Level 2 – Roof, walls and loose-fitting doors

This level offers more complete shelter from the elements. Contents may be exposed to wind-driven precipitation, oblique sun rays, excessive wind and wind-blown soil, snow, spores, and seeds. In your action plan, include appropriate elements from previous levels.


Poor to fair enclosure: outbuilding; shed; poorly maintained house.

Plan B



Commonly rural, sometimes urban. Drainage may have been improved by a small rise in elevation under or against foundations. Subterranean foundation is leaky. Structure may be sound if roof has been maintained, otherwise structural damage is expected.

Plan B

Where possible, clear vegetation away from walls to reduce moisture damage and prevent encroaching plant roots from damaging the building foundation. Remove nearby dead timber to lower the incidence of wood-boring pests and deadfall hazards to structure. Improve drainage if water pools against the foundation or seeps into the building after a rainfall.


Walls, wood, porous cladding, basic doors with gaps, rammed earthen floor, planks, plywood, gravel, asphalt, or separate concrete pad. Will not stop determined burrowing or gnawing pests because structural materials and wall construction are easily compromised. Protects against wind-driven precipitation, thus halting major fungal attack. Does not block insects because there are gaps in the structure. May limit large rodent and bird entry, but gaps allow small animals to shelter in the building. May attract roosting and nesting birds into eaves and insects into the building fabric.

Plan B

Install bird netting on the eaves or wire caging over openings where possible to reduce animal entry and subsequent detritus collecting around and in the structure. Coordinate construction of enclosure with physical protection needs (e.g. improve security and pest proofing simultaneously).Improve or fix exterior sheathing if it has been compromised.

Portable fittings

Contents resting on hard floor can become damp from permeating ground moisture on which fungi could grow.

Plan B

Rudimentary shelving limits moisture transfer from the damp ground or building foundation pad to the object. Putting objects up onto shelves will lower chance encounters with some pests. If appropriate shelving is not available, at least use heat-treated pallets, or lumber wrapped in plastic sheeting, to separate objects from contact with the moisture in an earthen floor. To avoid damage from minor floods and persistent moisture, elevate large, heavy items off the ground, and rest them securely on cast concrete pads or on treated timber blocks that have a moisture barrier underneath that prevents moisture being conducted into objects. Prevent heavy objects from sinking into the soil, as this would allow direct access by microorganisms and other wood-destroying pests.


Animal nests removed. Groundskeeping around building consists of annual to monthly cutting back grass and foliage.

Plan B

Routinely sweep interior spaces to eliminate wind-blown detritus and spider nests. Immediately remove wasp nests and bird nests. Use fabric (moisture permeable) tarpaulins as drapes over complex, hard-to-clean objects to reduce dust accumulation, prevent flies from spotting surfaces, allow moisture to dry after humid periods, and help reduce surface mould growth.


Expect fly specks, rodent invasion, insects grazing or crawling over stored materials, especially in cluttered, unchanging, unexamined areas. Water-staining and possible fungal attack after heavy rain accompanied by winds. Pests have free range, so all contents can be affected.

Plan B

Reduction of disfiguring animal nests by removing them and early remediation of pest attack through targeted pesticide use or physical methods.

Expected deterioration

Anticipated effects show within a century on robust objects, within a decade on soft materials, and within a year on delicate materials.

Plan B

Reduced frequency of many insect attacks compared to lesser sheltered situations. Minimal structural microbial activity, and greatly reduced surface activity.

CCI Technical Bulletin 29.

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