Search and Rescue Posture Review 2013
Table of Contents
- Search and Rescue Overview
- Canadian Armed Forces’ SAR Framework
Table of Figures
- In the face of one of the most challenging Search and Rescue (SAR) areas of responsibility in the world, Canadians benefit from a SAR system that includes many federal, provincial and municipal partners working in collaboration.
- The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) is just one tool within the Canadian SAR inventory – albeit a critical one – having responsibility for aeronautical SAR, and for coordinating maritime SAR in conjunction with the Canadian Coast Guard. Through the Joint Rescue Coordination Centres, the Canadian Armed Forces, in collaboration with the Canadian Coast Guard, coordinate responses to more than 9,000 incidents annually.
- The CAF SAR community is served by a comprehensive framework of command and control, governance and policy mechanisms.
- The CAF Primary SAR squadrons – located in Gander, Newfoundland & Labrador; Greenwood, Nova Scotia; Trenton, Ontario; Winnipeg, Manitoba; and Comox, British Colombia – continue to be proven, through in-depth mathematical studies, as the appropriate locations for basing CAF SAR services in Canada.
- The CAF maintain multiple and complementary airframes – both fixed-wing and rotary-wing – across Canada, allowing the CAF to effectively meet the country’s wide array of SAR requirements. That said, pressing aircraft replacement and upgrade issues need to be carefully managed to ensure this level of service continues into the future.
- Search and Rescue operations demand a wide-range of carefully-tailored equipment that is purpose-made for the individual and operating environment in which it is expected to perform. While an established process is in place to identify and address these critical equipment needs, the process continues to be cumbersome and suffer from lengthy delays.
- The Canadian Armed Forces devote considerable personnel resources to SAR. However, dated “establishment” levels (i.e. target personnel levels) and occupational and training requirements for SAR within the Canadian Armed Forces need to be reviewed and possibly updated to ensure future staffing needs are adequately met. The ongoing Military Employment Structure Implementation Plan and the SAR Technician Training Review are two initiatives that will assist in this regard.
- SAR is a no-fail mission for the CAF, and thus the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces remain committed to continuous review and improvement of the CAF contribution to the National SAR Program.
Canadians benefit from a Search and Rescue (SAR) system that stands continuously ready to come to the assistance of those in need, and the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) are committed to making it even better. To that end, the Defence Team regularly assesses its approach to Search and Rescue to continuously improve its contribution to the National SAR Program.
On 2 May 2013, the Minister of National Defence in his capacity as Lead Minister for SAR announced the Quadrennial SAR Review – a systematic assessment of the National SAR Program that will be undertaken every four years.
In light of this broader national review, and in keeping with the Canadian Armed Forces’ longstanding commitment to Search and Rescue, the Chief of the Defence Staff directed that the Canadian Armed Forces conduct its own internal SAR Posture Review, which will also be submitted to the Minister of National Defence.
To respond to the Chief of the Defence Staff’s recent direction, this report is intended to provide a strategic snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces’ current contribution to the National SAR Program, by reporting on the Canadian Armed Forces’ SAR framework (command and control, governance, and policy mechanisms), posture (basing and response times), and resources (aircraft, equipment, and personnel). 1
Canada has one of the world’s most diverse, largest and challenging areas of SAR responsibility. In fact, the Canadian SAR Area of Responsibility (AOR), as assigned by International Conventions, encompasses 18 million square kilometres of land and water. The AOR boundaries extend from the US border to the North Pole, eastward over the Atlantic Ocean to 30 degrees west longitude (approximately half way to the UK) and westward over the Pacific Ocean approximately 600 nautical miles west of Vancouver Island. This includes millions of square kilometres of sparsely settled and austere terrain, as well as the longest coastline in the world.
Canada has an extremely effective SAR system. At its heart, the National SAR Program is based on an escalation of response from the local citizen up to and including federal resources. Depending on the SAR incident, municipal, provincial/territorial, or federal departments and organizations, as well as dedicated volunteer associations, have different roles and responsibilities.
The Canadian Armed Forces SAR system is just one tool within the Canadian SAR inventory –albeit a critical one. The Canadian Armed Forces have primary responsibility for aeronautical SAR, and for the coordination of maritime SAR in conjunction with the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG). These two primary roles –reaffirmed in the Canada First Defence Strategy – originate from Government decisions made over the last 60 years, and arise from Canada’s ratification of a number of international aeronautical and maritime conventions.
Ground Search and Rescue (GSAR) and other humanitarian operations fall outside of the military’s primary responsibilities. However, as a resource of last resort, the Canadian Armed Forces are nevertheless often called upon to support other federal departments or provincial/territorial governments in fulfilling these roles.
Of the many thousands of Search and Rescue incidents and operations nationally, the Canadian Armed Forces and the Canadian Coast Guard – through the Joint Rescue Coordination Centres (JRCCs) – coordinate responses to more than 9,000 incidents annually. The Canadian Armed Forces provide an aeronautical response to approximately 1,000 of these each year, as detailed further in the tables at Annex B.
To effectively respond to Canada’s SAR needs, the CAF divided the Canadian Area of Responsibility into three Search and Rescue Regions (SRRs): SRR Victoria, SRR Trenton (extending to the North Pole) and SRR Halifax. Each region has a Commander, who reports to the Commander Canadian Joint Operations Command (CJOC), 2 who in turn reports to the Chief of the Defence Staff. The SRR Commanders exercise command 3 over dedicated SAR assets that are directly coordinated and controlled by each region’s Joint Rescue Coordination Centre. Additional Canadian Armed Forces’ assets are eligible to be tasked on a SAR mission, as required and when available.
The Joint Rescue Coordination Centres maintain an around-the-clock watch, poised to coordinate a joint Royal Canadian Air Force/Canadian Coast Guard response to aeronautical and maritime SAR incidents, as required. Each Centre is led by an Officer-In-Charge (OIC) and is staffed with aeronautical coordinators from the Royal Canadian Air Force and maritime coordinators from the Canadian Coast Guard, both known as SAR Mission Coordinators (SMCs). These highly trained SMCs exercise direct control over their respective dedicated primary SAR resources, on behalf of the SAR Region Commander. This command and control structure has proven highly effective, the product of continuous adaptation over the last 60 years.
The Canadian Armed Forces participate in the Interdepartmental Committee on Search and Rescue (ICSAR), which is led by the National Search and Rescue Secretariat (NSS) and is supported by membership from across the Government of Canada.
However, given the requirement for particularly close coordination and seamless interoperability between the Canadian Armed Forces and the Canadian Coast Guard in fulfilling the aeronautical and maritime SAR mandates in Canada, a new Federal SAR Operations Governance Committee was convened in March 2013. It serves as a bilateral framework between the Canadian Armed Forces and the Canadian Coast Guard to identify, monitor and address common issues and challenges. This committee is co-chaired by the Canadian Joint Operations Command (CJOC) Deputy Commander Continental and the Canadian Coast Guard’s Deputy Commissioner of Operations, and will meet twice yearly to address issues such as resources, governance and risk management within the framework of the CAF and CCG federal SAR responsibilities. The next meeting of the SAR Operations Governance Committee (OGC) will discuss the following items, among others: proposed cycle for OGC Annual report to CDS/Deputy Ministers and Ministers, the Quadrennial Search and Rescue review that is being conducted by the National SAR Secretariat (NSS), the CAF SAR Directive and the potential for a National SAR Directive, follow-on to Operational Staff Visits to the JRCCs, and status update on the MRSC/JRCC merger.
The Canadian National SAR Manual (NSM), last updated in 2000, has served as the departmental policy guidance for aeronautical and maritime SAR in Canada for decades. Given the need to refresh the NSM and to align with the standardized format set out in the International Aeronautical and Maritime SAR Manual (IAMSAR), used as a guideline for a common approach to SAR internationally, the Canadian Armed Forces and the Canadian Coast Guard have jointly produced a draft Canadian Aeronautical and Maritime SAR manual (CAMSAR). Drafted and approved by SAR staff at the operational level, the manual will next be reviewed at the policy level, followed by a legal review. Once approved, the CAMSAR will complement the IAMSAR as a manual specific to the Canadian context, replacing the current Canadian National SAR Manual for the Canadian Armed Forces and the Canadian Coast Guard.
Moreover, to further strengthen the conduct of operations and employment of CAF SAR assets going forward, Commander CJOC has also initiated an inaugural SAR Directive. The Commander’s intent is to provide annual guidance to the Commanders of the three Search and Rescue Regions (SRRs) on the conduct and employment of SAR forces. This guidance will be updated every year, based upon frequent and comprehensive reporting on SAR operations (regarding, for instance, incident category, regional distribution, mission response times and asset serviceability).
The Canadian Armed Forces follow an “evidence-based” decision support model. As such, the statistical data collected on SAR operations is a critical tool for future decision-making and ultimately, future success in operations. With that in mind, RCAF SAR staff and CJOC SAR staff have collaborated on a new SAR mission report which will enable better fidelity in reporting SAR activities – those falling within the Canadian Armed Forces’ primary area of responsibility, but also the additional assistance that the Canadian Armed Forces provide to other SAR partners (e.g. CAF aeronautical support to ground SAR, medical evacuations in support of a province or territory, etc.). Additionally, the SAR Mission Management System (SMMS) replacement project will eventually become the single source of SAR mission data for the CAF, enabling more refined analysis of SAR activity and thus better equipping future decision-makers. This project, currently in the options analysis phase, is expected to provide the next generation of SMMS software and hardware to support operational SAR requirements. The new system is expected to be introduced in 2016.
Canadian Armed Forces’ SAR assets are strategically located across the country. They are based where they can effectively respond to SAR incidents in all regions, with due consideration given to factors such as the historical distribution of incidents, the influence of weather patterns, and the collocation of forces with supporting infrastructure. The Canadian Armed Forces currently have five primary SAR squadrons, located at bases in: Gander, Newfoundland & Labrador; Greenwood, Nova Scotia; Trenton, Ontario; Winnipeg, Manitoba; and Comox, British Colombia.
Studies completed by the Centre for Operational Research and Analysis (CORA) at Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) in 2005, 2011 and 2013 continue to support these basing locations. In fact, the most recent study in 2013, which looked at – inter alia – incident data, weather at candidate base locations, and aircraft ranges, yielded results indicating that the current basing does not significantly deviate from the mathematical ideal. According to their results, present basing achieves 98.0% of the mathematically optimized solution, with fixed-wing basing achieving 99.6% and rotary wing achieving 96.3% of the mathematical ideal. It should be noted that these results do not account for other factors that contribute to the CAF SAR response such as other federal or provincial SAR partners with strategically located SAR resources e.g. the CCG Search and Rescue Units on the St-Lawrence Seaway. In addition a statistical sensitivity analysis and a review of qualitative issues (basing infrastructure requirements for example) further supports these CAF base locations.
There are multiple phases in the conduct of a SAR incident, and Figure 3 below illustrates a typical incident timeline. For the CAF, a typical SAR mission will begin once the JRCC is made aware of a potential distress and begins to investigate. This entire process could take a few hours or a few minutes depending on the situation and information available.
From wherever they are, 24/7, CAF SAR crews always react immediately to a SAR incident once tasked by the JRCC. However, the response posture (as depicted in Figure 3) is structured and defined as the ability to be airborne within a stated time period from the time a tasking is received from the JRCC. CAF SAR crews are positioned to respond within the following set standards:
- Response Posture 30 minutes (RP 30): the aircrew are on base and the aircraft is available and ready to fly; and
- Response Posture 2 hours (RP 2 hrs): the aircrew may not be on base and may require pre-flight planning and preparations.
As per the National SAR Manual (NSM), the CAF is resourced to maintain RP30 for 40 hours a week per resource (aircraft type), and RP2hrs for the remaining hours. That said, Canadian Armed Forces’ SAR crews are airborne sooner, barring exceptional circumstances (aircraft unserviceability, weather, etc).
The CAF response posture is regularly reviewed to ensure SAR coordinators and crews respond as quickly as possible to save the lives of those at risk whenever and wherever an incident occurs. 5 Indeed, the CAF SAR system remains flexible and allows the SAR Region Commanders to re-align these standby periods so that they better coincide with periods of greatest SAR activity, such as during the summer months.
In December 2012, the CJOC Operational Research and Analysis team analysed the optimization of RP30 coverage. They found that there are clear seasonal, weekly, and hourly patterns in the time of occurrence of Category 1 and 2 incidents 6 in each of the SAR regions. Additionally, they found that regular RP30 schedules cover nearly 30% of Category 1 and 2 incidents in the peak SAR season, and with some modification to scheduling, there exists the potential to increase coverage to approximately 50%. Moreover, the study found that adjusting the schedule could be more effective than increasing the number of hours of RP30. To that end, the CJOC Commander and SAR Region Commander in Trenton have collaboratively implemented a modified RP30 schedule for the peak 2013 SAR season. An after-action report will be reviewed following the trial period to refine further trials and identify the path for future implementation.
No two SAR operations are identical and consequently the appropriate assets to respond to each incident will differ. The Royal Canadian Air Force thus maintains both fixed-wing and rotary-wing air assets, ensuring the necessary flexibility to respond to the wide array of SAR incidents that arise across the Canadian AOR.
The Primary SAR assets used by the Canadian Armed Forces are listed in the figure below.
All of the above-listed aircraft are multi-role, with one of each type at each Squadron assigned to the SRR Commander for primary SAR standby duties. The remaining Squadron aircraft are in maintenance, or used in support of SAR training flights, as back-up to the primary SAR aircraft, or, on occasion, for other air force priorities.
In exceptional circumstances, non-primary SAR CAF assets, including other Royal Canadian Air Force aircraft, Royal Canadian Navy ships, or Canadian Army units, can be used as secondary SAR resources, if required and when available.
The amount of maintenance required for the CC-115 Buffalo fleet is significant and it is increasingly problematic to find parts worldwide. The Estimated Life Expectancy (ELE) for the fleet is currently 2015, although there is a study underway to determine what would be required to extend the fleet life to 2020. Similarly, the ELE of the Hercules fleet is 2017, however, a study is underway to assess the potential for extending its life to 2021. Additional studies have also been requested to examine the implications of extending the ELE to 2025 or 2035.
In the near-term, to ensure the continued airworthiness of the existing fixed-wing SAR fleets until a suitable replacement is found, spare parts have been purchased wherever possible, and a number of sustainment projects are progressing. For instance, the Buffalo Avionics Life Extension project is nearing completion, and a waiver is being sought for the requirement to have a Cockpit Voice Recorder / Flight Data Recorder on the aircraft. For the Hercules fleet, a number of upgrade projects, such as the CC-130H simulator upgrade, and the installation of a new pressurized bubble spotter window / door, are progressing as planned.
To identify a solution for the longer-term, the Fixed Wing Search and Rescue (FWSAR) project – to replace both the CC-130H Hercules and CC-115 Buffalo – remains a high priority, and is currently in the Definition Stage. A draft Request for Proposals is expected in late summer/fall 2013. The Request for Proposals is being developed in consultation with industry, to find the best solution that meets the Department’s requirements and ensures maximum benefit for Canadians. Moving forward, a contract award is anticipated in 2014/2015, an Initial Operational Capability in 2018, and the Final Operational Capability in 2021.
The current ELE date for the Cormorant fleet is 2025, although the CH-149 Weapons Systems Manager is in the process of validating the actual ELE date. In the meantime, maintenance issues – and associated limits on aircraft availability – are being carefully managed. In particular, to address spare parts shortages for the CH-149, Canada purchased nine VH-71 airframes and a substantial quantity of spare parts from the United States in 2011. This acquisition has resulted in an increase in annual flying rates in recent years. In addition, initiatives to rationalize current maintenance processes are expected to reduce or eliminate the reliance on the VH-71 spares within the next 36 months. Over the longer-term, a Mid-Life Upgrade project is planned for the CH-149, and looks out to 2040 to address emerging obsolescence issues and rectify capability deficiencies, such as the lack of an Infra-Red Imaging system.
The current ELE date for the Griffon is 2021. There are currently no issues with availability and sustainability of the CH-146 fleet designated for SAR, and a CH-146 Limited Life Extension project, currently in options analysis, is expected to extend the ELE to 2030.
It was never the original intent to have CH-146s operating as the primary rotary-wing SAR aircraft in Trenton. However, initial CH-149 Cormorant serviceability rates required the RCAF to redistribute the CH-149s across the other main operating bases. This situation was further complicated by the subsequent loss of one CH-149 airframe in 2006. As such, the CH-146 still remains the interim solution for Rotary-Wing SAR in SRR Trenton, although there is an elevated risk level associated with using this aircraft in place of the Cormorant, due to its limitations in range, size, power and equipment deficiencies (such as the lack of de-icing capability, RADAR and fourth axis autopilot). However, this risk is being appropriately mitigated through careful tasking and through various aircraft improvements and modifications (such as the Quarter Door Life-raft, Satellite Communications and enhanced Radar Altimeter Warning System).
Search and Rescue operations demand a wide-range of carefully-tailored equipment. Indeed, given the extreme nature of SAR work – both in terms of function and environment – SAR equipment is not generally purchased “off the shelf,” but should be purpose-made for the individual and the operating environment in which it is expected to perform. For example, a diving dry suit that is well-suited for diving operations from a surface vessel does not necessarily meet the needs of a SAR technician parachuting into the Arctic Ocean. Moreover, while multi-role equipment, such as helmets and survival vests, may meet standard safety requirements, they may not necessarily meet the unique demands of a SAR mission.
With that in mind, while an established process is in place to identify and address the critical equipment needs of the Canadian Armed Forces writ large, it is not always responsive to the particular needs of the SAR community. The time required to implement changes to equipment is often lengthy and the process cumbersome, and thus continues to be an area of concern for the Royal Canadian Air Force (e.g. the SAR Missions Management System upgrade, primary SAR aircraft satellite communications, aircrew survival vest, portable radios, rescue harnesses, rescue dive ensembles, SAR Tech flying suits and jump helmets).
As another example, following the tragic CH-149 accident on 13 July 2006 there were 16 equipment-related recommendations. The Department was quick to implement interim measures to enable safe operations. However, final resolution is pending for eight of these recommendations.
Going forward, there are several equipment projects for SAR Tech personnel protective equipment and survival gear being developed and delivered between the Royal Canadian Air Force and the Materiel Group. In addition, to more holistically address current SAR equipment concerns, an Operational SAR Equipment Audit is currently ongoing. A team of SAR subject matter experts has visited Air Force Wings across the country to determine what equipment-related issues exist, and what is being done to rectify them. With their input, the Directorate of Air Requirements is expected to provide a status report on the unresolved SAR technician equipment issues to senior levels within the Royal Canadian Air Force, with the final report expected in Fall 2013.
It should also be noted that the Canadian Armed Forces, in collaboration with the National Search and Rescue Secretariat, is currently analyzing options for the Mid Earth Orbit Search and Rescue Satellite (MEOSAR) project, which will provide near real-time detection and determination of the location of emergency beacon signals.
The Canadian Armed Forces devote considerable personnel resources to deliver SAR service to Canadians 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. There are approximately 950 personnel that deliver or directly support SAR at the five primary squadrons (aircrew, military and contracted maintenance), three JRCCs, and headquarters.
While SAR units continue to be a manning priority (i.e. manned to 100% of approved manning levels), the “personnel establishment” – or target personnel levels – have remained relatively unchanged for the SAR community since their implementation decades ago. In the meantime, the Canadian Armed Forces, including the broader SAR community, have come to face a series of human resources pressures. Key amongst them for the SAR community are the following:
- increasing professional development requirements and changes to human resources policies (parental leave, bilingualism skills, others);
- a consistent imbalance of qualified personnel, particularly regarding Aircraft Commander/First Officer and Team Leader/Team Member ratios.
- within the JRCCs, there are insufficient Assistant Coordinator positions to man that position 24/7. This places an additional burden on the coordinators during periods of high activity.
These pressures often prevent the units from maintaining an appropriate balance between operational proficiency, personal workload and individual professional development opportunities and requirements. To address these issues, a comprehensive review of SAR manning is underway with a view to ensure that there are sufficient numbers of appropriately skilled personnel, aligned to meet current and future demands and pressures.
The RCAF also began the Military Employment Structure Implementation Plan (MES IP) in 2010. The MES IP process consists of a series of in-depth studies to review and articulate the occupational requirements of all 28 RCAF trades, taking into account such factors as employment patterns and career opportunities.
Additionally, a detailed study of SAR Tech training is also currently underway with the goal of validating SAR Tech capability and training requirements, in light of current SAR doctrine and operational needs.
Despite enormous geographic and climatic challenges, the Canadian Armed Forces contribute to a highly effective SAR capability delivered by federal, provincial and municipal partners, serving countless Canadians every year. The airmen and airwomen, sailors and soldiers involved in the CAF SAR system are justifiably proud of their round-the-clock efforts to aid Canadians in distress.
However, the cost of failing in this mission is too great to ever stop seeking out ways to improve the Canadian Armed Forces’ contribution to the National SAR Program. To that end, this report has highlighted the CAF’s ongoing efforts to review and assess its governance structures, policies and guidance; basing and response postures; and resources, to ensure that the maximum effect continues to be delivered for Canadians.
In many areas, new initiatives are already being pursued by the CAF (such as the Federal SAR Operational Governance Committee, and the trial-run of a modified RP30 schedule), but there are other areas where challenges remain. In particular:
- Pressing aircraft replacements and upgrades need to be carefully managed in the coming years;
- SAR equipment requirements need to be assessed and addressed in a timely manner; and
- SAR manning requirements demand a comprehensive review.
These areas will require more detailed analysis and investigation to ensure that the Canadian Armed Forces can continue to deliver and improve upon the SAR services provided to Canadians well into the future.
- 2013 Spring Report of the Auditor General of Canada, Chapter 7.
- Speech of Minister of National Defence, 2 May 2013.
- CDS Tasking Order – Search and Rescue Review, 19 June 2013.
- Canada First Defence Strategy (CFDS).
- Chief of the Defence Staff Guidance to the Canadian Armed Forces.
- DRDC CORA LR-2012-080, Preliminary Spatial Analysis of Historical Search and Rescue Incidents, 12 April 2012.
- DRDC CORA LR-2013-055, Search and Rescue Response Posture Optimization, 26 April 2013.
- DRDC CORA LR-2013-109, Search and Rescue Incident Data Analysis: Response Posture of Victoria and Halifax Regions, 18 July 2013.
- DRDC CORA LR-2013-125 , Evaluation of Optimal Location of Canadian Search and Rescue Bases for the 2013 Canadian Armed Forces SAR Posture Review, 15 August 2013.
- DRDC CORA TR 2012-077, The Impact of Primary Air SAR Response Posture on Incident Outcomes (U), March 2012.
- DRDC Operational Research Division, TR 2005/15, Support to Air Force Transformation (Search and Rescue), April 2005.
- 3000-2, Briefing Note for CAS, Revisit of 2005 DASOR Study on Optimal Location of Canadian Search and Rescue Bases, 22 February 2011.
The figures listed below represent the total incidents which formed a SAR case, coordinated by the Joint Rescue Coordination Centres (JRCCs), identified by Search and Rescue region and by classification type. These numbers do not include approximately 1,000 annual incidents that require JRCC investigation but that do not form a SAR case. They also do not include those incidents for which the Canadian Rangers provided support to other organizations (i.e. in a Ground SAR mission), as these are not coordinated through the JRCCs.
Table 1: Five Year Total & Average SAR Incidents
|Five Year Totals & Average by Search and Rescue Region (SRR)|
|2008||2009||2010||2011||2012||5 YR AVG|
|Five Year Totals & Average Taskings by Responder|
Table 2: 2012 Year End Totals by SRR and Classification
|2012 Year End Totals By Search and Rescue Region (SRR) and Classification|
|Aeronautical||Maritime||Humanitarian 9||Unknown||Outside Canadian AOR||Total|
|North of 55||115||63||19||3||205||405|
|CAT 1&2 North of 55||22||20||14||0||0||56|
CAF – Canadian Armed Forces
CAMSAR – Canadian Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue Manual
CASARA/SERABEC - Civil Air Search and Rescue Association / Sauvetage et Recherche Aériens du Québec
CCG – Canadian Coast Guard
CDS – Chief of the Defence Staff
CCGA – Canadian Coast Guard Auxiliary
CJOC – Canadian Joint Operations Command
CMCC – Canadian Mission Control Center
DND – Department of National Defence
GSAR – Ground Search and Rescue
IAMSAR – International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue Manual
ICSAR – Interdepartmental Committee on Search and Rescue
JRCC – Joint Rescue Coordination Center
MEOSAR – Mid Earth Orbit SAR
MND – Minister of National Defence
NSM – National Search and Rescue Manual
NSP – National Search and Rescue Program
NSS – National Search and Rescue Secretariat
SAR – Search and Rescue
SMC – Search Mission Coordinator
SMMS – SAR Mission Management System
SRR – Search and Rescue Region
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