Level 1 – Roof or tarp only

Basic shelter from rain and overhead sun is provided by an architectural element, an applied covering, or a self-sheltering part of the exposed object. In your action plan, include appropriate action elements from Level 0, Plan B.


Poor enclosure in a wind-way or carport. Top of bject sheltered by a shed roof or tarpaulin cover.

Plan B



Outdoors, rural or urban, may be windswept or sheltered by trees, buildings, or landforms. Site may be well or poorly drained.

Plan B

Some environmental modification may be considered if causing harmful effects (e.g. cutting back encroaching growth that shelters pests and induces higher moisture content by casting shade, or cutting back clinging vines that disfigure a structure or object). Eliminate obvious nearby pest attractors such as open garbage containers. Ensure roof is capable of withstanding a maximum snow and wind load.


A roof or tarpaulin overhead with no complete wall. Structure protects against direct rainfall, prevents extensive fungal attack, and limits any mould-requiring boring insect attack. However, the structure will attract nesting birds, rodents, and insects seeking shelter. Does not stop rodent, bird, or insect access.

Plan B

A roof must extend over the object to protect it from slanting rain. Note that damp air rises because it is lighter than dry air (water vapour is lighter than the oxygen and nitrogen gases that make up most of the air). Therefore, if tarpaulins are used to enclose an object, ensure that there is ventilation near the top ridge so that there is no prolonged entrapment of high humidity. A plastic tarp that does not ventilate at the ridge forms a dome over the object, and traps dampness underneath. You may have to reduce the moisture source from the ground or a slab on grade concrete floor by first laying a moisture barrier tarp underneath the object. Bird netting or spikes used where possible deter roosting, which in turn reduces detritus on a structure or sheltered objects. Coordinate the building of wire screen enclosures or cages with the provision of physical protection needs from vandals, climbers, etc. (i.e. improve security and pest-proofing simultaneously). Treat wood in contact with the soil with fungicides.

Portable fittings

None, contents of the enclosure rest directly on earth or gravel, or are semi-buried.

Plan B

Where possible, separate objects from soil or gravel by using a short plinth, or insert a moisture barrier to reduce moisture from contact with the soil. Ensure the barrier drains properly so that puddles do not form against the object.


No pest-control procedures other than the beneficial contributions of the original construction (e.g. mineral shingles, paint). Little site sanitation other than what is due to wind and weathering processes.

Plan B

Consider improvements recommended in Level 0, Plan B.


Rodent or bird contamination in 1 year, structural insect attack in under 10 years, surface mildew within 10 years. Many harmful pests still have widespread access to sheltered objects.

Plan B

Noticeable extension in the lifetime of smaller-dimension wooden elements by using remedial fungicide treatments, or breaking the wood's contact with soil, especially for wood species that deteriorate rapidly. Reduction of disfiguring animal nests and some wood-boring insects. Elimination of most structural fungal attack due to the low moisture content of sheltered objects. Surface mildew, moss, lichen, or algae are still present asa risk in humid environments.

Expected deterioration

Noticeable effect or damage in one season. Anticipated effects show within a decade to a century on robust items, within several years on soft materials, and within months on delicate materials. Self-sheltered parts of the object will retain features as noted in Level 2.

Plan B

Noticeable extension in the lifetime of wooden elements due to remedial fungicide treatments. Noticeable effects show within several years on soft materials, and within months on delicate materials. Self-sheltered parts of object will retain features as noted in Level 2.

CCI Technical Bulletin 29.

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