for Language Learning: Explore and Destination Clic||484,597||12,201,072||12,685,669|
|Complementary Support for Language Learning: Odyssey||1,849,744||9,970,932||11,820,676|
|Cooperation with the Non-Governmental Sector / Education||5,655,378||7,133,437||12,788,815|
|Young Canada Works||3,371,681||3,339,485||6,711,166|
|Province or Territory||“Community Life” Component||“Minority Language Education” Component||Sub-Total by Province or Territory|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||1,949,817||2,703,135||4,652,952|
|Prince Edward Island||2,902,627||2,127,389||5,030,016|
|Complementary Support for Language Learning: Explore and Destination Clic||-||484,597||484,597|
|Complementary Support for Language Learning: Odyssey||-||1,849,744||1,849,744|
|Cooperation with the Non-Governmental Sector/Education||-||5,655,378||5,655,378|
|Young Canada Works||3,371,681||-||3,371,681|
|Province or Territory||Support to Organizations||Support to Provincial and Territorial Governments||Sub-Total by Province or Territory|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||1,599,817||350,000||1,949,817|
|Prince Edward Island||1,665,127||1,237,500||2,902,627|
|Young Canada Works||3,371,681||-||3,371,681|
|Province or Territory||“Promotion of Linguistic Duality” Component||“Second Language Learning” Component||Sub-Total by Province or Territory|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||167,402||2,855,295||3,022,697|
|Prince Edward Island||183,640||1,792,883||1,976,523|
|Complementary Support for Language Learning: Explore and Destination Clic||-||12,201,072||12,201,072|
|Complementary Support for Language Learning: Odyssey||-||9,970,932||9,970,932|
|Cooperation with the Non-Governmental Sector/Education||-||7,133,437||7,133,437|
|Young Canada Works||-||3,339,485||3,339,485|
Appendix 4: 2021-2022 Education Expenditures
|-||Minority Language Education||Second Language Learning||Total|
|Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategy||5,380,324||6,028,144||11,408,468|
|-||Minority Language Education||Second Language Learning||Total|
|Cooperation with the Non-Governmental Sector||1,837,470||1,355,870||3,193,340|
|French Second Language Post-Secondary Scholarships||-||3,000,000||3,000,000|
|Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategy||3,817,908||2,800,067||6,617,975|
|Complementary Support for Language Learning (CMEC)||2,334,341||22,172,004||24,506,345|
|Young Canada Works||-||3,339,485||3,339,485|
|Province or Territory||Bilateral Agreements||Complimentary Projects||Infrastructure||Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategy||Total by Province or Territory|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||2,189,135||-||-||514,000||2,703,135|
|Prince Edward Island||1,778,339||292,125||-||56,925||2,127,389|
|Province or Territory||Bilateral Agreements||Complimentary Projects||Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategy||Total by Province or Territory|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||2,639,295||-||216,000||2,855,295|
|Prince Edward Island||1,507,958||-||284,925||1,792,883|
Appendix 5: School Enrolment in 2020-2021Footnote 34
|Type of Second Language Instruction Program||Year||Total Enrolment in Majority Schools||Second Language (including immersion)||French Immersion|
|Enrolment||Percentage (of total population)||Enrolment||Percentage (of total population)|
|Total – Students in majority language school systems taking French as a second language combined with students taking English as a second language||1983-1984Table 13 note 1||4,401,997||2,199,253||50%||117,454||2.7%|
|Total – English-language students in majority systems learning French as a second language (Canada minus Quebec)||1983-1984Table 13 note 1||3,464,272||1,607,335||46.4%||117,454||3.4%|
|Total – Students in the French-language education system learning English as a second language in Quebec||1983-1984Table 13 note 1||937,725||591,918||63.1%||-||-|
Table 13 notes
- Table 13 note 1
Second language totals for 1983–1984 do not include Yukon, Northwest Territories or Nunavut, for which no data were available. For each of these jurisdictions, the earliest year for which data is available is used to establish a base year.
|Type of Second Language Instruction Program||Year||Total Enrolment in Majority Schools||Second Language (including immersion)||French Immersion|
|Enrolment||Percentage (of total population)||Enrolment||Percentage (of total population)|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||1983-1984||147,500||75,056||50.9%||970||0.7%|
|Prince Edward Island||1983-1984||24,964||15,911||63.7%||1,833||7.3%|
|Scope||Year||Total of School Enrolment||Enrolment in Minority Language Schools||Classes||Minority Language Share of Total School Enrolment|
|Total – Canada||1983-1984Table 15 note 1||4,682,999||281,002||-||6%|
|Total – French Minority Language Schools||1983-1984Table 15 note 1||3,634,315||152,594||-||4.2%|
Table 15 notes
- Table 15 note 1
Minority language figures for 1983-1984 exclude Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut, where there were no minority language schools in 1983-1984. For each of these jurisdictions, the earliest year for which data is available is used to establish a base year.
|Province or Territories||Year||Total of School Enrolment||Enrolment in Minority Language Schools||Classes||Minority Language Share of Total School Enrolment|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||1983-1984||147,603||103||Kindergarten to 12||0.1%|
|2020-2021||62,964||369||Kindergarten to 12||0.6%|
|Prince Edward Island||1983-1984||25,480||516||1 to 12||2%|
|2020-2021||20,646||1,104||Kindergarten to 12||5.3%|
|Nova Scotia||1983-1984||177,240||4,470||Kindergarten to 12||2.5%|
|2020-2021||121,305||6,399||Kindergarten to 12||5.3%|
|New Brunswick||1983-1984||146,045||47,761||Kindergarten to 12||32.7%|
|2020-2021||97,266||29,133||Kindergarten to 12||30.0%|
|Quebec||1983-1984||1,066,133||128,408||Kindergarten to 11||12%|
|2020-2021||972,366||83,082||Kindergarten to 11||8.5%|
|Ontario||1983-1984||1,773,478||91,176||Kindergarten to 12||5.1%|
|2020-2021||2,025,162||113,118||Kindergarten to 12||5.6%|
|Manitoba||1983-1984||199,743||5,561||Kindergarten to 12||2.8%|
|2020-2021||179,232||5,949||Kindergarten to 12||3.3%|
|Saskatchewan||1983-1984||201,130||768||Kindergarten to 12||0.4%|
|2020-2021||180,360||1,989||Kindergarten to 12||1.1%|
|Alberta||1983-1984||448,835||1,076||Kindergarten to 12||0.2%|
|2020-2021||664,911||8,529||Kindergarten to 12||1.3%|
|British Columbia||1983-1984||497,312||1,163||Kindergarten to 12||0.1%|
|2020-2021||555,588||6,408||Kindergarten to 12||1.2%|
|Yukon||1984-1985||4,697||30||Kindergarten to 8||0.6%|
|2020-2021||5,712||333||Kindergarten to 12||5.2%|
|Northwest Territories||1990-1991||14,079||63||Kindergarten to 11||0.4%|
|2020-2021||8,514||246||Kindergarten to 12||2.9%|
|Nunavut||2002-2003||8,901||40||Kindergarten to 12||0.4%|
|2020-2021||10,905||111||Kindergarten to 12||1.0%|
© His Majesty the King in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Official Languages and Minister responsible for the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency, 2023.
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