Evaluation of the Canada – Yukon Labour Market Development Agreement

From: Employment and Social Development Canada

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Executive summary

1. Introduction

Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC) worked jointly with Yukon and 11 other Provinces and Territories (P/Ts) to undertake the 2012-2017 second cycle of the Labour Market Development Agreement (LMDA) evaluation. The first cycle of LMDA evaluation was carried out between 1998 and 2012 and involved the conduct of bilateral formative and summative evaluations in all P/Ts. Under the second cycle, the evaluation work consisted of conducting two to three studies per year on the Employment Benefits and Support Measures (EBSMs) similar programming delivered under these agreements. The studies generated evaluation evidence on the effectiveness, efficiency and design/delivery of EBSMs for Canada overall, for Yukon, and for the 11 other P/Ts that opted for a joint evaluation process with Canada.

Under LMDAs, Canada transfers $2.14B in Employment Insurance (EI) Part II funds to P/Ts for the design and delivery of programs and services to help unemployed individuals (mainly those eligible under EI) find and maintain employment. Specifically, Yukon receives approximately $3.25M in EBSM funding each year.

Programs and services delivered by Yukon correspond to the EBSM categories defined under the EI Act. The following is a short description of the four categories of programs and services examined in the evaluation:

  • Skills Development (Skills Development Employment Benefit, including Apprenticeship) helps participants obtain employment skills by giving them financial assistance in order to attend classroom training.
  • Targeted Wage Subsidies help participants obtain on-the-job work experience by providing employers with a wage subsidy.
  • Self-Employment provides financial assistance and business planning advice to participants to help them start their own business.
  • Employment Assistance Services such as counselling, job search skills, job placement services, the provision of labour market information and case management.

Four additional programs and services are available under the LMDAs: Job Creation Partnerships, Labour Market Partnerships, Research and Innovation and Targeted Earnings Supplements. They were not evaluated as part of this evaluation. Targeted Earnings Supplements and Job Creation Partnerships were not used in Yukon, and Labour Market Partnerships and Research and Innovation will be evaluated at a later stage.

Table i provides an overview of the share of funding allocated to the four EBSMs examined under the second cycle for LMDA evaluation and the average cost per intervention.

Table i. Share of LMDA funding and average cost per intervention in Yukon
Program and service Share of funding 2014 to 2015 Average cost per intervention 2002 to 2005
Skills Development Employment Benefit (including Apprenticeship) 57.6% $8,453
Employment Assistance Services 40.4% $1,659
Targeted Wage Subsidies 0.2% $4,023
Self-Employment 1.8% $18,514
Total 100%

Sources: EI Monitoring and Assessment Reports 2002 to 2003 to 2014 to 2015.

This report presents a summary of the findings from seven studies produced on Yukon LMDA interventions and participants. Results are presented for active and former EI claimants as well as for long-tenured workersFootnote 1, youth (under 30 years old) and older workers (55 years old and over) when the number of participants was sufficient to conduct quantitative analyses. Active EI claimants are classified as those who were receiving EI benefits at the time of their EBSM participation. Former EI claimants covered in the evaluation received EI up to three years before starting their EBSM participation.

2. Key findings

Overall, incremental impacts, cost-benefit analysis, and labour market outcomes provide indications that LMDA-funded programs and services delivered in Yukon are generally helping participants to improve their labour market attachment after participation.

Incremental impacts demonstrate that active EI claimants who participated in Skills Development Employment Benefit had gains in earnings and incidence of employment after program participation when compared to similar non-participants. As well, active EI claimants who participated in Employment Assistance Services had reductions in EI use and some gains in earnings after participation. The social benefits of participation exceeded the cost of the intervention over time for active claimants who participated in these two programs. Labour market outcomes demonstrate that former claimants who participated in LMDA programs and services showed higher average earnings and lower average proportions on EI and social assistance during the five years after program participation when compared to five years prior.

Some participants do not appear to be benefitting from EBSM participation, as reflected in the general decrease in the proportion of employed former claimant participants between the pre- and post-participation periods. Explanations for this decrease may include retirement decisions and other reasons for leaving the labour force.

2.1 Effectiveness and efficiency of EBSMs for active claimant participants

Skills Development Employment Benefit is effective at improving earnings and incidence of employment among active EI claimant participants

Active EI claimants who participated in Skills Development Employment Benefit had higher earnings from employment/self-employment after participation (cumulative of $16,684) when compared to similar non-participants. As well, these participants had gains in their annual incidence of employment in the first (4.1 percentage points), third (4.2 percentage points), and fifth (4.6 percentage points) years after participation compared to non-participants. Incremental impacts on EI use and social assistance use were overall not statistically significant, though dependence on government income support decreased in all post-program years except the first (ranging from 3.0 to 4.6 percentage points) for these active claimants.

From the social perspective (that is, the sum of participant and government costs or benefits), the benefits of participation in Skills Development Employment Benefit exceeded the related costs in 6.3 years after participation.

Employment Assistance Services are effective at improving employment earnings and reducing EI use among active EI claimant participants

In comparison to similar EI claimants who did not participate in the program, active EI claimants who participated exclusively in Employment Assistance Services reduced their use of EI by a cumulative of $2,847 or 6.7 weeks after program participation. These participants also had incremental increases in employment earnings in the second ($2,415) and fourth ($3,346) years after participation. Incremental impacts on the incidence of employment, the use of social assistance and the level of dependence on government income support were not statistically significant.

From the social perspective (i.e. the sum of participant and government costs or benefits), the benefits of participation in Employment Assistance Services exceeded the related costs in 2 years after participation.

2.2 Labour market outcomes for former claimant participants

Program participants have higher average earnings after program participation

As shown in Figure i, former claimants who participated in Skills Development Employment Benefit, Targeted Wage Subsidies, and Employment Assistance Services showed higher average employment earnings during the five years after their participation when compared to five years prior. For example, participants in Skills Development Employment Benefit experienced $8,512 increase, on average, in employment earnings between the 5-years pre- and post- participation.

Figure i. Change in average earnings of former claimant participants 5 years pre- and post-participation in LMDA programs and service
Text description of Figure i
Figure i. Change in Average Earnings of Former Claimant Participants 5 Years Pre- and Post-Participation in LMDA Programs and Services
Change in average earnings
Skills Development Employment Benefit $ 8,512
Targeted Wage Subsidies $ 7,708
Employment Assistance Services $ 2,391

Note: outcomes for participants in Targeted Wage Subsidies should be interpreted with caution given the small number of participants (66 for former claimants).

The average proportion of participants on Employment Insurance and social assistance is lower after program participation

As shown in Figure ii, the average proportion of participants who use EI is shown to be lower in the post-participation period for former EI claimants who participated in Skills Development Employment Benefit, Targeted Wage Subsidies, and Employment Assistance Services (when compared to five years prior). These decreases were accompanied by decreased proportions of former claimant participants on social assistance. For example, former claimant who participated in Skills Development Employment Benefit decreased the use of EI by 18 percentage points and the use of social assistance by 3 percentage points between the 5-years pre- and post- participation.

Figure ii. Change in Average Proportion of Former Claimant Participants on Employment Insurance and Social Assistance 5 Years Pre- and Post-Participation in LMDA Programs and Services
Text description of Figure ii
Figure ii. Change in Average Proportion of Former Claimant Participants on Employment Insurance and Social Assistance 5 Years Pre- and Post-Participation in LMDA Programs and Services
Percentage Points
Employment Insurance Social Assistance
Skills Development Employment Benefit -18 -3
Targeted Wage Subsidies -13 -9
Employment Assistance Services -21 -1

Note: outcomes for participants in Targeted Wage Subsidies should be interpreted with caution given the small number of participants (66 for former claimants).

The average proportion of participants employed is lower after program participation when compared to before program participation for all EBSMs

Some participants do not appear to be benefitting from EBSM participation, as reflected in the general decrease in the proportion of employed former claimant participants between the pre- and post-participation periods (see Figure iii). This decrease can be partially explained by retirement decisions considering the proportion of participants aged 55 years and older. As well, some participants may have left the labour force for various reasons.

Figure iii. Change in Average Proportion of Former Claimant Participants Employed 5 Years Pre- and Post-Participation in LMDA Programs and Services
Text description of Figure iii
Figure iii. Change in Average Proportion of Former Claimant Participants Employed 5 Years Pre- and Post-Participation in LMDA Programs and Services
Percentage points
Skills Development Employment Benefit -7
Targeted Wage Subsidies -13
Employment Assistance Services -10

Note: outcomes for participants in Targeted Wage Subsidies should be interpreted with caution given the small number of participants (66 for former claimants).

2.3 Main Challenges about Program Design and Delivery

Key informants interviews with service providers and program managers, as well as the documents reviewed and the questionnaires filled by Yukon representatives, revealed few challenges and lessons learned about program design and delivery. In the case of Employment Assistance Services, national-level results are included as Yukon did not participate in the qualitative study. Key challenges and barriers are highlighted below.

Skills Development Employment Benefit
  • The availability of training is limited locally, and alternatives (distance education, relocation) prove quite complicated and difficult to accommodate.
  • Participants may lack essential skills or other related certifications (for example, drivers or machinery license) that are also necessary for the job but require extended training and are generally not supported by the Skills Development Employment Benefit program.
  • Some individuals who might benefit from the program do not have sufficient labour market attachment to qualify for EI.
  • Counselling assistance for participants with multiple barriers is not always accessible, which causes caseworkers to take on this supportive role as well.
  • Recruiting and retaining staff (project officers and caseworkers) with the expertise to assist individuals with complex action plans is challenging.
  • A lack of awareness may prevent potential participants from joining, and a range of barriers (for example, lack of child care, personal/family instability, transportation, academic struggles, financial obstacles, etc.) may prevent participants from completing their training.
Skills Development Employment Benefit – Apprenticeship

Existing Canadian literature showed that there is a fairly high non-completion rate among apprentices (40 to 50%)Footnote 2 in Canada. Furthermore, subject matter literature revealed that despite the growth in apprenticeship registrations in Canada, there has not been a corresponding increase in completion ratesFootnote 3. While it is not possible with available data to generate a reliable estimation of the completion rate for apprenticeship training, key informants involved in apprenticeship delivery confirmed the stagnation in completion rates.

According to key informants, apprenticeship drop-out is due to factors such as:

  • Lack of essential skills and basic employment experience (in the case of young apprentices).
  • Financial hardship (due to limited support from EI Part I benefits and the high cost of living in the Yukon), delays and obstructions to processing EI claims, and travel for block training may deter apprentices.
  • Apprentices may change their mind about their career path and discontinue training.
  • Fluctuations in the labour market may produce periods of low demand for certain trades.
  • Lack of journeymen to support apprentices (particularly in rural areas).
Targeted Wage Subsidies
  • Administrative burdens on employers during the application process and subsidy period, as well as perceptions about the level of efforts needed to accommodate participants.
  • Lack of employer awareness about the program and its objectives, as well as the inability of participants to market themselves using the self-marketing letter alone.
  • Perceptions about the quality of participants may discourage some employers from hiring Employer Wage Subsidies participants and may use alternative programs (for example, Temporary Foreign Worker Program, the Nominee program).
  • Individuals who might benefit from the program have not had sufficient labour market attachment to qualify for EI.
  • Lack of entry-level jobs (which are often most suitable for wage subsidy participants) or the seasonal nature of some positions.
  • Personal suitability for the position. Circumstances unique to the participant may require that they cease working, or the career exploration accomplished by program participation may reveal that the job is not a good fit.
Employment Assistance Services

Challenges reported in 10 provinces and territories include:

  • Lack of awareness about Employment Assistance Services among potential participants.
  • Current budget allocation is not enough to support the delivery of Employment Assistance Services and has led some service providers to eliminate services.
  • Service providers cannot provide all the services needed for participants facing multiple barriers to employment. They have to refer these individuals to other organizations.

3. Recommendations

A total of six recommendations resulted from the evaluation findings. They are as follows:

A 2016 Review of Employment and Skills Strategies in Yukon by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development concluded by identifying the future needs for a higher-educated, higher-skilled Yukon labour force. As well, the labour market statistics revealed that Aboriginal peoples represented 23% of the total population in Yukon in 2016 with an average unemployment level of 11.4% (compared to 4.5% in Yukon). Furthermore, 28.7% of Aboriginal Peoples have no Certificate, diploma or degree (compared to 8.5 % in Yukon). Finally, the 2009 Yukon Labour Market Framework called for having “an inclusive and adaptable labour market that meets the demands of a strong and diversified economy and provides opportunities for a better quality of life for Yukoners.”

Recommendation 1: Consideration should be given about providing literacy/essential skills training/high-school upgrading for individuals with multiple barriers and those distant from the labour market, including Indigenous peoples, in preparing for vocational training and eventually reintegrating into the labour market. These measures should be reported separately from other Skills Development Employment Benefit interventions given their unique objectives.

The annual number of participants in the Targeted Wage Subsidies program in Yukon is very small and labour market outcomes presented in the report should be interpreted with caution. National-level and several provincial-level evaluations show that Targeted Wage Subsidies are effective at improving the earnings and employment of participants.

Recommendation 2: Consideration should be given by Yukon to reduce the barriers to employer participation in the program and to support the marketing to potential participants.

Active claimants who participated in Employment Assistance Services reduced their use of EI following participation and experienced some gains in earnings compared to similar non-participants. Yukon did not participate in the qualitative study carried out on this program, which investigated challenges and lessons learned about design and delivery specific to the context of the participating province/territory.

Recommendation 3: Given that Employment Assistance Services represent a significant portion of total LMDA funds (40%), and that evaluation evidence suggests that the program works well, consideration should be given to examining to what extent the challenges and lessons learned identified at the national level (and presented in this report) are applicable to the unique context in Yukon.

A study carried out across Canada regarding the timing of participation in Employment Assistance Services showed that receiving assistance early after starting an EI claim can lead to better labour market impacts.

Recommendation 4: Consideration should be given by Yukon to request timely access to data on new EI recipients for targeting purposes, especially if awareness about Employment Assistance Services is also an issue in the territory.

With the exception of producing incremental impacts for participation in Skills Development Employment Benefit and Employment Assistance Services (active claimants), the LMDA evaluation was only able to produce labour market outcomes for participants in other EBSMs given the small number of participants. Labour market outcomes were produced over five years and for the entire population of participants using rich data on EI claimants, EBSM participation data and Canada Revenue Agency taxation files. However, some data gaps limited the evaluation's ability to assess how EBSMs operate. For example:

  • Having access to data on whether participants are members of designated groups including Aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities and recent immigrants would be useful to inform policy development and program design.
  • Having access to data on the cost of programming per participant would also provide a refined assessment of how much participation costs for active claimants as compared to former claimants.
  • It is not currently possible to distinguish between different types of training and support funded under Skills Development Employment Benefit (e.g. literacy, essential skills, adult basic education, vocational training and tuition differential). These various types of training/supports can lead to very different labour market outcomes and can help explain the observed outcomes.
  • Due to non-participation in the qualitative study, little is also known about the various types of Employment Assistance Services provided under the LMDA in Yukon. These services can be very different in nature and it is possible that some may be more effective than others at helping participants return to employment. For example, having access to a computer for researching jobs on its own may yield different impacts than receiving counselling and assistance to develop a return-to-work action plan.

Recommendation 5: Enhancements in the data collection process are recommended to address key program and policy questions of interest to Canada and Yukon. Specifically:

  • Collect data on whether participants are members of designated groups including Indigenous peoples, persons with disabilities and recent immigrants.
  • Collect data on the type of training funded under Skills Development Employment Benefit and the type of assistance provided under Employment Assistance Services. Yukon, ESDC and other P/Ts should work together to define common categories for both EBSMs.
  • Collect detailed data on the cost of EBSM interventions.

The evaluation was not able to produce with confidence labour market outcomes for Self-Employment since the data used to assess impacts on earnings may not be the best source of information available to reflect the financial wellbeing of the participants. As well, little is known about the design and delivery of this program. Overall, it is not clear whether participant success in improving their labour market attachment through self-employment is more closely associated with their business idea and their entrepreneurship skills or the assistance provided under Self-Employment.

Recommendation 6: Consideration should be given to examine in more detail the design and delivery of Self-Employment and whether the performance indicators for this program are appropriate.

Management response

Introduction

The Advanced Education Branch of the Yukon Government Department of Education worked in close collaboration with the Evaluation Directorate of ESDC, as well as our colleagues from the other provinces and territories, throughout the implementation of the second cycle for the LMDA evaluation. The Advanced Education Branch would like to take this opportunity to thank all participants who gave their time and resources to the Evaluation Steering Committee.

The findings contained within this report are an important foundation-stone as Yukon works with its stakeholders to ensure that employment programming is accessible to all who meet the criteria. The Advanced Education Branch agrees with the recommendations found in this evaluation and is pleased to submit this management response.

Background

In this second cycle for the LMDA evaluation, two to three studies were completed each year, the results of which generated valuable evidence on the effectiveness and delivery of ESBMs for Yukon. The four categories of programming that were examined in the evaluation are:

  • Skills Development Employment Benefits (including Apprentices).
  • Targeted Wage Subsidies.
  • Self-Employment.
  • Employment Assistances Services.

The evaluation of the Canada-Yukon LMDA confirmed that programs and services are generally helping Yukon participants to improve their labour market attachment after participation. In effect, clients who participated had a gain in earnings and increased incidence of employment after participation in LMDA programming when compared to participants who did not partake of such programming.

Response from advanced education management

A total of six recommendations were reported from the evaluation findings. Yukon's response is as follows:

Recommendation 1: Consideration should be given about providing literacy/essential skills training/high-school upgrading for individuals with multiple barriers and those distant from the labour market, including Indigenous peoples, in preparing for vocational training and eventually reintegrating into the labour market. These measures should be reported separately from other Skills Development Employment Benefit interventions given their unique objectives.

Response: Yukon worked with stakeholders to develop a literacy strategy that encompassed all forms of literacy, from pre-school through adulthood. The Advanced Education Branch has also reached out to local First Nation governments to work with them, on their own terms, to develop essential skills training for their citizens. These meetings are still ongoing but show great promise. As well, the new flexibility under the Labour Market Transfer Agreements will create new opportunities to engage in this activity.

Recommendation 2: Consideration should be given by Yukon to reduce the barriers to employer participation in the program and to support the marketing to potential participants.

Response: Yukon is about to embark on a new program (tentatively called ‘Staffing UP') which will enable employers to participate by planning for staff training, assisting employers to engage and retain members from under-represented groups and, for small employers of 25 or less staff, human resource capacity building, including duty to accommodate and labour market information. This will be the successor to existing programs such as Canada Job Grant and Targeted Wage Subsidies, but includes assessment and success elements that benefit employers as well as job seekers. We are also looking for ways to engage employers more effectively in consultation with the Labour Market Framework so that employers can become participants in program development and not merely consumers of program funding.

Recommendation 3: Given that Employment Assistance Services represent a significant portion of total LMDA funds (40%), and that the evaluation evidence suggests that the program works well, considerations should be given to examining to what extent the challenges and lessons learned identified at the national level (and presented in this report) are applicable to the unique context in Yukon.

Response: In Yukon, and by a long margin, the greatest direct benefit is in the case management and job seeking support provided under Employment Assistance Services. Yukon did not participate in the Employment Assistance Services qualitative study conducted in 2013, but this was because we had already come to many of the conclusions in the report, particularly the challenge faced by those with multiple barriers and the limitations of what is now the former performance measurement strategy. Our approach going forward reflects the desire to provide a client-centred holistic approach, effective needs assessment and attempts to streamline the program suite and the service offerings.

At the same time, we are looking for efficiency gains in the service that will better meet the needs of job seekers, more effectively engage employers and reduce the overall costs so that we free up program dollars. While the evaluation is clear that these services are vital and we will continue them, our consultation also points to the need for further program flexibility. We cannot offer new approaches if we must continue to provide funding as we always have. This overhaul of Employment Assistance Services and case management delivery is an essential component of our plans going forward.

Recommendation 4: Consideration should be given by Yukon to request timely access to data on new EI recipients for targeting purposes, especially if awareness about Employment Assistance Services is also an issue in the territory.

Response: The evaluation report was clear that early intervention results in positive impacts on earnings and employment. We have already engaged with ESDC and expect to implement some form of the Targeting, Referral and Feedback system in 2018-2019.

Recommendation 5: Enhancements in the data collection processes are recommended to address key program and policy questions of interest to Canada and Yukon. Specifically:

  • Collect data on whether participants are members of designated groups including Indigenous peoples, persons with disabilities and recent immigrants.
  • Collect data on the type of training funded under Skills Development Employment Benefit and the type of assistance provided under Employment Assistance Services. Yukon, ESDC and other P/Ts should work together to define common categories for both EBSMs.
  • Collect detailed data on the cost of ESBM interventions.

Response: Yukon is well placed to deliver on the success measures and information collection expected under the new Labour Market Transfer agreements and the performance measurement strategy. Our participant and program management system (Genie) is already configured to be roughly 90% compliant with the information we have agreed to collect and provide. It only remains to work with ESDC to ensure the reporting systems reflect the new design. We expect to achieve this well before the 2019 to 2020 deadline in the performance measurement strategy.

Recommendation 6: Consideration should be given to examine in more detail the design and delivery of Self-Employment and whether the performance indicators for this program are appropriate.

Response: Yukon does not currently have an active Self-Employment program running under the LMDA. The employment and economic conditions in Yukon at the present time is such that individuals who want to find a job are able to; those who are struggling in the labour market are those who have multiple barriers to employment, suggesting that self-employment is not the appropriate course of action.

However, we are in discussion with our Department of Economic Development and with a number of First Nation Governments. Entrepreneurial activity is seen as a possible solution to the high unemployment rate in communities outside of Whitehorse and as a viable labour market builder within the First Nation traditional territories, particularly around eco and cultural tourism. We expect to launch some kind of entrepreneurial support program jointly with the Department of Economic Development in 2018 to 2019.

1. Introduction

Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC) worked jointly with Yukon and 11 other Provinces and Territories (P/Ts) to undertake the 2012 to 2017 second cycle for the Labour Market Development Agreement (LMDA) evaluations. The first cycle of LMDA evaluation was carried out between 1998 and 2012 and involved the conduct of bilateral formative and summative evaluations in all P/Ts. Under the second cycle, the evaluation work consisted of conducting two to three studies per year on the Employment Benefits and Support Measures (EBSMs) similar programming delivered under these agreements. The studies generated evaluation evidence on the effectiveness, efficiency and design/delivery of EBSMs for Canada, Yukon and for the 11 other P/Ts that opted for a joint evaluation process with the Government of Canada.

This report presents a summary of the findings from the studies conducted for Yukon and it is organised as follows:

  • Introduction with an overview of the studies summarized in this report including their scope and methodology, and contextual information on the LMDAs
  • Finding section with a discussion around the rationale for investing in labour market programming and a summary of evaluation evidence
  • Comparison of key findings by program type
  • Conclusions and lessons learned
  • Recommendations that emerge from the evaluation findings and areas for future investigation

1.1 Labour Market Development Agreement background

LMDAs are bilateral agreements between Canada and each P/T and were established under Part II of the 1996 Employment Insurance (EI) Act. As part of these agreements, Canada transfers $2.14B annually in EI Part II funding to P/Ts in order to design and deliver programs and services to assist individuals to prepare for, obtain and maintain employment. Specifically, Yukon receives approximately $3.25M in EBSM funding each year.

The Canada-Yukon LMDA was signed on July 8, 2009. The agreement transferred responsibility for the design and delivery of programs and services to Yukon. Programs and services are classified under two categories: 1) Employment Benefits and 2) Support Measures.

Employment Benefits

Employment Benefits funded under the LMDA are offered to unemployed individuals who 1) are actively on EI (that is, active claimants); 2) ended their benefit period within three years before participating (that is, former claimants); or 3) established a claim for maternity or parental benefits within the past five years and are returning to the labour force for the first time (that is, former claimants)Footnote 4. Employment Benefits include the following categories:

  • Skills Development (Skills Development Employment Benefit, including Apprenticeship) helps participants obtain employment skills by giving them financial assistance that enables them to select, arrange and pay for classroom training.
  • Targeted Wage Subsidies helps participants obtain on-the-job work experience by providing employers with financial assistance to help with the wages of participants.
  • Self-Employment provides financial assistance and business planning advice to EI-eligible participants to help them start their own business. This financial assistance is intended to cover personal living expenses and other expenses during the initial stages of the business.
  • Job Creation Partnerships provides participants with opportunities to gain work experience that will lead to ongoing employment. Employment opportunities are provided by projects that contribute to developing the community and the local economy. This program was not offered in Yukon during the period under examination and is therefore not covered by the evaluation.
  • Targeted Earnings Supplements encourages unemployed persons to accept employment by offering them financial incentives. This program was not offered in Yukon and therefore not covered by the evaluation.

Support Measures

Support Measures are available to all unemployed individuals including those not eligible to receive EI and include:

  • Employment Assistance Services such as individual counselling, action planning, help with job search skills, job-finding clubs, job placement services, the provision of labour market information, case management and follow-up.
  • Labour Market Partnerships (Labour Market Partnerships Employer-Sponsored Training) provides funding to help employers, employee and employer associations, and communities improve their capacity to deal with human resource requirements and implement labour force adjustments. These partnerships involve developing plans and strategies, and implementing labour force adjustment measures. This support measure was not covered by the evaluation.
  • Research and Innovation supports activities that identify better ways of helping people prepare for or keep employment and be productive participants in the labour force. Funds are provided to eligible recipients to enable them to carry out demonstration projects and research for this purpose. This support measure was not covered by the evaluation.

Table 1 provides an overview of the share of funding allocated to the four programs and services examined under the second cycle of LMDA evaluation and the average cost per intervention. It is noted that the average cost per intervention was calculated based on the 2002-2005 data from the EI Monitoring and Assessment Reports. The 2002 to 2005 period corresponds to the cohort of participants originally selected for incremental impacts and cost-benefit analysis in the LMDA evaluation. The cohort was expanded to include 2001 to 2007 participants in order to secure a larger sample size for incremental impact analysis.

Table 1. Share of LMDA funding and average cost per intervention in Yukon
Program and service Share of funding 2014 to 2015 Average cost per intervention 2002 to 2005
Skills Development Employment Benefit (including Apprenticeship) 57.6% $8,453
Employment Assistance Services 40.4% $1,659
Targeted Wage Subsidies 0.2% $4,023
Self-Employment 1.8% $18,514
Total 100%

Sources: EI Monitoring and Assessment Reports 2002 to 2003 to 2014 to 2015.

1.2 Methodology

This section presents key aspects of the quantitative analyses carried out as part of the LMDA studies, while a more detailed description of the methodology is provided in Appendix A.

All quantitative analyses were based on administrative data from the EI Part I (EI claim data) and Part II (EBSM participation data collected by Yukon and transferred to ESDC) databanks, linked to T1 and T4 taxation files from the Canada Revenue Agency. Incremental impact analyses and the cost-benefit analyses were based on 100% of participants in the reference period selected.

Incremental Impacts Analysis

One study assessed program effectiveness by estimating incremental impacts from participation in Skills Development Employment Benefit and Employment Assistance Services on participants' labour market experience (for example, earnings from employment/self-employment, incidence of employment, use of EI or social assistance, and dependence on income support) after participation. The role of the incremental impact analysis is to isolate the effects of participation from other factors such as the economic cycle. In order to achieve this, the incremental impact analyses compared the labour market experience of participants before and after their participation with that of non-participants (see the example of incremental impact calculation in Figure 1).

The matching of participants and comparison group members used up to 75 socio-demographic and labour market variables observed over five years before participation. For active claimants, incremental impacts were measured relative to a comparison group of active claimants who were eligible to participate in EBSMs but did not during the reference periodFootnote 5.

Figure 1. Example of incremental impact calculation
Text description of Figure 1
Figure 1. Example of incremental impact calculation
Participants
Average Annual Earnings Before participation After participation Change in earnings
$30,000 $38,000 $8,000
Comparison Group
Average Annual Earnings Before participation After participation Change in earnings
$31,000 $36,000 $5,000
Incremental Impact (Change due to program participation): + $3,000 (in other words, $8,000 - $5,000)

Factors accounted for in the cost-benefit analysis

Program efficiency was assessed through a cost-benefit analysis which compared the cost of participating in the program for the participants and the cost of delivering the program for the government to the benefits generated by the program. Overall, this analysis provided insight on the extent to which the program is efficient for society (that is, for both the participants and the government). The costs and benefits accounted for in the calculations were as follows (see detailed definitions in Appendix A):

  • Program cost: includes program and administration costs paid by the government.
  • Marginal social costs of public funds: represent the loss incurred by society when raising additional revenues such as taxes to fund government programs.
  • Employment earnings: consist of incremental impacts on participants' earnings during and after participation (that is, opportunity cost). The calculation accounts for the participants' forgone earnings during participation (that is, opportunity cost). Employment earnings were also increased by 15% to account for fringe benefits such as employer-paid health, life insurance and pension contributions.

Labour Market Outcomes

The analysis of outcomes provides descriptive statistics on the labour market experience of participants before, during and after participation. For example, it shows the average annual earnings of active claimants before, during and after participation, and presents what changes were observed from before to after participation. Overall, the analyses were conducted over a period of 9 to 12 years (five years before participation, one or two years during participation, and three or five years after participation).

The outcome analyses provide an assessment of how the labour market situation of participants evolved over time, but does not permit inference regarding the extent to which those changes were due to EBSM participation. For example, increases in employment earnings over the period examined could be partly due to inflation or normal wage increases.

When the number of participants was sufficient, outcomes were examined for active and former EI claimants who were youth (under 30 years old), older workers (55 years old and over) and long-tenured workers. Long-tenured workers refer to individuals who had long-term attachment to the labour market but not necessarily a long tenure with the same employer.

Strengths and Limitations of the Studies

One of the key strengths of the studies is that all quantitative analyses were based on administrative data rather than survey responses. Compared to survey data, administrative data are not subject to recall errors or response bias.

The propensity score models used to match participants and non-participants for the incremental impact analyses are judged to be robust in part because they were based on five years of pre-participation data and on a vast array of variables including socio-demographic characteristics, location, skills level related to last occupation and indicators of labour market attachment. Sensitivity analysis and the use of alternative estimation methods have increased confidence in the incremental impact estimates. However, one limitation with the propensity score matching technique is that one cannot be fully certain that the impacts were not influenced by factors not captured in the data.

The cost-benefit analysis accounted for all quantifiable costs and benefits that are directly attributable to the EBSMs and that could be estimated with the available administrative data. The analyses did not account for non-quantifiable benefits such as improvements in participants' wellbeing or for the multiplier effect of increased spending on the economy.

In the case of Yukon, it was only possible to produce incremental impacts for active EI claimants who participated in Skills Development Employment Benefit and Employment Assistance Services. Generally speaking, this is due to the small number of participants in the territory. Where incremental impact analysis was not possible, an analysis of labour market outcomes associated with program participants was performed. While outcomes can provide some insights about the labour market experience of participants before and after participation, it is not possible to attribute the change observed in the outcomes to program participation. For example, a change in average annual earnings from before to after participation could be due to program participation or to other factors such as the maturation effect of youth and the economic cycle.

When interpreting qualitative findings, readers should keep in mind that these are based on the perception of a small number of key informants who are directly involved in the design or delivery of the program. Their perception may be representative of their own region or community but not necessarily of the entire territory. Since the number of key informants interviewed in each study is small (3 to 4), the number of informants who reported a specific finding is not indicated in the report.

1.3 Overview of the studies summarized in this report

Findings presented in this report were drawn from seven separate studies produced on Yukon LMDA interventions and participants. These studies examined issues related to program effectiveness, efficiency and design/delivery, and used a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods. Each study examined evaluation issues in relation to active and former EI claimants.

Table G1 in Appendix G presents an overview of these studies, including the type of evidence generated, the methods used, the reference period and the length of the post-program period over which program effects were observed.

2. Evaluation findings

2.1 Rationale and labour market context

Labour market context

Yukon covers an area of approximately 482,443 km2 and had an estimated total population of 38,200 as of September 2016. The majority of the population resides in Whitehorse Area (29,529), while the remainder lives in Dawson City (2,202), Watson Lake (1,473), or one of more than 15 small rural communities.Footnote 6

Recent dataFootnote 7 on Aboriginal Peoples in the Yukon shows that approximately 23% of the population identified themselves as Aboriginals in 2011 – proportionately less than in Nunavut or Northwest Territories, but greater than the rest of the country.

Educational attainment in Yukon has been above the national average for both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations. In 2011, approximately 51% of Aboriginals and 71% of non-Aboriginals aged 25 to 64 had a post-secondary qualification (compared to 48.4% and 64.7% nationally). Still, disparities exist between these two groups. As illustrated in Figure 2 below, Aboriginals were over-represented among those with low levels of educational attainment and under-represented among those with high levels – by about 20 percentage points in each category.

Figure 2. Highest level of educational attainment for working-age (25-64) Yukon population by Aboriginal status
Text description of Figure 2
Figure 2. Highest level of educational attainment for working-age (25-64) Yukon population by Aboriginal status
Education levels %
Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal
No certificate, diploma, or degree 28.7% 8.5%
High school diploma or equivalent 20.1% 20.7%
Postsecondary certificate, diploma, or degree 51.2% 70.8%

Source: Statistics Canada 2011 National Household Survey as published by Yukon Bureau of Statistics

This disparity transmits to the labour market. While Aboriginal participation rates in the labour force exceeded the national average in the Yukon in 2016, nearly 1 in 3 Aboriginals who were aged 15+ did not count themselves as part of the labour force.Footnote 8 Those who were seeking work still experienced high unemployment compared to the non-Aboriginal population – 11.4% in 2016 versus 4.5% for non-Aboriginals.

Overall unemployment in the Yukon, though, is markedly low. At 5.6%, Yukon's 2016 unemployment rate was the lowest in Canada and placed below the national rate (7%) for the thirteenth consecutive year.

A 2016 Review of Employment and Skills Strategies in YukonFootnote 9 by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development noted several factors that uniquely shape the needs and opportunities of the Yukon labour market. The report highlighted that a large share of the economy is in public administration, with few large firms besides those in the mining industry. The report proposed that it will become important for the private and non-governmental sectors to develop a greater place in the future economy.

Regarding the Yukon labour market, the report noted the high rate of seasonal work and the high demand for skilled workers in public and First Nations administrations and other selected trades. The report explained that the remoteness of Yukon's few business/living centres makes it more difficult to attract skilled workers. Finally, the report concluded by identifying the future needs for a higher-educated, higher-skilled Yukon labour force.

LMDA Investments Align with Territorial Government Priorities

The Government of Yukon coordinated with a variety labour market stakeholders in 2009 to develop a Labour Market Framework that would help ensure that the territory has “an inclusive and adaptable labour market that meets the demands of a strong and diversified economy and provides opportunities for a better quality of life for Yukoners.Footnote 10 The Framework includes four strategies and associated action plans. The first strategy – “Comprehensive Skills and Trades Training” – lays out two important objectives to promote a capable, productive Yukon population:

  • Ensuring training opportunities are available for all Yukon people to adapt effectively and efficiently to changing skills, knowledge, and abilities.
  • Facilitating and improving learning and employment transitions.

In this respect, active labour market programming – such as that funded under LMDA transfers – can play an important role in the fulfillment of this strategy and the success of Yukoners. Active labour market programs aim to help unemployed or underemployed individuals find and maintain employment. These programs are fairly similar across Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries and consist of skills training in a classroom setting, work experience with employers (often subsidized) or in the public/non-profit sector, return-to-employment assistance and self-employment assistance.

In the Yukon, the Department of Education is responsible for the development and delivery of employment programs and services designed to assist Yukon residents to return to the labour force. The Department's most recent PlanFootnote 11 for Yukon's Labour Market Development Agreement laid out the alignment of LMDA investments with Yukon labour market priorities. The Plan highlighted three particular labour market focus areas in which LMDA-funded programs and services can support the territory's priorities:

  • Labour market participation for groups that can face disadvantage due to multiple barriers and/or lack of work experience (social assistance recipients, persons with disabilities, older workers, youth, First Nations, women in trades, and immigrants).
  • Capacity-building and improved labour market attachment for Aboriginals, including a focus on rural projects.
  • Increased labour market participation and training/skills development in key sectors including tourism and hospitality, mineral exploration, mining, construction, and highway maintenance.

Overall, incremental impacts for active EI claimant participants and gross outcomes reported for former EI claimant participants provide some indications that LMDA funded programs and services delivered in Yukon are generally helping participants improve their labour market experience after participation. Some participants do not appear to be benefiting from participation and remain unemployed following participation. Evaluation evidence suggests that LMDA-funded programs are aligned with and can contribute to achieving the objective of the 2009 Yukon Labour Market Framework of having “an inclusive and adaptable labour market that meets the demands of a strong and diversified economy and provides opportunities for a better quality of life for Yukoners.”

2.2 Skills Development Employment Benefit

2.2.1 Program Description

Based on a document review and three key informant interviews completed in summer 2015

In Yukon, the objective of the Skills Development Employment Benefit program is to assist active and former EI claimants in obtaining the skills (from basic to advanced) they need for employment. Targeted clientele include those whose action plans identify a lack of marketable skills as an employment barrier and demonstrate that the training program will support the participant's re-entry into Yukon's labour market. Supported types of training include:

  • Skills training for specific occupation
  • Academic upgrading if required as a pre-requisite for further occupational skills training and/or employment as documented in the participant's action plan
  • Literacy/numeracy as a reasonable first step in the participant's action plan
  • English or French as Second Language training for labour market-destined clients

Training must be full-time and not exceed two years, lead to a certificate or diploma, and be delivered by a registered and regulated training/education institution. Correspondence courses, short courses (that is,only a few days in duration), distance education, web-based courses, and part-time studies are generally not eligible under the Skills Development Employment Benefit program except under exceptional circumstances (assessed on an individual basis).

The program provides financial support for individuals to attend training. The level of financial support is negotiated with project officers and based on an assessment of individual circumstances, financial needs, resources and other sources of income. Participants are asked to contribute a portion of the funds required for their training. Participants may be eligible to receive financial assistance to cover all or a portion of the following costs:

  • Tuition
  • Transportation and travel
  • Living allowance
  • Accommodations
  • Childcare and dependent care
  • Course-related books and/or other program materials or equipment
  • Student fees
  • Tutoring
  • Disability-related supports

According to the questionnaire completed by territorial officials and some key informants, program allocations are informed by historical levels as well as internal consultations within the Department of Education. Though not a formal procedure, some key informants noted that discussions within the Comprehensive Skills and Trades Training working group (whose members include employers and other people involved in serving individuals) may inform training and budget decisions as well.

The 2012 to 2013 LMDA Annual Plan budgeted approximately 54% of LMDA funds toward the Skills Development Employment Benefit program in general (including Apprenticeship).

2.2.2 Program delivery

Based on a document review and three key informant interviews completed in summer 2015

Unemployed individuals receive an initial assessment by caseworkers at third-party service providers to determine their needs, their barriers to employment, and their eligibility for programs. Key informants indicated that there are approximately 5 such providers, 2 of which offer services to specific target populations in Yukon.

An action plan is then cooperatively developed by the client and the caseworker. If the program is identified as a suitable intervention, an application is developed by both that must demonstrate that:

  • A lack of marketable skills is a barrier to employment
  • The training activity will contribute to the enhancement of employment prospects
  • The training course/program is suited to Yukon labour market employment opportunities

Caseworkers submit completed applications to project officers for review and assessment of: compliance with terms and conditions of the program; demonstration of employment barriers; labour market information provided and relevance of the action plan; program costs requested; the contribution by the participant; and availability of funding. Project officers then negotiate the types of supports and level of funding that will be provided to the participant.

Key informants reported that, depending on the completeness of the application, the average time taken to review and approve an application is less than one week.

Once an individual has been approved and training has begun, participants are monitored by caseworkers as frequently as outlined in each participant's action plan. While contact must happen at minimum once per semester, caseworkers may plan more-frequent contact with participants who may be struggling or those with barriers. Caseworkers conduct further follow-ups with participants 6 and 12 months after training completion.

If unforeseen support needs or challenges arise, project officers will meet with participants to amend the agreement accordingly. Project officers are also responsible to follow up with participants 10 days after program start to collect receipts, as well as obtain grades and release funds for the second semester following confirmation that the participant has successfully completed their first semester.

2.2.3 Targeting to labour market demand

Based on a document review and three key informant interviews completed in summer 2015

As part of their application, Skills Development Employment Benefit applicants are required to provide credible labour market information that indicates demand for their chosen field. Some caseworkers may support participants in their research by providing them with information on in-demand jobs and the education and skills training required for these occupations (for example, Yukon Work Futures' top-100 in-demand jobs in the Yukon) for consideration. Mandatory employer interviews (applicants must contact a minimum of 3 employers) also help an applicant to establish information on Yukon labour market needs and demonstrate a link between the proposed training and labour market demand.

2.2.4 Profile of Skills Development Employment Benefit participants

Socio-demographic characteristics

As shown in Table B1 in Appendix B, active claimants who started their Skills Development Employment Benefit intervention during the 2001 to 2007 or 2006 to 2008 periods were almost evenly split between female and male (females composed 50% and 51% of each cohort respectively). The majority of the 2001 to 2007 and 2006 to 2008 participants were under 45 years old (75% and 84% respectively), including large proportions under 25 years old (20% and 30% respectively). Around one-tenth of 2001 to 2007 and 2006 to 2008 participants self-identified as Aboriginal (10% and 12% respectively). Participants in both cohorts most frequently occupied jobs requiring secondary school or occupational training in the year before starting participation (36% and 40% respectively).

Former claimants who started their intervention either between 2001-2007 or 2006-2008 were more often male (58% and 51% respectively), and a substantial proportion of participants from both cohorts were aged 25 to 34 years old (41% and 45% respectively) or 35 to 44 years old (30% and 27% respectively). Nearly one-third of participants self-identified as Aboriginal (30% of the 2001-2007 cohort and 31% of the 2006-2008 cohort). Like active claimants, former claimants who participated in Skills Development Employment Benefit most frequently occupied jobs in the year before participation that required secondary school or occupational training (40% and 37% respectively).

Barriers faced by participants

Based on a document review and three key informant interviews completed in summer 2015

Key informants identified the following barriers to employment faced by program participants:

  • Lack of/outdated skills or education
  • Literacy issues
  • Physical and mental health challenges
  • Few entry-level work opportunities, particularly for younger workers
  • Lack of transportation or driver's license
  • Job maintenance issues
  • Limited availability of child care

2.2.5 Incremental impacts

Active claimants

As shown in Table B2 in Appendix B, active claimants who started their Skills Development Employment Benefit participation between 2001 and 2007 had incremental gains in employment earnings for a cumulative amount of $16,684 over the five years after participation. Figure 3 depicts earnings gains that increased continuously from $2,015 in the second year to $5,889 in the fifth year post-program.

Figure 3. Increased earnings of active Skills Development Employment Benefit participants relative to non-participantsFootnote 12
Text description of Figure 3
Figure 3. Increased earnings of active Skills Development Employment Benefit participants relative to non-participants
Gains in earnings
Year 1 Post-Program  $355
Year 2 Post-Program  $2,015
Year 3 Post-Program  $3,907
Year 4 Post-Program  $4,518
Year 5 Post-Program  $5,889

* The estimate is not statistically significant at the 95% confidence level.

As well, active claimant participants increased their incidence of employment in the first (4.1 percentage points), third (4.2 percentage points), and fifth (4.6 percentage points) years after participation compared to non-participants. Overall, the results regarding the incremental impact of the program on the use EI and social assistance were not statistically significant. However, the overall dependence on income support also decreased in four of the five post-program years (ranging from 3.0 to 4.6 percentage points).

Incremental impacts for former claimants were not produced as the number of participants was too small.

2.2.6 Cost-benefit results

From the social perspective, the benefits of the Skills Development Employment Benefit program for active claimants would need to be maintained over 6.3 years after participation in order to match the cost (see Table B3 in Appendix B). This seems realistic considering the benefits from skills training may last over a lifetime.

2.2.7 Labour market outcomes

Labour market outcomes are different and not comparable to incremental impacts

As explained in Section 1.2, labour market outcomes provide descriptive statistics on the labour market experience (for example, average annual earnings) of participants before, during and after participation and presents what changes were observed from before to after participation. For the Skills Development Employment Benefit program, the analysis was conducted over a period of 10 to 12 years (five years before participation, two years during participation, and three or five years after participation depending on the reference period used).

The outcome analysis provides an assessment of how the labour market situation of participants evolved over time, but does not permit inference regarding the extent to which those changes were due to EBSM participation. For example, increases in employment earnings over the period examined could be partly due to inflation or normal wage increases.

The number of participants was sufficient so that outcomes could also be examined for active and former EI claimants who were youth (under 30 years old).

Active claimants

Table B4 in Appendix B presents the labour market outcomes for active claimants who started a Skills Development Employment Benefit intervention in the 2001 to 2007 or the 2006 to 2008 period, including youth who participated between 2001 and 2007. These outcomes are included in Appendix B but not discussed in the report given the availability of incremental impacts presented in Section 2.2.5.

Former claimants

Average annual earnings for former EI claimants who started their program participation between 2001 and 2007 are shown in Table B5 in Appendix B and illustrated in Figure 4 below. While earnings fluctuated and ultimately declined during the pre-program period, earnings grew steadily in the years after program participation from $7,860 in the program start year to $24,951 in the 5th year post-program. Overall, average annual employment earnings of former claimants were $8,152 higher after participation compared to the annual average five years before participation.

While the average proportion of former claimants in receipt of EI benefits decreased by 18 percentage points (from 43% to 25%) between the pre-and-post participation periods, the average proportion of claimants employed also declined by 7 percentage points between the same periods (from 85% to 78%). It is noted that the 7 percentage points represent around 14 participants only. The proportions of former claimants on social assistance and depending on income support overall both decreased (on average) in the five years after participation by 3 percentage points and 7 percentage points respectively.

Figure 4. Average earnings for 2001 to 2007 former claimants in Skills Development Employment Benefit (in current dollars)
Text description of Figure 4
Figure 4. Average earnings for 2001 to 2007 former claimants in Skills Development Employment Benefit (in current dollars)
Employment Earnings
5 yrs pre-program $12,987
4 yrs pre-program $15,598
3 yrs pre-program $15,728
2 yrs pre-program $14,120
1 yr pre-program $10,100
Program start year $7,860
Additional in-program year $13,465
1 yr post-program $18,194
2 yrs post-program $19,143
3 yrs post-program $22,489
4 yrs post-program $24,513
5 yrs post-program $24,951

Notes: Average earnings include participants with zero earnings in a specific year. As well, earnings were not adjusted for inflation given the fact that the program start year varied between 2001 and 2007.

Former claimants who started a Skills Development Employment Benefit intervention between 2006 and 2008 also experienced an increase in earnings ($11,206) and decrease in EI use (15 percentage points), as well as a decrease in the proportion employed (from 94% to 86%), between the averaged pre-and-post program periods. It is noted that the 8 percentage points decrease represent around 4 participants only. Unlike 2001 to 2007 participants, the average proportion of 2006 to 2008 former claimants on social assistance increased slightly (1 percentage point) between the pre-and-post program periods. The proportion of former claimants depending on government income support remained unchanged.

Labour market outcomes for sub-groups of interest were as follows:

  • Youth who participated in the program between 2001 and 2007 experienced an increase in their average annual earnings ($13,374) and a decrease in the proportion employed (3 percentage points) from before to after participation. The average proportion of former claimants who were youth and on EI also decreased by 8 percentage points, as well as the proportion on social assistance and the proportion depending on income supports (by 4 percentage points and 3 percentage points respectively).

2.2.8 Challenges and lessons learned about Skills Development Employment Benefit design and delivery

Based on a document review and three key informant interviews completed in summer 2015

Key informant interviews with managers and caseworkers identified the following challenges related to the design and delivery of the Skills Development Employment Benefit program:

  • The availability of training is limited locally, and some participants are unable to relocate in order to take training. Distance education courses (that is, online courses) are supported, although the number of courses offered is limited.
  • Employers may require participants to have other certifications (that is, bobcat operator certification, driver's license) which are generally not supported under the program.
  • Some individuals who might benefit from the program do not have sufficient labour market attachment to qualify for EI.
  • There may be a lack of awareness of the program among potential participants.
Challenges uniquely related to serving participants with multiple barriers were also identified, including:
  • Difficulty accessing counselling assistance (some key informants cited that there can be a 6-month wait to access a counsellor). Due to lack of this specific support, caseworkers often must take on a more supportive role.
  • Recruiting and retaining staff (project officers and caseworkers) who have the expertise to assist individuals with complex action plans.
  • Participants with a lack of essential skills may require additional supports (for example, tutors) or an extension in the length of the training agreement.

Key informants suggested the following as possible barriers to the completion of training by participants:

  • Access to child care
  • Personal or family instability
  • Mental health and addictions
  • Transportation
  • Lack of personal support network while attending training
  • Academic struggles posed by heavy course loads
  • Financial obstacles, including those due to the high cost of living in Yukon

Key informants interviews also revealed good practices and lessons learned in terms of program design and delivery:

  • Requiring participants to conduct labour market research and informational interviews with employers allows participants take ownership of their programs and helps ensure that they are fully aware of their chosen field of study.
  • Maintaining sufficient flexibility regarding the range and amount of supports that can be provided to participants while on training.
  • It is important for participants to have someone to help them through stressful situations. As a result, project officers and caseworkers try to make themselves available to discuss these challenges with participants.
  • Sustaining strong communication between participants, caseworkers and project officers is important in ensuring all stakeholders maintain a participant-centred focus.
  • It is beneficial to identify the frequency of meetings between caseworkers and participants in the agreements and for colleges to share information with project officers in order to help monitor participant progress.

A number of lessons learned that are unique to assisting participants with multiple barriers were also identified, including:

  • Ongoing follow-up is imperative.
  • Ensuring that action plans are kept sufficiently flexible to meet the diverse needs of these participants.
  • Providing foundational skills training and essential skills training in conjunction with occupational skills training can help to make sure that participants are more job-ready and help with employment maintenance.
  • Ensuring that participants understand their action plan, the requirements of participation, and that they are invested in their chosen field of training.

2.3 Skills Development Employment Benefit – Apprenticeship

2.3.1 Program Description

Based on a document review and three key informant interviews completed in summer 2015

The objective of the Skills Development Employment Benefit – Apprenticeship program is to provide funding that allows apprentices to participate in formal classroom-based training that will lead to trade certification. There are 48 designated trades in Yukon for which certification is available, and apprentices in any of these trades are considered for funding while they are on block release training.

Funding support covers tuition, living allowance, transportation, books, living away from home allowance and travel (costs for driving or airfare and overnight accommodations). The maximum level of financial support is capped depending on distance to the location of training.

Further, Yukon has an agreement with Alberta for training apprentices whereby the Yukon government pays the seat costs for training offered in Alberta and no fees are charged to apprentices.

The 2012 to 2013 LMDA Annual Plan budgeted approximately 54% of LMDA funds toward the Skills Development Employment Benefit program in general (including Apprenticeship).

2.3.2 Program delivery

Based on a document review and three key informant interviews completed in summer 2015

Potential apprentices apply directly for financial supports when they begin their block release training. The application is self-directed and apprentices submit their completed application to the Department of Education for approval. Most of the financial supports are pre-determined, simplifying the application process.

The program indirectly focuses on occupations in demand since apprentices are attached to employers as they progress through block release training.

Apprentices are not case managed in Yukon. However, the Industrial Training Consultants within the Apprenticeship Division of the Department of Education monitor course attendance. These consultants forward the names of those apprentices who are no longer attending training to Client Services Officers and follow-up with apprentices who are facing challenges while in training. Assistance is provided if necessary, or the funding is stopped if the apprentice is no longer attending training.

2.3.3 Profile of Skills Development Employment Benefit – Apprenticeship Participants

Socio-demographic characteristics

As shown in Table C1 in Appendix C, the vast majority of active claimants who started their Skills Development Employment Benefit – Apprenticeship participation in 2003 to 2005 or 2011 to 2014 were male (95% and 89% respectively). At least three-quarters of both cohorts were aged 34 years or younger (75% of 2003 to 2005 participants and 80% of 2011 to 2014 participants), including around 40% in each cohort under 25 years old. About one-tenth of participants self-identified as Aboriginal (9% of each cohort). Before starting their intervention, most active claimant participants had occupations that required college or apprenticeship training (73% of 2003 to 2005 participants and 89% of 2011 to 2014 participants).

The profile for former claimants who participated in the program between 2003 to 2005 and 2011 to 2014 was not produced because the number of observations was too small for analysis.

2.3.4 Labour market outcomes

Table C2 in Appendix C presents the labour market outcomes for active EI claimants who started their program participation during the 2003 to 2005 period.

As shown in Figure 5, the average annual earnings of program participants steadily increased over the pre-and-post-program periods, from $17,124 in the fifth year pre-program to $54,940 in the seventh year after the program start year.

Figure 5. Average earnings for 2003 to 2005 active claimants in Skills Development Employment Benefit – Apprenticeship (in current dollars)
Text description for Figure 5
Figure 5. Average earnings for 2003 to 2005 active claimants in Skills Development Employment Benefit – Apprenticeship (in current dollars)
Employment Earnings
5 yrs pre-program $17,124
4 yrs pre-program $20,482
3 yrs pre-program $22,895
2 yrs pre-program $24,230
1 yr pre-program $29,295
Program start year $25,999
1 yr post-program $33,121
2 yrs post-program $34,830
3 yrs post-program $43,054
4 yrs post-program $44,011
5 yrs post-program $45,814
6 yrs post-program $45,570
7 yrs post-program $54,940

While the proportion of participants employed fluctuated in the years following program participation, it remained near or above 90% in all seven years after the program start year (low of 89%). The average proportion of participants on EI decreased in the years after program participation to 15% by the seventh year after the program start year. Further, none of these participants relied on social assistance benefits in the last six post-program years. As well, the proportion depending on income supports overall declined to 4% by the seventh year after program start.

2.3.5 Challenges and lessons learned about Skills Development Employment Benefit – Apprenticeship design and delivery

Based on a document review and three key informant interviews completed in summer 2015

Existing literature has shown that there is a fairly high non-completion rate among apprentices in Canada (40 to 50%)Footnote 13. Furthermore, literature revealed that despite the growth in apprenticeship registrations in Canada, there has not been a corresponding increase in completionsFootnote 14.

Barriers and challenges leading to the high non-completion rate found in current literature include financial pressures associated with participating in training, costs to employers for training apprentices, lack of supports and resources, lack of essential skills, social challenges and hostile workplaces/training environments, and a lack of work.Footnote 15 Certain socio-demographic groups of apprentices (i.e. Indigenous individuals, visible minorities, immigrants and persons with disabilities) face unique barriers that include lack of training in isolated communities, cultural insensitivity, and difficulties adapting to a different culture. The literature also noted that the limited ability of apprentices to move from one location to another (due to inconsistencies in training curricula and apprenticeships between provinces and territories) poses a challenge to the completion of apprenticeships.Footnote 16

While program data do not provide reliable information on completion and non-completion rates of participants, key informants interviewed in the evaluation noted a high non-completion rate and offered the following possible explanations for the decrease in Yukon apprentice completions:

  • Lack of essential skills.
  • Financial constraints due to limited support from EI Part I benefits and the high cost of living in Yukon. There are also financial challenges for apprentices who are supporting families.
  • Apprentices may change their mind about their career path and decide not to continue their training.
  • Fluctuations in the labour market may produce periods of low demand for certain trades.
  • Delays in EI processing are a deterrent to completing the apprenticeship as EI cheques are often delayed, creating financial hardships for apprentices. In some cases, apprentices have completed their 8-week block release training before they receive their EI cheques.
  • Apprentices may need to travel to other provinces/territories to attend block release training because of the lack of locally-available options, which can be particularly challenging for apprentices with families.
  • Lack of journeymen to support apprentices. This is particularly exacerbated in rural areas.

Key informant interviews with managers and caseworkers also identified challenges related to program design and delivery. Many of these echoed the explanations offered for the decrease in apprentice completions. Additional challenges include:

  • Internet access is limited in Yukon and therefore apprentices have difficulty accessing the online system to process EI claims.
  • Youth have trouble obtaining entry-level jobs in Yukon. Because they often lack employment experience before entering an apprenticeship.

Key informants also spoke about the following good practices and lessons learned with respect to the design and delivery of the program in Yukon:

  • Providing pre-apprenticeship training and tutoring supports to enhance the essential skills of participants with multiple barriers to employment and to assist them in completing the apprenticeship training.
  • Increasing the level of living and transportation allowances might better support apprentices and their families while on block release training.

2.4 Targeted Wage Subsidies

2.4.1 Program description

Based on a document review and four key informant interviews completed in summer 2015

The Targeted Wage Subsidies program provides a wage subsidy to eligible employers as an incentive for them to hire and provide work experience to EI-eligible individuals (whom they would not normally hire) that have been identified by a caseworker as having insufficient work experience to successfully obtain employment.

A successful application must demonstrate that:

  • The work experience activity assists the participant in meeting his/her needs of improved work experience.
  • The position is full-time, unless part-time work is appropriate due to the special needs or circumstances of the participant.
  • Participants are hired for positions that are part of the employer's normal business operations and not for specially-created jobs or projects that would not be sustained without the financial assistance provided through the program.
  • The intent of the subsidy leads to a permanent job with the employer.
  • Employment is in compliance with territorial employment standards legislation.
  • Market wage rate (entry level) is met for the proposed employment.

The maximum duration of the wage subsidy is 52 weeks and the maximum level of the subsidy is 60% of the participant's gross wage. Subsidy amounts can vary on a descending scale over the duration of the subsidy.

Funding is not normally provided for mandatory employment-related costs (that is, Employment Insurance, Canadian Pension Plan, Mandatory Vacation Pay, and Yukon Workers Compensation Health and Safety Board) and employer human resource costs. However, disability-related costs may be supported in some situations.

2.4.2 Program delivery

Based on a document review and four key informant interviews completed in summer 2015

In Yukon, the Targeted Wage Subsidies program is primarily participant-driven.

Participant-Driven Wage Subsidies

In a participant-driven application process, an unemployed EI-eligible individual contacts a caseworker at the third-party service provider. The caseworker conducts a needs assessment considering the participant's work history, skills and barriers to employment, and develops an action plan with the individual. If the program is seen as a suitable intervention for the individual, the caseworker will work together with the participant to develop an application.

After approval, the participant is provided with a self-marketing letter that they can use to encourage potential employers to hire them with the help of the wage subsidy. Interested employers contact a project officer who works with them to verify eligibility and suitability.

As part of the process, the employer must provide the following information:

  • Details on the specific nature of the work experience activity.
  • Skills to be obtained through the work experience activity.
  • Location.
  • Expected cost.
  • Expected results in terms of participant outcomes (for example, securing employment with this employer, improving employment prospects).

The application must also include an itemized budget to support the work experience activity (i.e. wages/salaries, mandatory employment-related costs, employer-cost human resource benefits and disability-related supports), job descriptions, training schedule, organization overview, salary calculation, other sources of funding, and Yukon Workers' Compensation Health and Safety Board.

Employers are assessed to ensure that they have not recently laid off for similar positions. The application is considered by project officers from the Yukon government and, upon approval, the participant may enter Targeted Wage Subsidies-supported employment with the employer.

Employer-Driven Wage Subsidies

In an employer-driven application process, employers apply directly to project officers in order to obtain a subsidy to fill a position. The employers are assessed for eligibility and to ensure that they have not recently laid off for similar positions. They must provide a job description for the position to be filled and an outline of key milestones for the participant.

Employers will subsequently advertise job vacancies, noting that they are seeking EI-eligible individuals for the positions. Alternatively, employers can contact a service provider and request an eligible participant or wait until a potential participant is found.

According to key informants, the application process typically takes two weeks for approval. They cited hairstyling, construction, dental hygiene and heritage interpretation as some recently-supported occupations.

Monitoring and Follow-Up

Throughout the course of the wage subsidy, caseworkers monitor participants and project officers work with employers. The frequency of the monitoring depends on the barriers and needs of the individual participants – for instance, follow-up may happen every two weeks (approximately) for participants with multiple barriers. Employers submit activity reports regularly to project officers to monitor progress, and the frequency of the update depends on the length of the subsidy. Site visits can also be conducted if challenges are encountered.

Following the end of the subsidy, the participant is re-assessed by a caseworker if a participant does not remain employed with the employer. The assessment may determine that additional supports or interventions are required to assist the participant.

According to key informants, Targeted Wage Subsidies seems to be helping individuals who would not be hired in the absence of a subsidy to obtain employment. Interviewees cited examples of participants who had applied to the same employer 2 to 3 times prior before securing a position with the help of a wage subsidy.

2.4.3 Profile of Targeted Wage Subsidies participants

Socio-demographic characteristics

Table D1 in Appendix D presents socio-demographic information for former claimants who started their Targeted Wage Subsidies participation in 2001 to 2007. The profile of active claimants of this same cohort could not be examined because the number of participants was too small to produce reliable statistics.

The majority of former claimants who participated in Targeted Wage Subsidies between 2001 and 2007 were male (62%). Many participants were between 25 and 34 years old (39%), while most others fell in the 35 to 44 or 45 to 54 age brackets (24% each). A substantial proportion (30%) of program participants self-identified as Aboriginal. In their last job prior to their Targeted Wage Subsidies intervention, these former claimants worked in a variety of occupations that required skills levels related to secondary or occupational training (32% of participants), college or apprenticeship training (21%), on-the-job training (21%), and a university degree (17%).

2.4.4 Labour Market outcomes

Former claimants

Given the small number of participants in the program (n=66) over the 2001 to 2007 period, outcomes should be interpreted with caution.

Average annual earnings for former EI claimants who started their Targeted Wage Subsidies participation between 2001 and 2007 are shown in Table D2 in Appendix D and illustrated in Figure 6 below. While earnings fluctuated during the pre-program period, they grew then remained steady in the years after program participation. Overall, average annual employment earnings of former claimants were $7,708 higher after participation compared to the annual average five years before participation.

While the average proportion of former claimant participants in receipt of EI benefits decreased by 13 percentage points (from 37% to 24%) between the pre-and-post participation periods, the average proportion of participants employed declined in equal measure (from 85% to 72%). The decline in the proportion of participants employed can be partially explained by retirement decisions given the fact that 5% of participants were over 55 years old at the start of participation. As well, it is possible that some participants did not retain their subsidized job in the post-program period for various reasons. The proportions of former claimants on social assistance and the level of dependence on income support both decreased in the five years after participation by 9 percentage points and 5 percentage points respectively.

Figure 6. Average earnings for 2001 to 2007 former claimant participants in targeted wage subsidies (in current dollars)
Text description of Figure 6
Figure 6. Average earnings for 2001 to 2007 former claimant participants in targeted wage subsidies (in current dollars)
Employment Earnings
5 yrs pre-program $15,611
4 yrs pre-program $15,834
3 yrs pre-program $13,767
2 yrs pre-program $14,126
1 yr pre-program $12,071
Program start year $14,965
Additional in-program year $18,968
1 yr post-program $20,262
2 yrs post-program $23,295
3 yrs post-program $22,144
4 yrs post-program $22,085
5 yrs post-program $22,164

Notes: Average earnings include participants with zero earnings in a specific year. As well, earnings were not adjusted for inflation given the fact that the program start year varied between 2001 and 2007.

2.4.5 Challenges and lessons learned about Targeted Wage Subsidies design and delivery

Based on a document review and four key informant interviews completed in summer 2015

The number of new Targeted Wage Subsidies interventions delivered per year in Yukon has remained low over the past 15 yearsFootnote 17. Key informants suggested that the level and duration of the subsidy is sufficient to encourage employers to participate in the program. When asked to explain why potential employers may not participate in the program, key informants offered the following reasons:

  • Administrative burdens on employers during the application process and subsidy period.
  • Lack of employer awareness about the program.
  • The perceived time and effort that will be required to assist new employees with barriers.
  • Alternative programs (for example, Temporary Foreign Worker Program and the Nominee program) may be perceived to provide more apt candidates.

Key informants also cited the following as factors that may negatively affect program take-up:

  • Many individuals who might benefit from the program have not had sufficient labour market attachment to qualify for EI.
  • Lack of entry-level jobs, which are often most suitable for participants.
  • The self-marketing letter is insufficient as a primary tool for explaining the program to employers. Applicants themselves (particularly those with multiple barriers) do not always have a detailed-enough understanding of the program to offer follow-up explanations to employers.

As well, key informants provided the following reasons to explain why participants may not be retained by the employer at the end of subsidy:

  • The program may be used as a career exploration tool, and the type of job is no longer interesting to the employee.
  • Personal challenges unique to the participant.
  • The seasonal nature of some employment positions.
  • Personal suitability for the position becomes a factor for either employers or employees.

Key informants further identified a number of challenges related to the design and delivery of the program in general. In addition to lack of awareness and EI-ineligibility, interviewees cited the following:

  • The absence of job coaches that could assist participants with employer-participant issues during the course of the wage subsidy.
  • The application and approval process is considered to be too long.
  • There is a need to update the program, since it has remained relatively the same since devolution.

Finally, key informants highlighted a number of best practices and lessons learned related to the design and delivery of the program. These include:

  • The importance of providing support to employers throughout the application process. This will require ensuring that project officers are able to assist employers with developing training plans (that include key milestones for the participant and that identify the skills and work experience that participants will develop during the wage subsidy).
  • There is a need for a job developer to conduct outreach and market the program to local employers, Chambers of Commerce and other business organizations.
  • Updating the guidelines and communications to market the program similar to a co-op or practicum program could benefit the program.
  • Use the program to help explore the capacity of participants to function effectively in a work environment.

2.5 Self-Employment

2.5.1 Program description and delivery

Based on information from the 2012 to 2013 LMDA Annual Plan

This program is currently being redesigned in Yukon. During the observation/evaluation period, the Self-Employment program provided funding to help EI-eligible participants start a business. Service providers offered self-employment expertise to participating individuals through feasibility workshops and feasibility planning, business plan development, and other continuing supports for individuals starting their business. Priority was given for participants with no previous experience starting or running a business.

2.5.2 Profile of Self-Employment participants

Socio-demographic characteristics

As shown in Table E1 in Appendix E, active claimants who started participation in the Self-Employment program between 2001 and 2007 were slightly more often male (52%) and between 25 and 34 years old (37%). Very few participants self-identified as Aboriginals (4%). Prior to participation, these active claimants most frequently held jobs that required either college or apprenticeship training (37%) or secondary or occupational training (28%).

Former claimants who participated in Self-Employment between 2001 and 2007 were evenly split between males and females (50% each). Former claimants were slightly more concentrated among the 35-44 age group (35%), with 11% of participants aged 55 and over. Like active claimants, few former claimants self-identified as an Aboriginal individuals (2%). Prior to participation, these former claimants most frequently held jobs that required college or apprenticeship training (37%) or secondary or occupational training (37%).

2.5.3 Challenges in reporting Self-Employment outcomes

As for other EBSMs, outcomes were produced for active and former claimants who participated in the Self-Employment program during the 2001 to 2007 period. Results showed minimal increases in average employment/self-employment earnings and large decreases in the average proportion of participants employed between the pre and post-program years. Further, participant outcomes reflected decreased EI and social assistance use, as well as reduced dependence on government income support. Readers should note that the small increase in earnings may be partially explained by inflation.

Detailed outcomes are presented in Tables E2 and E3 in Appendix E. However, they are not discussed in the report since they may not provide an accurate depiction of the financial well-being of Self-Employment participants in the post-program period. Outcomes were calculated using individual earnings reported in the T1 and T4 taxation files from the Canada Revenue Agency. According to a study from Statistics Canada, self-employed individuals in Canada have a lower average annual income than paid employees ($46,200 versus $52,400 in 2009), but the average net worth of their households is 2.7 times greater than that of the paid employee households, which indicates that some self-employed individuals may leave funds within their business for reinvestment purposes.Footnote 18 Overall, this suggests that looking at individual earnings alone (without taking the net worth into consideration) may not provide a fair assessment of how well program participants are doing financially after participation.

Readers should also be aware that, in general, little is currently known about the design and delivery of this program. In particular, there is a lack of understanding around the role played by this program in helping future entrepreneurs implement viable business plans and develop their entrepreneurship skills. Overall, it is not clear whether a participant's success in improving his/her labour market attachment through self-employment is more closely associated with the business idea and the entrepreneurship skills rather than the assistance provided under Self-Employment.

2.6 Employment Assistances Services

2.6.1 Program description and delivery

Based on information from the Employment Assistance Services Program GuidelinesFootnote 19 and the 2012 to 2013 LMDA Annual PlanFootnote 20

Yukon Employment Assistance Services provide funding to organizations that assist unemployed individuals (who are eligible to work in Canada) to find and obtain employment or to develop the skills necessary to maintain employment.

Eligible organizations can include businesses (including crown corporations), organizations (formal, ad hoc, or partnership), municipalities, First Nation organizations, governments and councils, public health and post-secondary educational institutions. Services may include:

  • Self-serve information (resource centre or website).
  • Job search/job skill workshops or individual sessions (topics such as resume-writing, interviewing, job search strategies, networking, etc.)
  • Case management services ranging from:
    • Assessment: documenting participant's background information and employability needs, setting an employment goal, and determining next steps.
    • Development: mutually developing a formal Action Plan consisting of interventions to take a participant from unemployment to finding and maintaining employment.
    • Management: monitoring and adjusting the Action Plan during participation to ensure the plan is being followed and achieving expected outcomes.
    • Follow-up: periodic contact with participant post-Action Plan completion to record updated information on employment status.
  • Personalized career counselling.
  • Referrals to professionally-qualified diagnosticians to assess physical, social, intellectual and/or psychological traits which may affect a participant's ability in certain employment.
  • Personalized job development for multi-barriered participants.
  • Work experience (orientation or specific duties within a workplace).
  • Employer-targeted activities to increase employer awareness of labour market issues and enhance employer engagement toward solutions.

Employment Assistance Services are provided in Whitehorse, Watson Lake and Dawson City. Services are more limited in Dawson City and Watson Lake and include job search assistance, resume assistance, labour exchange and case management. In addition to these, Whitehorse Employment Assistance Services also offers an electronic information service, support for unemployed individuals with disabilities, and services for French-speaking individuals.

2.6.2 Profile of Employment Assistance Services participants

Socio-demographic characteristics

The following profile presents the main socio-demographic characteristics of active and former claimants who participated exclusively in Employment Assistance Services without participating in any other Employment Benefits programs.

As shown in Table F1 in Appendix F, active claimants who participated exclusively in Employment Assistance Services between 2001 and 2007 were almost evenly split between male and female (48% and 52% respectively) while the 2006 to 2008 cohort was slightly more composed of females (54%) than males (44%). More than one-third of active claimants in each participating cohort were 45 years old or over (37% and 41% respectively). Self-identified Aboriginals composed 15% of the 2001 to 2007 cohort and 12% of the 2007 to 2008 cohort. In their last job before program participation, these active claimants most frequently worked in occupations that required either secondary or occupational training (38% for the 2001 to 2007 cohort and 32% for 2006 to 2008 cohort) or college/apprenticeship training (28% for the 2001 to 2007 cohort and 36% for the 2006 to 2008 cohort).

Former claimants participated only in Employment Assistance Services during the 2001 to 2007 or 2006 to 2008 periods were also closely split between males and females, though more composed of males in the 2001 to 2007 cohort (52%) and females in the 2006 to 2008 cohort (53%). The majority of these former claimants were of core working-age (80% of 2001 to 2007 participants and 73% of 2006 to 2008 participants), though over one-tenth of participants in each cohort were aged 55 and over (12% and 16% respectively). Self-identified Aboriginals composed 16% of the 2001 to 2007 cohort and 19% of the 2006 to 2008 cohort. Before participation, former claimants who started between 2001 and 2007 most frequently worked in occupations that required secondary or occupational training (38%). Those who started in 2006 to 2008 most frequently worked in occupations that required secondary or occupational training (33%) or college or apprenticeship training (29%).

Labour Market Barriers Faced by Employment Assistance Services Participants

National-level evaluation findings based on 81 key informant interviews completed in ten P/Ts in summer 2013

Managers and caseworkers from 10 P/Ts involved in the delivery of Employment Assistance Services were interviewed during the summer of 2013. These interviews, in addition to document reviews, provided insight into barriers, challenges and lessons learned related to program design and delivery. Though Yukon did not participate in the Employment Assistance Services qualitative study, the information that was produced at the national level is included in this report with the perspective of sharing the main labour market challenges as well as best practices and lessons learned with Yukon.

According to key informants, the main labour market barriers faced by individuals who access Employment Assistance Services across the country include:

  • Lack of work experience or skills mismatches (9 P/Ts)
  • Low essential and foundational skills (8 P/Ts)
  • Access and affordability of transportation (8 P/Ts)
  • Access and affordability of childcare (8 P/Ts)
  • Criminal records and addictions (8 P/Ts)
  • Being a person with disability or having mental health issues (7 P/Ts)
  • Working in temporary, seasonal or part-time employment (7 P/Ts)
  • Lack of marketable skills (outdated skills, inability to network) (7 P/Ts)
  • Employers' perception toward individuals in some groups (visible minorities, persons with disabilities, new immigrants, Aboriginal peoples, etc.) (7 P/Ts)
  • Lack of employment opportunities, particularly in rural and remote areas (6 P/Ts)
  • Language barriers (6 P/Ts)
  • Low self-esteem, lack of motivation and negative attitude (6 P/Ts)
  • Lack of job search/interview skills (5 P/Ts)
  • Homelessness and lack of affordable housing (4 P/Ts)

2.6.3 Incremental impacts

Incremental impacts were produced only for active claimants, since former claimants who participated only in Employment Assistance Services are generally used as a comparison group for former claimants who participated in other EBSMs. A reminder that incremental impacts are estimated using a comparison group of active claimants who did not participate in EBSMs during the 2001 to 2007 period (see Figure 1 on page 4).

As shown in Table F2 in Appendix F, active claimants who participated exclusively in Employment Assistance Services between 2001 and 2007 had incremental increases in employment earnings in the second ($2,415) and fourth ($3,346) years after participation. Compared to similar active claimants who did not participate, these participants also reduced their use of EI in the post-program period by a cumulative of $2,847 or 6.7 weeks. Incremental impacts on the incidence of employment, social assistance use and the level of dependence on government income support were not found to be statistically significant.

Employment Assistance Services interventions are relatively modest activities such as counselling, job search assistance and case management focused on assisting participants to return to work. By themselves, they are not expected to lead to substantial incremental impacts on participants. In the Yukon, it is shown that these interventions are leading to reductions in EI use and some gains in employment earnings. While incremental impacts on the incidence of employment are not statistically significant, labour market outcomes indicate a modest 3-percentage-points decrease in the proportion of employed participants between the pre-and-post-program periods. Possible explanations for the decrease in the proportion of participants employed could include retirement decisions (with 13% of participants aged 55 and over) and other various reasons for leaving the labour force, as well as the possibility that some participants may not have benefitted from program participation.

2.6.4 Cost-benefit results

From the social perspective, the benefits of Employment Assistance Services matched the costs two years after the end of participation. After six years, the benefits exceeded the costs by $10,056 (as shown in Table F3 in Appendix F).

2.6.5 Labour market outcomes

Readers are reminded that the labour market outcome analysis provides descriptive statistics regarding the situation of participants as it evolved over time, but does not permit inference regarding the extent to which those changes were due to EBSM participation.

When the number of participants was sufficient, outcomes were examined for active and former EI claimants who were youth (under 30 years old), older workers (55 years old and over) and long-tenured workers. Long-tenured workers refer to individuals who had long-term attachment to the labour market but not necessarily a long tenure with the same employer.

Active claimants

Table F4 in Appendix F presents the labour market outcomes for active claimants participated exclusively in Employment Assistance Services during the 2001 to 2007 and 2006 to 2008 periods. Outcomes were also produced for youth and older workers who participated in the 2001 to 2007 period, as well as long tenured workers who participated in the 2007 to 2009 period. These outcomes are included in Appendix F but not discussed in the report given the availability of incremental impacts presented in Section 2.6.3.

Former claimants

Average annual earnings for former EI claimants who participated exclusively in Employment Assistance Services between 2001 and 2007 are shown in Table F5 in Appendix F and illustrated in Figure 7 below. While earnings fluctuated and ultimately declined during the pre-program period, post-program earnings grew then levelled off in the years after program participation. Overall, average annual employment earnings of former claimants were $2,391 higher in the post-program period when compared to the annual average five years before participation.

While the average proportion of former claimants in receipt of EI benefits substantially decreased by 21 percentage points (from 43% to 22%) between the pre-and-post participation periods, the average proportion of employed former claimants also declined by 10 percentage points between the same periods. Possible explanations for the decrease in the proportion of participants employed could include retirement decisions (with 12% of participants aged 55 and over) and other various reasons for leaving the labour force, as well as the possibility that some participants may not have benefitted from program participation. The proportions of former claimants on social assistance and the level of dependence on income support decreased (on average) in the five years after participation by 1 percentage point and 3 percentage points respectively.

Figure 7. Average earnings for 2001 to 2007 former claimants in Employment Assistance Services (in current dollars)
Text description of Figure 7
Figure 7. Average earnings for 2001 to 2007 former claimants in Employment Assistance Services (in current dollars)
Employment Earnings
5 yrs pre-program   $13,847
4 yrs pre-program   $15,986
3 yrs pre-program   $16,223
2 yrs pre-program   $14,074
1 yr pre-program   $10,464
Program start year  $10,976
1 yr post-program   $15,283
2 yrs post-program  $17,316
3 yrs post-program  $18,385
4 yrs post-program  $18,417
5 yrs post-program  $18,682

Notes: Average earnings include participants with zero earnings in a specific year. As well, earnings were not adjusted for inflation given the fact that the program start year varied between 2001 and 2007.

Former claimants who participated exclusively in Employment Assistance Services between 2006 and 2008 also experienced an increase in earnings ($5,089) and decrease in EI use (24 percentage points), as well as a decrease in the proportion employed (9 percentage points), between the averaged pre-and-post program periods. Unlike 2001 to 2007 participants, the average proportion of 2006 to 2008 former claimants that depended on social assistance or government income supports overall increased slightly (2 percentage points and 1 percentage point respectively) between the pre-and-post program periods.

Labour market outcomes for sub-groups of interest were as follows:

  • Youth who participated between 2001 and 2007 experienced an increase in their average annual earnings ($7,836) and a decrease in the proportion employed (4 percentage points) from before to after participation. The average proportion of former claimants who were youth and on EI also decreased by 12 percentage points, as well as the proportion depending on income support (decrease of 1 percentage point).
  • Older workers who participated between 2001 and 2007 experienced a decrease in their average annual earnings ($4,477), as well as large decreases in EI use (25 percentage points) and in the proportion employed (17 percentage points) from before to after participation. The average annual proportion of older workers who were on social assistance increased by 3 percentage points, while dependence on income support decreased by 2 percentage points.

2.6.6 Challenges and lessons learned about Employment Assistance Services design and delivery

National-level evaluation findings based on a document review and 81 key informant interviews completed in ten P/Ts in summer 2013

Key informants identified the following challenges related to program design and delivery:

  • Participants in some regions face issues with limited access to services, mobility and transportation (7 P/Ts).
  • There is a lack of awareness about the program among potential participants (6 P/Ts).
  • The current budget allocation is not enough to support the delivery of Employment Assistance Services. This led some service providers to eliminate services and reduce the number of participants served (5 P/Ts).
  • Service providers cannot necessarily provide all the services required by participants facing multiple barriers to employment. They have to refer these individuals to other organizations and sometimes, one individual can be referred to more than one organization. This may lead some participants to give up on their return-to-work process (5 P/Ts).
  • The current performance measurement strategy does not capture the various outcomes achieved over time when assisting people with multiple barriers to employment (3 P/Ts).
  • Service providers have difficulties in hiring skilled and knowledgeable staff (2 P/Ts). As well, some service providers have a high turn-over of staff and staff training is very costly (2 P/Ts).
  • Service providers lack capacity to follow up with each participant in order to provide job maintenance support (2 P/Ts).

Key informants also provided examples of best practices and lessons leared with respect to program design and delivery. These include:

  • It is important to case manage participants and to provide a client-centered holistic approach through counselling, motivation, building self-esteem and assisting them in choosing a career path (9 P/Ts).
  • It is important for service providers to be engaged in their community and well connected to other service providers (for information sharing and referral purposes) particularly with those dealing with persons with disabilities and mental health issues. As well, partnerships and ongoing communication with employers can facilitate the labour market integration of participants through job placements and subsidy) (8 P/Ts).
  • Since participants with multiple barriers to employment often require more intensive interventions, it is important to conduct a strong needs assessment in order to make the best training decision (7 P/Ts).
  • Having a one stop shop for services and to streamline services (co-location, no wrong door approach, offering a comprehensive suite of services from self-serve to workshops, employability assessment, career orientation, need determination and ongoing case management) and to remove barriers to access and participation (7 P/Ts).
  • It is important to keep a long-term perspective when assisting participants facing multiple barriers to employment (6 P/Ts).
  • Providing long-term follow-up with participants for employment retention support is seen as a best practice (6 P/Ts).
  • Giving service providers increased flexibility when assisting participants with multiple barriers to employment particularly in terms of the length of services and the type of financial support that can be made available to participants (6 P/Ts).
  • It is important for service providers to have dedicated workers, specialized teams to deal with participants facing multiple barriers to employment, having job coaches/developers that are dedicated and committed to support these participants (6 P/Ts).
  • Service providers need to make appropriate referrals, when available, to specialized community organizations for Employment Assistance Services participants dealing with disabilities, mental health issues, addictions and criminal records (5 P/Ts).
  • Providing participants with help to contact employers (e.g., assisting in handing out resumes) and networking opportunities (5 P/Ts).
  • Providing participants with an opportunity to try and test prospective jobs (5 P/Ts).
  • It is important for provincial/territorial governments to have strong partnerships with third-party service providers and employers in order to be able to mobilize the service delivery network in cases of emerging labour market challenges (major lay-offs, downturn, etc.) and to organize job fairs and joint group workshops (5 P/Ts).
  • There is a need to enhance the promotion of programs and services (5 P/Ts).
  • There is a need to provide services in an innovative way depending on local needs and reality (e.g., online resources and training) (3 P/Ts).
  • There is a need to change the way success is measured under Employment Assistance Services. For example, the progress of a participant with multiple barriers to employment should be measured through small steps from securing adequate housing to dealing with addictions, improving life skills and integrating the labour market (3 P/Ts).
  • Services providers need additional resources in order to maintain the level and quality of services and to train staff, particularly those operating in rural areas (3 P/Ts).

3. Comparison of key findings by program type

This section provides an overview of the key findings from the incremental impact analysis, cost-benefit analysis, and labour market outcomes analysis for Skills Development Employment Benefit, Targeted Wage Subsidies, and Employment Assistance Services for active and former EI claimant participants who started participation in the 2001 to 2007 period.

Overall, incremental impacts, cost-benefit analysis, and labour market outcomes provide indications that LMDA-funded programs and services delivered in Yukon are generally helping participants to improve their labour market attachment after participation.

Incremental impacts demonstrate that active EI claimants who participated in Skills Development Employment Benefit had gains in earnings and incidence of employment after program participation when compared to similar non-participants. As well, active EI claimants who participated in Employment Assistance Services had reductions in EI use and some gains in earnings after participation. The social benefits of participation exceeded the cost of the intervention over time for active claimants who participated in these two programs. Labour market outcomes demonstrate that former claimants who participated in LMDA programs and services showed higher average earnings and lower average proportions on EI and social assistance during the five years after program participation when compared to five years prior.

Some participants do not appear to be benefitting from EBSM participation, as reflected in the general decrease in the proportion of employed former claimant participants between the pre- and post-participation periods. Explanations for this decrease may include retirement decisions and other reasons for leaving the labour force.

3.1. Incremental impacts and cost-benefit analysis for active claimant participants

Skills Development Employment Benefit is effective at improving earnings and incidence of employment among active EI claimant participants

Active EI claimants who participated in Skills Development Employment Benefit had higher earnings from employment/self-employment after participation (cumulative of $16,684) when compared to similar non-participants. As well, these participants had gains in their annual incidence of employment in the first (4.1 percentage points), third (4.2 percentage points), and fifth (4.6 percentage points) years after participation compared to non-participants. Incremental impacts on EI use and social assistance use were overall not statistically significant, though dependence on government income support decreased in all but the first post-program years (ranging from 3.0 to 4.6 percentage points) for these active claimants. From the social perspective (that is, the sum of participant and government costs or benefits), the benefits of participation in Skills Development Employment Benefit exceeded the related costs in 6.3 years after participation.

Employment Assistance Services are effective at improving employment earnings and reducing EI use among active EI claimant participants

In comparison to similar EI claimants who did not participate in the program, active EI claimants who participated exclusively in Employment Assistance Services reduced their use of EI by a cumulative of $2,847 or 6.7 weeks after program participation. These participants also had incremental increases in employment earnings in the second ($2,415) and fourth ($3,346) years after participation. Incremental impacts on the incidence of employment, the use of social assistance and the level of dependence on government income support were not statistically significant. From the social perspective (that is, the sum of participant and government costs or benefits), the benefits of participation in Employment Assistance Services exceeded the related costs in 2 years after participation.

3.2. Labour market outcomes for former claimant participants

Program participants have higher average earnings after program participation

As shown in Figure 8, former claimants who participated in Skills Development Employment Benefit, Targeted Wage Subsidies, and Employment Assistance Services showed higher average employment earnings during the five years after their participation when compared to five years prior.

Figure 8. Change in average earnings of former claimant participants 5 years pre- and post-participation in LMDA programs and services
Text description of Figure 8
Figure 8. Change in average earnings of former claimant participants 5 years pre- and post-participation in LMDA programs and services
Change in average earnings
Skills Development Employment Benefit  $8,512
Targeted Wage Subsidies  $7,708
Employment Assistance Services  $2,391

Note: outcomes for participants in Targeted Wage Subsidies should be interpreted with caution given the small number of participants (66 for former claimants).

The average proportion of participants on Employment Insurance and social assistance is lower after program participation

As shown in Figure 9, the average proportion of participants who use EI is shown to be lower in the post-participation period for former EI claimants who participated in Skills Development Employment Benefit, Targeted Wage Subsidies, and Employment Assistance Services (when compared to five years prior). These decreases were accompanied by decreased proportions of former claimant participants on social assistance.

Figure 9. Change in average proportion of former claimant participants on employment insurance and social assistance 5 years pre- and post-participation
Text description of Figure 9
Figure 9. Change in average proportion of former claimant participants on employment insurance and social assistance 5 years pre- and post-participation
Percentage Points
Employment Insurance Social Assistance
Skills Development Employment Benefit -18 -3
Targeted Wage Subsidies -13 -9
Employment Assistance Services -21 -1

Note: outcomes for participants in Targeted Wage Subsidies should be interpreted with caution given the small number of participants (66 for former claimants).

The average proportion of participants employed is lower after program participation when compared to before program participation for all EBSMs

Some participants do not appear to be benefitting from EBSM participation, as reflected in the general decrease in the proportion of employed former claimant participants between the pre- and post-participation periods (see Figure 10). This decrease can be partially explained by retirement decisions considering the proportion of participants aged 55 years and older. As well, some participants may have left the labour force for various reasons.

Figure 10. Change in average proportion of former claimant participants employed 5 years pre- and post-participation in LMDA programs and services
Text description of Figure 10
Figure 10. Change in average proportion of former claimant participants employed 5 years pre- and post-participation in LMDA programs and services
Percentage points
Skills Development Employment Benefit -7
Targeted Wage Subsidies -13
Employment Assistance Services -10

Note: outcomes for participants in Targeted Wage Subsidies should be interpreted with caution given the small number of participants (66 for former claimants).

4. Conclusions

Overall, incremental impacts, cost-benefit analysis, and labour market outcomes provide indications that LMDA-funded programs and services in Yukon are helping participants to improve their labour market experience after participation. As such, evaluation evidence suggests that LMDA-funded programs are aligned with and can contribute to achieving the objective of the 2009 Yukon Labour Market Framework of having “an inclusive and adaptable labour market that meets the demands of a strong and diversified economy and provides opportunities for a better quality of life for Yukoners.”

Incremental impacts demonstrate that active EI claimants who participated in Skills Development Employment Benefit had gains in earnings and incidence of employment after program participation when compared to similar non-participants. As well, active EI claimants who participated in Employment Assistance Services had reductions in EI use and some gains in earnings after participation. The social benefits of participation exceeded the cost of the intervention over time for active claimants who participated in these two programs. Labour market outcomes demonstrate that former claimants who participated in LMDA programs and services showed higher average earnings and lower average proportions on EI and social assistance during the five years after program participation when compared to five years prior.

Some participants do not appear to be benefiting from EBSM participation, as reflected in the general decrease in the proportion of employed former claimant participants between the pre- and post-participation periods. This decrease can be partially explained by retirement decisions considering the proportion of participants aged 55 years and older. As well, some participants may have left the labour force for various reasons.

Key informants interviews with service providers and program managers, as well as the documents reviewed and the questionnaires filled by Yukon representatives, revealed few challenges and lessons learned about program design and delivery. In the case of Employment Assistance Services, national-level results are included as Yukon did not participate in the qualitative study. Key challenges and barriers are highlighted below.

Skills Development Employment Benefit

  • The availability of training is limited locally, and alternatives (distance education, relocation) prove quite complicated and difficult to accommodate.
  • Participants may lack essential skills or other related certifications (for example, drivers or machinery license) that are also necessary for the job but require extended training and are generally not supported by the Skills Development Employment Benefit program.
  • Some individuals who might benefit from the program do not have sufficient labour market attachment to qualify for EI.
  • Counselling assistance for participants with multiple barriers is not always accessible, which causes caseworkers to take on this supportive role as well.
  • Recruiting and retaining staff (project officers and caseworkers) with the expertise to assist individuals with complex action plans is challenging.
  • A lack of awareness may prevent potential participants from joining, and a range of barriers (for example, lack of child care, personal/family instability, transportation, academic struggles, financial obstacles, etc.) may prevent participants from completing their training.

Skills Development Employment Benefit – Apprenticeship

Existing Canadian literature showed that there is a fairly high non-completion rate among apprentices (40 to 50%)Footnote 21 in Canada. Furthermore, subject matter literature revealed that despite the growth in apprenticeship registrations in Canada, there has not been a corresponding increase in completion ratesFootnote 22. While it is not possible with available data to generate a reliable estimation of the completion rate for apprenticeship training, key informants involved in apprenticeship delivery confirmed the stagnation in completion rates.

According to key informants, apprenticeship drop-out is due to factors such as:

  • Lack of essential skills and basic employment experience (in the case of young apprentices).
  • Financial hardship (due to limited support from EI Part I benefits and the high cost of living in the Yukon), delays and obstructions to processing EI claims, and travel for block training may deter apprentices.
  • Apprentices may change their mind about their career path and discontinue training.
  • Fluctuations in the labour market may produce periods of low demand for certain trades.
  • Lack of journeymen to support apprentices (particularly in rural areas).

Targeted Wage Subsidies

  • Administrative burdens on employers during the application process and subsidy period, as well as perceptions about the level of efforts needed to accommodate participants.
  • Lack of employer awareness about the program and its objectives, as well as the inability of participants to market themselves using the self-marketing letter alone.
  • Perceptions about the quality of participants may discourage some employers from hiring Employer Wage Subsidies participants and may use alternative programs (for example, Temporary Foreign Worker Program, the Nominee program).
  • Individuals who might benefit from the program have not had sufficient labour market attachment to qualify for EI.
  • Lack of entry-level jobs (which are often most suitable for wage subsidy participants) or the seasonal nature of some positions.
  • Personal suitability for the position. Circumstances unique to the participant may require that they cease working, or the career exploration accomplished by program participation may reveal that the job is not a good fit.

Employment Assistance Services

Challenges reported in ten provinces and territories include:

  • Lack of awareness about Employment Assistance Services among potential participants.
  • Current budget allocation is not enough to support the delivery of Employment Assistance Services and has led some service providers to eliminate services.
  • Service providers cannot provide all the services needed for participants facing multiple barriers to employment. They have to refer these individuals to other organizations.

5. Recommendations

A total of six recommendations resulted from the evaluation findings. They are as follows:

A 2016 Review of Employment and Skills Strategies in Yukon by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development concluded by identifying the future needs for a higher-educated, higher-skilled Yukon labour force. As well, the labour market statistics revealed that Aboriginal peoples represented 23% of the total population in Yukon in 2016 with an average unemployment level of 11.4% (compared to 4.5% in Yukon). Furthermore, 28.7% of Aboriginal Peoples have no Certificate, diploma or degree (compared to 8.5 % in Yukon). Finally, the 2009 Yukon Labour Market Framework called for having “an inclusive and adaptable labour market that meets the demands of a strong and diversified economy and provides opportunities for a better quality of life for Yukoners.”

Recommendation 1: Consideration should be given about providing literacy/essential skills training/high-school upgrading for individuals with multiple barriers and those distant from the labour market, including Indigenous peoples, in preparing for vocational training and eventually reintegrating into the labour market. These measures should be reported separately from other Skills Development Employment Benefit interventions given their unique objectives.

The annual number of participants in the Targeted Wage Subsidies program in Yukon is very small and labour market outcomes presented in the report should be interpreted with caution. National-level and several provincial-level evaluations show that Targeted Wage Subsidies are effective at improving the earnings and employment of participants.

Recommendation 2: Consideration should be given by Yukon to reduce the barriers to employer participation in the program and to support the marketing to potential participants.

Active claimants who participated in Employment Assistance Services reduced their use of EI following participation and experienced some gains in earnings compared to similar non-participants. Yukon did not participate in the qualitative study carried out on this program, which investigated challenges and lessons learned about design and delivery specific to the context of the participating province/territory.

Recommendation 3: Given that Employment Assistance Services represent a significant portion of total LMDA funds (40%), and that evaluation evidence suggests that the program works well, consideration should be given to examining to what extent the challenges and lessons learned identified at the national level (and presented in this report) are applicable to the unique context in Yukon.

A study carried out across Canada regarding the timing of participation in Employment Assistance Services showed that receiving assistance early after starting an EI claim can lead to better labour market impacts.

Recommendation 4: Consideration should be given by Yukon to request timely access to data on new EI recipients for targeting purposes, especially if awareness about Employment Assistance Services is also an issue in the territory.

With the exception of producing incremental impacts for participation in Skills Development Employment Benefit and Employment Assistance Services (active claimants), the LMDA evaluation was only able to produce labour market outcomes for participants in other EBSMs given the small number of participants. Labour market outcomes were produced over five years and for the entire population of participants using rich data on EI claimants, EBSM participation data and Canada Revenue Agency taxation files. However, some data gaps limited the evaluation's ability to assess how EBSMs operate. For example:

  • Having access to data on whether participants are members of designated groups including Aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities and recent immigrants would be useful to inform policy development and program design.
  • Having access to data on the cost of programming per participant would also provide a refined assessment of how much participation costs for active claimants as compared to former claimants.
  • It is not currently possible to distinguish between different types of training and support funded under Skills Development Employment Benefit (e.g. literacy, essential skills, adult basic education, vocational training and tuition differential). These various types of training/supports can lead to very different labour market outcomes and can help explain the observed outcomes.
  • Due to non-participation in the qualitative study, little is also known about the various types of Employment Assistance Services provided under the LMDA in Yukon. These services can be very different in nature and it is possible that some may be more effective than others at helping participants return to employment. For example, having access to a computer for researching jobs on its own may yield different impacts than receiving counselling and assistance to develop a return-to-work action plan.

Recommendation 5: Enhancements in the data collection process are recommended to address key program and policy questions of interest to Canada and Yukon. Specifically:

  • Collect data on whether participants are members of designated groups including Indigenous peoples, persons with disabilities and recent immigrants.
  • Collect data on the type of training funded under Skills Development Employment Benefit and the type of assistance provided under Employment Assistance Services. Yukon, ESDC and other P/Ts should work together to define common categories for both EBSMs.
  • Collect detailed data on the cost of EBSM interventions.

The evaluation was not able to produce with confidence labour market outcomes for Self-Employment since the data used to assess impacts on earnings may not be the best source of information available to reflect the financial wellbeing of the participants. As well, little is known about the design and delivery of this program. Overall, it is not clear whether participant success in improving their labour market attachment through self-employment is more closely associated with their business idea and their entrepreneurship skills or the assistance provided under Self-Employment.

Recommendation 6: Consideration should be given to examine in more detail the design and delivery of Self-Employment and whether the performance indicators for this program are appropriate.

References

Canada Employment Insurance Commission. Employment Insurance Monitoring and Assessment Reports. 2003 to 2004 to 2013 to 2014.

Canadian Apprenticeship Forum. 2011. Investigating Apprenticeship Completion in Canada: Reasons for Non-Completion and Suggested Initiatives for Improving Completion. Canadian Apprenticeship Forum. Ottawa: Canadian Apprenticeship Forum.

Coe, Patrick. “Apprenticeship programme requirements and apprenticeship completion rates in Canada.” Journal of Vocational Education and Training. 2013. 65(4): 575 to 605

Employment and Social Development Canada. The Study of Skills Development-Apprenticeship in Yukon: Technical Report. Evaluation Directorate. June 26, 2016.

Employment and Social Development Canada. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Employment Benefits and Support Measures Delivered in the Yukon: Technical Report. Evaluation Directorate. May 27, 2016.

Employment and Social Development Canada. Study on the Skills Development Program in Yukon: Technical Report. Evaluation Directorate. April 13, 2016

Employment and Social Development Canada. Analysis of Employment Benefits and Support Measures (EBSM) Profile and Outcomes for the EI Claimant Category “Long-Tenured Workers” in Yukon: Technical Report. Evaluation Directorate. March 9, 2016

Employment and Social Development Canada. Study on Targeted Wage Subsidies in Yukon. Evaluation Directorate. February 4, 2016.

Employment and Social Development Canada. Analysis of Employment Benefits and Support Measures (EBSM) Profile and Outcomes for 2006-2008 Participants in Yukon: Technical Report. Evaluation Directorate. March 2, 2015

Employment and Social Development Canada. Profile, Outcomes and Incremental Impacts of Employment Benefits and Support Measures (EBSM) Participants in Yukon: Technical Report. Evaluation Directorate. April 23, 2014.

Employment and Social Development Canada. Strengthening Apprenticeship: Identifying Barriers to Entry, Completion and Mobility. Ottawa: Forum of Labour Market Ministers. 2012.

LaRochelle-Côté, Sébastien and Sharanjit Uppal, "The Financial Well-Being of the Self-Employed," Perspectives on Labour and Income, vol. 23, no. 4, Winter 2011

OECD (2016). Employment and Skills Strategies in Saskatchewan and the Yukon, Canada, OECD Reviews on Local Job Creation. OECD Publishing, Paris. Accessed March 2 2017.

Red Seal. Apprenticeship Completion, Certification and Outcomes. Ottawa: Red Seal, 2014.

Yukon Bureau of Statistics, Executive Council Office, Yukon Government. Population Report Third Quarter 2016. Accessed March 15 2017.

Yukon Bureau of Statistics, Executive Council Office, Yukon Government. Aboriginal Peoples 2011 National Household Survey. Accessed March 16 2017.

Yukon Bureau of Statistics, Executive Council Office, Yukon Government. Yukon Employment Annual Review 2016. Accessed March 15 2017.

Yukon Government, Department of Education, Advanced Education Branch. 2012 to 2013 Annual Plan for Yukon Territory – Labour Market Development Agreement & Labour Market Agreement. Accessed March 22 2017.

Yukon Government, Department of Education, Advanced Education Branch. A Labour Market Framework for Yukon. Accessed March 21 2017.

Yukon Government, Department of Education, Labour Market Programs and Services. Employment Assistance Services Program Guidelines. September 13, 2013.

Acronyms

EBSM Employment Benefits and Support Measures

EI Employment Insurance

ESDC Employment and Social Development Canada

LMDA Labour Market Development Agreements

P/Ts Provinces and Territories

Appendix A – Methodology

Qualitative data

Qualitative data reported in the Skills Development Employment Benefit, Skills Development Employment Benefit – Apprenticeship, and Targeted Wage Subsidies studies were collected from key informant interviews with managers and service providers, questionnaires completed by Yukon government representatives, and a document/ literature review. Qualitative data reported on Employment Assistance Services was collected by the same methods from key informants and government representatives across all participating provinces/territories. Table A1 provides the number of key informants interviewed.

Key informant interviews for the Employment Assistance Services study were conducted in 2013 while those for the Skills Development Employment Benefit, Skills Development Employment Benefit – Apprenticeship and Targeted Wage Subsidies studies were conducted in 2015.

Table A1. Number of Key Informants Interviewed
  Studies
Skills Development Skills Development – Apprenticeship Targeted Wage Subsidies Employment Assistance Services (National Level)
Managers or Service Providers 3 3 4 77

Quantitative Methods

All quantitative analyses were conducted using linked administrative data from EI Part I (EI claim), EI Part II (EBSM participation data) and T1 and T4 taxation files on 100% of participants in Yukon.

Incremental Impacts

The incremental impact analysis compared the labour market experience of participants before and after their participation with that of a comparison group. The goal was to determine the direct effect of program participation on key labour market indicators (see Figure 1 in the introduction section).

For active claimants, incremental impacts were measured relative to a comparison group of active claimants who could have participated in the EBSMs but did not. Participants and non-participants were matched based on a wide array of variables including age, sex, location, skill level required by the last occupation held prior to participation, reason for separation from employment, industry in which they were previously employed as well as employment earnings and use of EI and social assistance for each of the five years before participation.

All analyses were conducted using a unit of analysis called the Action Plan Equivalent, which combines all EBSMs given to an individual within no more than six months of each other. For reporting purposes, incremental impacts were attributed to the longest intervention of the Action Plan Equivalent when Skills Development Employment Benefit, Targeted Wage Subsidies, or Self-Employment was the longest intervention. Impacts for Employment Assistance Services were calculated for Action Plan Equivalents that contained only Employment Assistance Services with no other Employment Benefits.

The incremental impact estimates were produced using non-experimental methods – namely propensity score matching using the Kernel Matching method, along with Difference-in-Differences method to estimate program impacts. Alternative matching techniques (that is, Nearest Neighbour and Inverse Propensity Weighting) were also used for validation purposes.

Incremental impacts were measured for the following indicators:

  • Employment/self-employment earnings: represent the total earnings an individual had from paid employment and/or self-employment (this information is available by calendar year and is obtained from T1 and T4 tax return records).
  • Incidence of employment/self-employment: represents the incidence of having earnings from employment and/or self-employment.
  • Amount of EI benefits: represents the average amount of EI benefits received.
  • Weeks in receipt of EI benefits: represents the average number of weeks during which EI benefits were received.
  • Social assistance benefits: represents the average amount of social assistance benefits received (this information is available by calendar year and is obtained from T1 tax return records).
  • Dependence on income support: represents the ratio of participants' income that came from EI and social assistance benefits (that is, EI benefits + social assistance benefits) / (EI benefits + social assistance benefits + earnings from employment/self/employment).

Cost-Benefit Analysis

The cost-benefit analysis compared how much it cost for individuals to participate in the programs and how much it costs the government to deliver those programs with the benefits both the participants and the government drew from those programs. The analysis was carried out from the societal perspective, which combines the costs and the benefits for both the participants and government.

Costs and benefits included in the calculations were as follows:

  • Program costs included the administration cost and the direct cost of the EBSMs. The cost for each EBSM was calculated at the Action Plan Equivalent level. The costs were determined based on the average composition of the APE.
  • The Marginal Social Cost of Public Funds represented the loss incurred by society when raising additional revenues such as taxes to fund government spending. The value was estimated as 20% of the program cost, sales taxes, income taxes, impacts on EI and impacts on social assistance paid or collected by the government.
  • Employment earnings consisted of incremental impacts on participants' earnings during and after participation. The calculation accounts for the participant's foregone earnings during participation (that is, opportunity cost). These are based on incremental impacts for the 2001 to 2007 participants.
  • Fringe benefits included benefits such as employer-paid health and life insurance as well as pension contributions. The rate used to calculate the fringe benefits was 15% of the incremental impact on earnings.

The program effects on EI and social assistance use, and the sale and income tax revenues were not included in the calculations since these costs and benefits cancel each other out from the social perspective by definition. For example, while EI and social assistance are benefits received by participants, they represent a cost for the government. However, as indicated above, these effects are accounted for in the calculation of the Marginal Social Cost of Public Funds.

When producing the results, to bring all costs and benefits to a common base and to account for inflation and interest on foregone government investment, the estimates for the second year of participation and up to the sixth year post-program were discounted by 5% per year. As well, when the benefits were still lower than the costs six years after program end, the payback period was calculated by assuming that the average benefit or cost measured over the fifth and six year post-program would persist over time (discounted at a 5% annual rate).

Labour Market Outcomes

The analysis of outcomes provides descriptive statistics on the labour market experience of participants before, during and after participation. For example, it shows the average annual earnings of active claimants before, during and after participation, and presents what changes were observed from before to after participation. Overall, the analyses were conducted over a period of 9 to 12 years (five years before participation, one or two years during participation, and three or five years after participation).

The outcome analyses provide an assessment of how the labour market situation of participants evolved over time, but does not permit inference regarding the extent to which those changes were due to EBSM participation. For example, increases in employment earnings over the period examined could be partly due to inflation or normal wage increases.

When the number of participants was sufficient, outcomes were examined for active and former EI claimants who were youth (under 30 years old), older workers (55 years old and over) and long-tenured workers. Long-tenured workers refer to individuals who had long-term attachment to the labour market but not necessarily a long tenure with the same employer.

Strengths and Limitations from the Studies

One of the key strengths of the LMDA evaluation studies is that all quantitative analyses were based on administrative data rather than survey responses. Compared to survey data, administrative data are not subject to recall errors or response bias.

The propensity score models used to match participants and non-participants for the incremental impact analyses are judged to be robust in part because they were based on five years of pre-participation data and on a vast array of variables including socio-demographic characteristics, location, skills level related to last occupation and indicators of labour market attachment. Sensitivity analysis and the use of alternative estimation methods have increased confidence in the incremental impact estimates. However, readers should be aware that incremental impacts may be affected by factors not captured by the matching process. For example, the motivation to seek employment was not directly measured except to the extent it was captured in prior income and labour market attachment patterns.

The cost-benefit analysis accounted for all quantifiable benefits and costs that were directly linked to EBSM delivery and participation and that could be estimated using available administrative data and the EI Monitoring and Assessment Report; however, it did not capture “intangible”, non-pecuniary and indirect benefits. It did not consider the multiplier effect that improving participants' income may have on the economy and did not account for the effect of EI Part II investment on sustaining a service delivery infrastructure and creating jobs among the governmental program service providers. As well, this analysis did not consider the displacement effects where participants may take away jobs that would otherwise be filled by other unemployed individuals.

It should be noted that it is not possible to produce an analysis of incremental impacts for Skills Development Employment Benefit – Apprenticeship participation. Assessing program impacts poses a methodological challenge because participants are already employed and are expected to return to their employment after completing their training. Therefore, expected labour market impacts cannot be examined using a similar approach as for assessing impacts of other EBSMs, which are expected to help participants return to employment. As well, the data available does not permit the identification of a proper comparison group since participants alternate between work and training and no other potential counterfactuals have similar employment and training patterns. In this context, it is not possible to produce a reliable assessment of Skills Development Employment Benefit – Apprenticeship effectiveness.

As mentioned, readers should be careful to note that observed changes in labour market outcomes may be due to external factors (for example, inflation, youth maturation process, etc.) and not EBSM participation. Still, interpreting outcomes can provide some insights about the labour market experience of participants before and after participation.

When interpreting qualitative findings, readers should keep in mind that these are based on the perception of a small number of key informants who are directly involved in the design or delivery of the program. Their perception may be representative of their own region or community but not necessarily of the entire territory. Since the number of key informants interviewed in each study is small (3 to 4), the number of informants who reported a specific finding is not indicated in the report. However, the report notes when there was a clear disagreement between key informants.

Appendix B – Detailed results Skills Development Employment Benefit

Table B1. Socio-demographic and labour market characteristics of Skills Development Employment Benefit participants
  Active claimants Former claimants
2001 to 2007 2006 to 2008 2001 to 2007 2006 to 2008
Number of observations 488 98 202 51
Gender
Male 49% 45% 58% 51%
Female 50% 51% 42% 47%
Missing 1% 4% 0% 2%
Age
Under 25 20% 30% 14% 16%
25 to 34 29% 27% 41% 45%
35 to 44 26% 27% 30% 27%
45 to 54 20% 14% 13% 8%
55 and over 5% 3% 2% 4%
Socio-demographic group
Aboriginal individual* 10% 12% 30% 31%
Person with disability* 4% 14% 6% 16%
Visible minority* 1% 3% 5% 0%
Immigrant 1% 1% 1% 2%
Marital status
Married or common-law 38% 39% 47% 31%
Widow / divorced or separated 9% 8% 8% 10%
Single 52% 52% 43% 53%
Missing data / unknown 1% 1% 2% 6%
Skills level related to National Occupation Code associated with the last EI claim opened before Skills Development participation1
Managerial 6% 7% 3% 6%
University 7% 6% 6% 6%
College or apprenticeship training 31% 29% 29% 25%
Secondary or occupational training 36% 40% 40% 37%
On-the-job training 20% 18% 23% 25%
Key labour market indicators in the year preceding the start of participation
Earnings2 $22,320 $23,6983 $10,100 $18,3263
Proportion employed 96% 98% 83% 96%
Proportion on Employment Insurance 54% 62% 57% 57%
Proportion on Social Assistance 8% 5% 29% 30%
Proportions may not add up to 100% due to rounding.

*Status self-reported by participant.

1Skill level corresponds to the type and/or amount of training or education typically required to work in the last occupation participants had before opening the last EI claim they had before participating in EBSMs:

– Managerial: Management occupations.

– University: Occupations usually requiring university education (University degree at the bachelor's, master's or doctorate level).

– College or apprenticeship training: Occupations usually requiring college or vocational education or apprenticeship training such as 2 to 3 years of post-secondary education at a community college, institute of technology or CEGEP or 2 to 5 years of apprenticeship training or 3 to 4 years of secondary school and more than 2 years of on-the-job training, specialized training courses or specific work experience and/or occupations with supervisory responsibilities and occupations with significant health and safety responsibilities, such as firefighters, police officers and registered nursing assistants.

– Secondary or occupational training: Occupations usually requiring secondary school and/or occupation-specific training such as one to four years of secondary school education or up to 2 years of on-the-job training specialized training courses or specific work experience.

– On-the-job training: On-the-job training is usually provided for occupations (short work demonstration or on-the-job training or no formal educational requirements).

2Average earnings for all individuals included in the studies. The average was calculated including participants who reported $0 earnings during that year.

3Earnings for 2006 to 2008 participants have been adjusted by the Consumer Price Index published by Statistics Canada (base year=2002) using the 2006 index value.
Table B2. Incremental impacts for Skills Development Employment Benefit – Active claimants
Indicators In-program period Post-program period Total post Total in- and post-program
Program start year Additional year 1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year 5th year
2001 to 2007 participants (n=488)
Employment earnings ($) -4,429*** -3,415 355* 2,015*** 3,907*** 4,518*** 5,889*** 16,684*** 8,840
Incidence of employment (percentage points) 1.2 1.7 4.1** 3.2* 4.2** 4* 4.6** n/a n/a
EI benefits ($) 1,841*** 790*** -68 -151 -10 5 37 -187 2,443***
EI weeks 5.7*** 2.8*** -0.1 -0.5 0 0.1 0.2 -0.3 8.2***
SA benefits ($) -21 -96 -1 -110 -113 -62 -252** -541 -659
Dependence on income support (percentage points) 9.4*** 3.7** -1.5 -4.6*** -4*** -3** -4.2*** n/a n/a

Significance level *** 1%; ** 5%; * 10%

SA: Social Assistance

Table B3. Cost-benefit results from the social perspective for Skills Development Employment Benefit
Total Costs and Benefits Over Participation (1 to 2 years) and 6 Years Post-Program Active claimants (n=488)
Program cost -$10,039
Marginal social costs of public funds -$1,939
Employment earnings $9,247
Fringe benefit $1,387
Net present value (By how much do the benefits exceed the costs within 6 years after participation?) -$1,344
Cost-benefit ratio (How much does it cost in EI part II funds to achieve $1 in benefit 6 years after participation?) $1.20
Payback period (How many years after participation would it take for the benefits to recover the costs?) 6.3 years after participation
Table B4. Labour market outcomes for Skills Development Employment Benefit – Active claimants
Average outcomes Pre-program period In-program period Post-program period Average annual outcomes pre-1 Average annual outcomes post-2 Change3
5 yrs pre 4 yrs pre 3 yrs pre 2 yrs pre 1 yr pre Program start year Additional in-program year 1 yr post 2 yrs post 3 yrs post 4 yrs post 5 yrs post
All active claimants
2001  to  2007 participants (n=488)
Earnings including 04 $14,675 $16,533 $18,660 $20,817 $22,320 $15,030 $17,944 $25,398 $28,489 $32,057 $33,285 $35,063 $18,601 $30,858 $12,257
Earnings excluding $05 $17,251 $19,130 $20,643 $22,357 $23,175 $16,120 $19,811 $27,978 $32,944 $37,878 $40,310 $41,980 $20,511 $36,218 $15,707
Proportion employed 77% 82% 89% 93% 96% 93% 91% 91% 87% 85% 83% 85% 88% 86% -2pp
Proportion on EI 25% 29% 34% 34% 54% 97% 75% 46% 38% 32% 28% 25% 35% 34% -1pp
EI benefits $1,348 $1,626 $1,888 $2,030 $2,837 $7,937 $4,883 $2,804 $2,434 $2,138 $1,983 $1,747 $1,946 $2,221 $275
Number of weeks on EI 4.4 5.2 5.9 6.2 8.4 23.9 14.8 8 6.6 5.7 5.2 4.5 6 6 0
Proportion on SA 11% 10% 9% 12% 8% 8% 7% 7% 6% 6% 7% 5% 10% 6% -4pp
SA benefits $525 $515 $435 $405 $342 $257 $245 $370 $281 $348 $454 $291 $444 $349 -$95
Dependence on income support 14% 13% 14% 13% 15% 41% 29% 16% 12% 12% 12% 11% 14% 12% -2pp
2006  to  2008 participants (n=98)
Earnings including $04 $14,275 $15,857 $19,009 $20,994 $25,854 $17,185 $20,447 $29,049 $33,088 $38,657 - - $19,198 $33,598 $14,400
Earnings excluding $05 $15,359 $17,598 $19,629 $21,671 $26,399 $19,383 $21,547 $30,298 $37,173 $43,489 - - $20,131 $36,987 $16,856
Proportion employed 93% 90% 97% 97% 98% 89% 95% 96% 89% 89% - - 95% 91% -4pp
Proportion on EI 28% 31% 38% 44% 62% 100% 77% 61% 54% 42% - - 41% 52% 11pp
EI benefits $2,344 $1,947 $2,093 $2,804 $3,610 $9,859 $5,588 $4,456 $4,114 $2,995 - - $2,560 $3,855 $1,295
Number of weeks on EI 6 6 6 9 10 26 15 12 10 7 - - 7 10 3
Proportion on SA 7% 9% 10% 10% 5% 4% 3% 2% 7% 4% - - 8% 4% -4pp
SA benefits $369 $622 $459 $478 $165 $115 $42 $52 $186 $273 - - $419 $171 -$248
Dependence on income support 17% 16% 13% 16% 16% 45% 27% 18% 19% 12% - - 15% 17% 2pp
Sub-groups of active claimants
Youth (under 30 years old) – 2001 to 2007 participants (n= 179)
Earnings including $04 $9,736 $11,635 $12,931 $15,280 $18,672 $13,631 $16,515 $26,083 $28,828 $33,759 $34,257 $36,226 $13,651 $31,830 $18,179
Earnings excluding $05 $10,702 $12,790 $13,739 $16,337 $19,546 $14,698 $17,917 $27,303 $32,251 $38,736 $39,183 $41,989 $14,623 $35,892 $21,269
Proportion employed 68% 79% 89% 93% 96% 93% 92% 96% 89% 87% 88% 88% 85% 90% 5pp
Proportion on EI 14% 16% 27% 29% 51% 97% 78% 47% 39% 33% 30% 22% 28% 34% 6pp
EI benefits $486 $694 $1,395 $1,758 $2,132 $6,843 $4,819 $2,646 $2,312 $2,335 $2,164 $1,547 $1,293 $2,201 $908
Number of weeks on EI 1.9 2.7 4.6 5.7 6.8 22.1 15.6 7.7 6.1 6 5.6 3.8 4.3 5.8 1.5
Proportion on SA 8% 6% 8% 11% 7% 8% 3% 5% 4% 3% 5% 3% 8% 4% -4pp
SA benefits $436 $337 $313 $287 $257 $245 $60 $152 $96 $105 $253 $166 $326 $154 -$172
Dependence on income support 9% 8% 12% 12% 13% 39% 29% 14% 10% 12% 11% 8% 11% 11% 0pp
1Average annual outcome pre-: Represents the average annual outcomes over the pre-participation period

2Average annual outcome post-: Represents the average annual outcomes over the post-participation period

3Change between pre- and post-: Represents the difference between the average annual outcomes calculated over the pre-/post-participation periods.

4Earnings outcome for all individuals covered by the study.

5Earnings outcomes excluding individuals who reported no earnings in a given year.

SA: Social Assistance; pp: percentage points.
Table B5. Labour market outcomes for Skills Development Employment Benefit – Former claimants
Average outcomes Pre-program period In-program period Post-program period Average annual outcomes pre-1 Average annual outcomes post-2 Change3
5 yrs pre 4 yrs pre 3 yrs pre 2 yrs pre 1 yr pre Program start year Additional in-program year 1 yr post 2 yrs post 3 yrs post 4 yrs post 5 yrs post
All former claimants
2001  to  2007 participants (n=202)
Earnings including $04 $12,987 $15,598 $15,728 $14,120 $10,100 $7,860 $13,465 $18,194 $19,143 $22,489 $24,513 $24,951 $13,706 $21,858 $8,152
Earnings excluding $05 $16,130 $18,290 $16,822 $16,229 $12,144 $10,178 $16,893 $22,687 $24,168 $28,571 $31,584 $34,057 $15,923 $28,213 $12,290
Proportion employed 78% 83% 93% 87% 83% 77% 80% 80% 79% 79% 78% 75% 85% 78% -7pp
Proportion on EI 25% 28% 47% 59% 57% 25% 15% 25% 31% 28% 21% 19% 43% 25% -18pp
EI benefits $1,176 $1,242 $2,872 $3,285 $3,888 $1,286 $739 $1,556 $1,899 $1,220 $1,264 $1,352 $2,493 $1,458 -$1,035
Number of weeks on EI 4.3 4.3 8.9 10.7 12.3 4.2 2.5 5 5.8 3.6 3.4 3.5 8.1 4.3 -3.8
Proportion on SA 24% 20% 19% 19% 29% 35% 25% 19% 21% 21% 16% 17% 22% 19% -3pp
SA benefits $1,043 $958 $787 $834 $1,292 $1,749 $1,250 $751 $943 $1,158 $951 $783 $983 $917 -$66
Dependence on income support 21% 16% 20% 27% 38% 31% 17% 18% 22% 19% 15% 14% 24% 17% -7pp
2006  to  2008 participants (n=51)
Earnings including $04 $13,086 $16,350 $18,743 $21,802 $19,994 $20,940 $25,354 $27,274 $25,293 $35,036 - - $17,995 $29,201 $11,206
Earnings excluding $05 $14,644 $17,465 $19,558 $22,730 $20,883 $27,002 $31,693 $32,170 $31,284 $38,295 - - $19,056 $33,916 $14,860
Proportion employed 89% 94% 96% 96% 96% 78% 80% 85% 81% 92% - - 94% 86% -8pp
Proportion on EI 32% 26% 48% 65% 57% 39% 26% 33% 34% 26% - - 46% 31% -15pp
EI benefits $1,647 $1,100 $2,330 $3,377 $4,244 $2,497 $2,082 $2,717 $2,563 $1,976 - - $2,540 $2,418 -$121
Number of weeks on EI 5 3 8 10 11 7 6 7 6 5 - - 7 6 -1
Proportion on SA 23% 23% 19% 16% 30% 27% 26% 15% 28% 26% - - 22% 23% 1pp
SA benefits $1,769 $1,332 $635 $515 $830 $1,214 $1,505 $1,679 $1,844 $2,273 - - $1,016 $1,932 $916
Dependence on income support 24% 16% 16% 19% 26% 27% 22% 20% 22% 18% - - 20% 20% 0pp
Sub-groups of former claimants
Youth (under 30 years old) – 2001 to 2007 participants (n= 71)
Earnings including $04 $7,525 $9,452 $10,351 $11,605 $8,908 $6,730 $11,415 $17,144 $20,106 $24,766 $26,968 $25,727 $9,568 $22,942 $13,374
Earnings excluding $05 $9,087 $11,139 $10,822 $12,711 $10,720 $7,833 $13,072 $21,355 $24,613 $29,803 $31,995 $35,235 $10,896 $28,600 $17,704
Proportion employed 75% 79% 93% 92% 83% 86% 87% 80% 82% 83% 85% 76% 84% 81% -3pp
Proportion on EI 17% 25% 32% 48% 61% 38% 27% 35% 37% 31% 21% 20% 37% 29% -8pp
EI benefits $377 $873 $1,680 $2,178 $3,106 $1,673 $1,217 $1,733 $2,376 $1,026 $811 $1,330 $1,643 $1,455 -$188
Number of weeks on EI 2.9 4.3 5.8 8.2 11.8 6.2 4.6 6 7.8 3.5 2.5 3.9 6.6 4.7 -1.9
Proportion on SA 23% 21% 16% 16% 24% 31% 34% 17% 20% 18% 13% 13% 20% 16% -4pp
SA benefits $592 $944 $859 $811 $1,119 $1,814 $1,513 $652 $796 $967 $585 $462 $865 $692 -$173
Dependence on income support 17% 16% 14% 21% 34% 33% 22% 20% 21% 19% 11% 13% 20% 17% -3pp
1Average annual outcome pre-: Represents the average annual outcomes over the pre-participation period

2Average annual outcome post-: Represents the average annual outcomes over the post-participation period

3Change between pre- and post-: Represents the difference between the average annual outcomes calculated over the pre-/post-participation periods.

4Earnings outcome for all individuals covered by the study.

5Earnings outcomes excluding individuals who reported no earnings in a given year.

SA: Social Assistance; pp: percentage points.

Appendix C – Detailed results Skills Development Employment Benefit – Apprenticeship

Table C1. Socio-demographic and Labour Market characteristics of Skills Development Employment Benefit – Apprenticeship participants
  Active claimants
2003 to 2005 2011 to 2014
Number of observations 66 120
Gender
Male 95% 89%
Female 5% 11%
Age
Under 25 39% 40%
25 to 34 36% 40%
35 to 44 17% 15%
45 to 54 8% 4%
55 and over 0% 1%
Socio-demographic group
Aboriginal individual* 9% 9%
Person with disability* 2% 2%
Visible minority* 0% 3%
Immigrant 3% 2%
Skills level related to National Occupation Code associated with the last EI claim opened before Skills Development – Apprenticeship participation1
Managerial 2% 0%
University 0% 1%
College or apprenticeship training 73% 89%
Secondary or occupational training 12% 4%
On-the-job training 14% 6%
Key labour market indicators in the year preceding the start of participation
Earnings2 $28,623 $30,6903
Proportion employed 98% 100%
Proportion on Employment Insurance 32% 30%
Proportion on Social Assistance 3% 3%
Proportions may not add up to 100% due to rounding.

*Status self-reported by participant.

1Skill level corresponds to the type and/or amount of training or education typically required to work in the last occupation participants had before opening the last EI claim they had before participating in EBSMs. For detailed definition, see Table B1.

2Average earnings for all individuals included in the studies. The average was calculated including participants who reported $0 earnings during that year.

3Earnings for 2006 to 2008 participants have been adjusted by the Consumer Price Index published by Statistics Canada (base year=2002) using the 2006 index value.
Table C2. Labour market outcomes for active claimants who started Skills Development Employment Benefit −Apprenticeship in 2003 to 2005
Average outcomes Pre-program period Program start year After the program start year
5 years pre 4 years pre 3 years pre 2 years pre 1 year pre 1 year post 2 years post 3 years post 4 years post 5 years post 6 years post 7 years post
Earnings including $01 $17,124 $20,482 $22,895 $24,230 $29,295 $25,999 $33,121 $34,830 $43,054 $44,011 $45,814 $45,570 $54,940
Earnings excluding $02 $18,908 $21,687 $24,241 $24,230 $29,809 $26,455 $33,121 $36,120 $44,776 $49,292 $49,554 $51,267 $60,879
Proportion employed 91% 94% 94% 100% 98% 98% 100% 96% 96% 89% 93% 89% 90%
Proportion on EI 30% 39% 37% 38% 35% 98% 74% 68% 54% 32% 28% 28% 15%
EI benefits $1,399 $2,099 $2,013 $1,954 $1,308 $4,453 $2,982 $3,082 $2,656 $1,480 $2,356 $1,724 $1,309
Number of weeks on EI 4.76 6.03 5.39 5.25 3.73 12.24 8.05 7.51 6.08 3.36 4.88 3.95 3.42
Proportion on SA 8% 2% 4% 2% 3% 5% 3% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
SA benefits $87 $28 $27 $25 $103 $168 $38 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Dependence on income support 9% 9% 8% 9% 7% 19% 11% 10% 8% 5% 7% 5% 4%
Proportion self-employed 8% 6% 9% 5% 3% 5% 10% 7% 12% 11% 8% 6% 10%
N=59. Data excludes individuals with no Canada Revenue Agency data for the 5 years before participation.

1Earnings outcomes for all individuals covered by the study.

2Earnings outcomes excluding individuals who reported no earnings in a given year.

SA: Social Assistance.

Appendix D – Detailed results Targeted Wage Subsidies

Table D1. Socio-demographic and labour market characteristics of Targeted Wage Subsidies participants
  Active claimants Former claimants
2001 to 2007 2001 to 2007
Number of observations 28 66
Gender
Male - 62%
Female - 38%
Missing - 0%
Age
Under 25 - 6%
25 to 34 - 39%
35 to 44 - 24%
45 to 54 - 24%
55 and over - 5%
Socio-demographic group
Aboriginal individual* - 30%
Person with disability* - 6%
Visible minority* - 5%
Immigrant - 3%
Marital status
Married or common-law - 50%
Widow / divorced or separated - 9%
Single - 36%
Missing data / unknown - 5%
Skills level related to National Occupation Code associated with the last EI claim opened before Targeted Wage Subsidies participation1
Managerial - 9%
University - 17%
College or apprenticeship training - 21%
Secondary or occupational training - 32%
On-the-job training - 21%
Key labour market indicators in the year preceding the start of participation
Earnings2 - $12,071
Proportion employed - 79%
Proportion on Employment Insurance - 44%
Proportion on Social Assistance - 30%
Proportions may not add up to 100% due to rounding.

*Status self-reported by participant.

1Skill level corresponds to the type and/or amount of training or education typically required to work in the last occupation participants had before opening the last EI claim they had before participating in EBSMs. For detailed definition, see Table B1.

2Average earnings for all individuals included in the studies. The average was calculated including participants who reported $0 earnings during that year.
Table D2. Labour market outcomes for Targeted Wage Subsidies – Former claimants
Average outcomes Pre-program period In-program period Post-program period Average annual outcomes pre-1 Average annual outcomes post-2 Change3
5 yrs pre 4 yrs pre 3 yrs pre 2 yrs pre 1 yr pre Program start year Additional in-program year 1 yr post 2 yrs post 3 yrs post 4 yrs post 5 yrs post
2001 – 2007 participants (n=66)
Earnings including $04 $15,611 $15,834 $13,767 $14,126 $12,071 $14,965 $18,968 $20,262 $23,295 $22,144 $22,085 $22,164 $14,282 $21,990 $7,708
Earnings excluding $05 $18,165 $19,000 $14,896 $16,648 $15,321 $16,740 $22,762 $25,717 $30,749 $29,826 $33,128 $33,246 $16,806 $30,533 $13,727
Proportion employed 83% 83% 92% 85% 79% 89% 83% 79% 76% 74% 67% 67% 85% 72% -13pp
Proportion on EI 17% 29% 47% 49% 44% 26% 35% 35% 26% 24% 21% 15% 37% 24% -13pp
EI benefits $913 $1,745 $2,910 $2,577 $2,522 $1,211 $1,187 $2,418 $1,021 $2,242 $1,150 $1,411 $2,134 $1,648 -$486
Number of weeks on EI 3.1 5.3 9.7 9.1 8.2 3.7 4.7 8.4 3.3 6.8 3.1 3.7 7.1 5.1 -2
Proportion on SA 27% 23% 23% 32% 30% 29% 24% 24% 18% 18% 14% 15% 27% 18% -9pp
SA benefits $1,772 $1,456 $1,159 $1,262 $1,596 $1,531 $1,202 $1,401 $955 $941 $951 $1,123 $1,449 $1,074 -$375
Dependence on income support 20% 19% 27% 28% 31% 17% 22% 28% 15% 23% 17% 16% 25% 20% -5pp
1Average annual outcome pre-: Represents the average annual outcomes over the pre-participation period

2Average annual outcome post-: Represents the average annual outcomes over the post-participation period

3Change between pre- and post-: Represents the difference between the average annual outcomes calculated over the pre-/post-participation periods.

4Earnings outcome for all individuals covered by the study.

5Earnings outcomes excluding individuals who reported no earnings in a given year.

SA: Social Assistance; pp: percentage points.

Appendix E – Detailed results Self-Employment

Table E1. Socio-demographic and labour market characteristics of Self-Employment participants
  Active Claimants Former Claimants
2001 to 2007 2001 to 2007
Number of observations 82 54
Gender
Male 52% 50%
Female 45% 50%
Missing 2% 0%
Age
Under 25 4% 2%
25 to 34 37% 26%
35 to 44 29% 35%
45 to 54 28% 26%
55 and over 2% 11%
Socio-demographic group
Aboriginal individual* 4% 2%
Person with disability* 6% 2%
Visible minority* 0% 4%
Immigrant 5% 11%
Marital status
Married or common-law 40% 48%
Widow / divorced or separated 15% 15%
Single 39% 31%
Missing data / unknown 6% 6%
Skills level related to National Occupation Code associated with the last EI claim opened before Self-Employment participation1
Managerial 11% 6%
University 10% 9%
College or apprenticeship training 37% 37%
Secondary or occupational training 28% 37%
On-the-job training 15% 11%
Key labour market indicators in the year preceding the start of participation
Earnings2 $24,572 $8,630
Proportion employed 95% 76%
Proportion on Employment Insurance 54% 69%
Proportion on Social Assistance 6% 13%
Proportions may not add up to 100% due to rounding.

*Status self-reported by participant.

1Skill level corresponds to the type and/or amount of training or education typically required to work in the last occupation participants had before opening the last EI claim they had before participating in EBSMs. For detailed definition see Table B1.

2Average earnings for all individuals included in the studies. The average was calculated including participants who reported $0 earnings during that year.
Table E2. Labour market outcomes for Self-Employment – Active claimants
Average outcomes Pre-program period In-program period Post-program period Average annual outcomes pre-1 Average annual outcomes post-2 Change3
5 yrs pre 4 yrs pre 3 yrs pre 2 yrs pre 1 yr pre Program start year Additional in-program year 1 yr post 2 yrs post 3 yrs post 4 yrs post 5 yrs post
2001  to  2007 participants (n=82)
Earnings including $04 $15,742 $15,699 $18,753 $20,850 $24,572 $11,827 $10,189 $16,116 $18,248 $21,536 $21,402 $25,110 $19,123 $20,482 $1,359
Earnings excluding $05 $19,133 $17,941 $21,097 $23,457 $25,832 $14,920 $15,191 $23,184 $25,799 $32,703 $33,992 $37,911 $21,492 $30,718 $9,226
Proportion employed 79% 85% 88% 88% 95% 79% 67% 70% 71% 66% 63% 68% 87% 68% -19pp
Proportion on EI 27% 28% 32% 31% 54% 98% 70% 29% 20% 16% 15% 17% 34% 19% -15pp
EI benefits $1,513 $1,282 $1,215 $1,732 $2,448 $9,664 $6,166 $1,109 $1,192 $1,168 $1,374 $1,169 $1,638 $1,202 -$436
Number of weeks on EI 4.8 4.2 4 5.6 8.2 29.1 19.1 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.2 5.4 3.4 -2
Proportion on SA 18% 11% 15% 10% 6% 11% 6% 10% 7% 6% 5% 9% 12% 7% -5pp
SA benefits $679 $696 $830 $558 $429 $320 $138 $582 $718 $496 $429 $808 $638 $607 -$31
Dependence on income support 16% 17% 15% 14% 15% 59% 47% 13% 12% 11% 10% 11% 15% 11% -4pp
1Average annual outcome pre-: Represents the average annual outcomes over the pre-participation period

2Average annual outcome post-: Represents the average annual outcomes over the post-participation period

3Change between pre- and post-: Represents the difference between the average annual outcomes calculated over the pre-/post-participation periods.

4Earnings outcome for all individuals covered by the study.

5Earnings outcomes excluding individuals who reported no earnings in a given year.

SA: Social Assistance; pp: percentage points.
Table E3. Labour market outcomes for Self-Employment – Former claimants
Average outcomes Pre-program period In-program period Post-program period Average annual outcomes pre-1 Average annual outcomes post-2 Change3
5 yrs pre 4 yrs pre 3 yrs pre 2 yrs pre 1 yr pre Program start year Additional in-program year 1 yr post 2 yrs post 3 yrs post 4 yrs post 5 yrs post
2001 to 2007 participants (n=54)
Earnings including $04 $10,800 $13,845 $15,745 $14,301 $8,630 $4,907 $6,412 $10,159 $10,876 $12,944 $14,782 $16,577 $12,664 $13,068 $404
Earnings excluding $05 $14,580 $17,387 $18,893 $15,760 $11,367 $8,547 $13,318 $17,144 $16,780 $22,548 $25,273 $28,581 $15,597 $22,065 $6,468
Proportion employed 74% 80% 83% 91% 76% 57% 48% 59% 65% 57% 59% 61% 81% 60% -21pp
Proportion on EI 33% 32% 37% 67% 69% 24% 2% 11% 20% 19% 24% 22% 47% 19% -28pp
EI benefits $1,884 $1,569 $2,166 $3,867 $4,978 $1,279 $277 $494 $1,414 $1,606 $1,780 $1,178 $2,893 $1,294 -$1,599
Number of weeks on EI 6.6 5.9 6.9 12.6 15.5 3.9 0.7 1.6 4.2 4.3 5 3.4 9.5 3.7 -5.8
Proportion on SA 13% 11% 11% 19% 13% 17% 9% 13% 9% 9% 11% 8% 13% 10% -3pp
SA benefits $633 $354 $299 $621 $484 $680 $298 $610 $535 $718 $673 $537 $478 $615 $137
Dependence on income support 21% 18% 17% 30% 45% 24% 8% 10% 16% 17% 17% 20% 26% 16% -10pp
1Average annual outcome pre-: Represents the average annual outcomes over the pre-participation period

2Average annual outcome post-: Represents the average annual outcomes over the post-participation period

3Change between pre- and post-: Represents the difference between the average annual outcomes calculated over the pre-/post-participation periods.

4Earnings outcome for all individuals covered by the study.

5Earnings outcomes excluding individuals who reported no earnings in a given year.

SA: Social Assistance; pp: percentage points.

Appendix F – Detailed results Employment Assistance Services

Table F1. Socio-demographic and labour market characteristics of Employment Assistance Services Participants
  Active claimants Former claimants
2001 to 2007 2006 to 2008 2001 to 2007 2006 to 2008
Number of observations 742 239 1,004 278
Gender
Male 48% 44% 52% 45%
Female 52% 54% 47% 53%
Missing 1% 2% 1% 3%
Age
Under 25 7% 5% 9% 10%
25 to 34 23% 26% 30% 28%
35 to 44 33% 27% 29% 23%
45 to 54 24% 22% 21% 22%
55 and over 13% 19% 12% 16%
Socio-demographic group
Aboriginal individual* 15% 12% 16% 19%
Person with disability* 8% 13% 8% 9%
Visible minority* 2% 1% 3% 2%
Immigrant 2% 4% 3% 3%
Marital status
Married or common-law 31% 29% 32% 22%
Widow / divorced or separated 15% 14% 16% 14%
Single 51% 54% 45% 55%
Missing data / unknown 3% 3% 7% 9%
Skills level related to National Occupation Code associated with the last EI claim opened before Employment Assistance Services participation1
Managerial 6% 7% 4% 7%
University 8% 8% 6% 6%
College or apprenticeship training 28% 36% 26% 29%
Secondary or occupational training 38% 32% 38% 33%
On-the-job training 19% 16% 26% 25%
Key labour market indicators in the year preceding the start of participation
Earnings2 $22,052 $23,7973 $10,464 $13,1703
Proportion employed 97% 100% 79% 88%
Proportion on Employment Insurance 58% 57% 49% 58%
Proportion on Social Assistance 12% 10% 24% 25%
Proportions may not add up to 100% due to rounding.

*Status self-reported by participant.

1Skill level corresponds to the type and/or amount of training or education typically required to work in the last occupation participants had before opening the last EI claim they had before participating in EBSMs. For detailed definition, see Table B1.

2Average earnings for all individuals included in the studies. The average was calculated including participants who reported $0 earnings during that year.

3Earnings for 2006 to 2008 participants have been adjusted by the Consumer Price Index published by Statistics Canada (base year=2002) using the 2006 index value.
Table F2. Incremental impacts for Employment Assistance Services – Active claimants
Indicators In-program period Post-program period Total post Total in- and post-program
1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year 5th year
2001-2007 participants (n=742)
Employment earnings ($) -1,729** 1,209 2,415** 2,298* 3,346** 2,857* 12,125* 10,396*
Incidence of employment (percentage points) 0 2.2 2.9* 1 0.3 1.9 n/a n/a
EI benefits ($) 386* -727*** -778*** -609*** -297 -435* -2,847*** -2,461***
EI weeks 1.3* -1.8*** -1.8*** -1.5** -0.5 -1 -6.7*** -5.5*
SA benefits ($) 102 107 148 71 55 110 490 592
Dependence on income support (percentage points) 4.9*** -2.5 -2.5* -2.2 1.1 -2.7* n/a n/a

Significance level *** 1%; ** 5%; * 10%

SA: Social Assistance.

Table F3. Cost-Benefit Results from the Social Perspective for Employment Assistance Services
Total Costs and Benefits Over Participation (1 to 2 years) and 6 Years Post-Program Active Claimants(n=742)
Program cost -$1,659
Marginal social costs of public funds $191
Employment earnings $10,0211
Fringe benefit $1,503
Net present value(By how much do the benefits exceed the costs within 6 years after participation?) $10,056
Cost-benefit ratio(How much does it cost in EI part II funds to achieve 1 in benefit 6 years after participation?) $0.10
Payback period(How many years after participation would it take for the benefits to recover the costs?) 2.0 years after participation

1 Cumulative gain in employment earnings was found significant at the 90% level (95% level is the standard used throughout the report)

Table F4. Labour market outcomes for Employee Assistance Services – Active claimants
Average outcomes Pre-program period Participation year Post-program period Average annual outcomes pre-1 Average annual outcomes post-2 Change3
5 yrs pre 4 yrs pre 3 yrs pre 2 yrs pre 1 yr pre 1 yr post 2 yrs post 3 yrs post 4 yrs post 5 yrs post
All active claimants
2001 to 2007 participants (n=742)
Earnings including $04 $15,280 $16,478 $18,159 $20,313 $22,052 $17,165 $20,519 $23,717 $25,139 $27,090 $26,984 $18,456 $23,436 $4,980
Earnings excluding $05 $18,885 $19,522 $20,625 $21,986 $22,695 $18,513 $22,930 $26,949 $30,134 $34,185 $34,522 $20,742 $27,872 $7,130
Proportion employed 79% 83% 87% 92% 97% 93% 90% 88% 83% 79% 79% 88% 85% -3pp
Proportion on EI 34% 36% 38% 39% 58% 96% 62% 37% 35% 33% 28% 41% 48% 7pp
EI benefits $1,883 $2,016 $2,146 $2,379 $3,381 $6,921 $3,659 $2,377 $2,236 $2,131 $1,986 $2,361 $3,218 $857
Number of weeks on EI 6.2 6.5 6.6 7.3 10.1 20.9 10.8 6.9 6.2 5.8 5.17 7.3 9.3 2
Proportion on SA 15% 15% 15% 14% 12% 13% 13% 13% 12% 11% 12% 14% 12% -2pp
SA benefits $666 $582 $595 $555 $406 $492 $634 $715 $676 $685 $747 $561 $658 $97
Dependence on income support 17% 17% 16% 16% 17% 38% 24% 17% 16% 17% 15% 17% 21% 4pp
2006 to 2008 participants (n=239)
Earnings including $04 $16,099 $17,637 $18,554 $22,087 $25,962 $19,619 $21,435 $25,540 $26,997 - - $20,068 $24,657 $4,590
Earnings excluding $05 $18,131 $20,119 $20,108 $22,962 $26,073 $20,596 $23,876 $29,040 $31,328 - - $21,479 $28,081 $6,603
Proportion employed 89% 88% 92% 96% 100% 95% 90% 88% 86% - - 93% 88% -5pp
Proportion on EI 31% 34% 35% 40% 57% 95% 58% 32% 35% - - 39% 42% 3pp
EI benefits $1,874 $1,960 $2,267 $2,350 $3,439 $7,510 $4,126 $2,075 $2,862 - - $2,378 $3,021 $643
Number of weeks on EI 6 6 6 7 10 21 11 5 7 - - 7 8 1
Proportion on SA 17% 14% 19% 13% 10% 16% 18% 18% 21% - - 15% 19% 4pp
SA benefits $861 $653 $779 $476 $232 $584 $1,116 $1,374 $1,560 - - $600 $1,350 $750
Dependence on income support 18% 17% 17% 14% 15% 36% 29% 19% 24% - - 16% 19% 3pp
Sub-groups of active claimants
Youth (under 30 years old) – 2001 to 2007 participants (n = 123)
Earnings including $04 $8,288 $10,847 $13,001 $14,153 $16,059 $14,402 $19,843 $22,641 $24,838 $25,950 $26,302 $12,470 $22,329 $9,859
Earnings excluding $05 $10,078 $11,890 $14,473 $14,779 $16,191 $15,141 $21,409 $24,865 $27,774 $30,989 $31,669 $13,482 $25,308 $11,826
Proportion employed 72% 85% 86% 94% 99% 95% 93% 91% 89% 84% 84% 87% 89% 2pp
Proportion on EI 16% 20% 26% 33% 47% 96% 61% 32% 33% 33% 24% 29% 47% 18pp
EI benefits $544 $692 $1,225 $1,919 $2,588 $5,707 $3,219 $2,088 $2,054 $2,008 $1,676 $1,394 $2,792 $1,398
Number of weeks on EI 2.2 2.6 4.1 6.6 8.4 19.2 10.2 6.4 5.8 5.5 4.4 4.8 8.6 3.8
Proportion on SA 15% 18% 15% 11% 8% 11% 11% 9% 14% 11% 10% 14% 11% -3pp
SA benefits $540 $545 $577 $338 $163 $288 $622 $659 $923 $756 $784 $433 $672 $239
Dependence on income support 10% 12% 12% 16% 15% 36% 22% 16% 16% 18% 13% 13% 20% 7pp
Older workers (55 years old and over) – 2001 to 2007 participants (n=98)
Earnings including $04 $20,649 $19,984 $20,351 $21,873 $24,286 $17,997 $20,770 $24,458 $24,593 $25,854 $23,408 $21,429 $22,846 $1,417
Earnings excluding $05 $23,259 $22,255 $23,464 $23,556 $24,792 $19,596 $22,870 $27,550 $29,391 $33,338 $29,418 $23,465 $27,027 $3,562
Proportion employed 89% 90% 87% 93% 98% 92% 91% 89% 84% 78% 81% 91% 86% -5pp
Proportion on EI 36% 49% 49% 44% 55% 95% 67% 42% 45% 34% 34% 47% 53% 6pp
EI benefits $2,299 $2,815 $3,065 $2,659 $3,560 $7,573 $4,449 $2,844 $2,956 $2,580 $2,582 $2,880 $3,831 $951
Number of weeks on EI 7.2 8.6 8.7 7.6 9.9 21.9 12.8 8 8.4 6.8 6.4 8.4 10.7 2.3
Proportion on SA 13% 12% 15% 14% 12% 6% 6% 9% 8% 10% 12% 14% 9% -5pp
SA benefits $480 $235 $608 $593 $315 $159 $345 $386 $236 $305 $532 $446 $327 -$119
Dependence on income support 14% 16% 22% 15% 15% 38% 24% 15% 18% 16% 17% 16% 21% 5pp
Long-tenured workers – 2007 to 2009 participants (n=49)
Earnings including $04 $30,316 $32,851 $33,192 $35,011 $35,959 $23,894 $26,761 $31,739 $34,549 - - $33,466 $31,016 -$2,450
Earnings excluding $05 $32,293 $33,536 $33,884 $35,740 $35,959 $25,452 $30,584 $35,429 $40,750 - - $34,282 $35,587 $1,305
Proportion employed 94% 98% 98% 98% 100% 94% 88% 90% 85% - - 98% 87% -11pp
Proportion on EI 16% 20% 22% 33% 35% 98% 50% 31% 22% - - 26% 34% 8pp
EI benefits $579 $606 $1,119 $1,417 $2,386 $6,800 $4,315 $2,514 $1,742 - - $1,221 $2,857 $1,636
Number of weeks on EI 2 2 3 4 6 17 12 6 5 - - 3 8 5
Proportion on SA 4% 2% 8% 4% 8% 12% 13% 17% 7% - - 5% 12% 7pp
SA benefits $108 $18 $121 $49 $163 $969 $766 $1,032 $897 - - $92 $898 $806
Dependence on income support 5% 2% 6% 7% 9% 31% 26% 16% 12% - - 6% 18% 12pp
1Average annual outcome pre-: Represents the average annual outcomes over the pre-participation period

2Average annual outcome post-: Represents the average annual outcomes over the post-participation period

3Change between pre- and post-: Represents the difference between the average annual outcomes calculated over the pre-/post-participation periods.

4Earnings outcome for all individuals covered by the study.

5Earnings outcomes excluding individuals who reported no earnings in a given year.

SA: Social Assistance; pp: percentage points.
Table F5. Labour Market Outcomes for Employee Assistance Services – Former claimants
Average outcomes Pre-program period Participation year Post-program period Average annual outcomes pre-1 Average annual outcomes post-2 Change3
5 yrs pre 4 yrs pre 3 yrs pre 2 yrs pre 1 yr pre 1 yr post 2 yrs post 3 yrs post 4 yrs post 5 yrs post
All former claimants
2001 to 2007 participants (n=1,004)
Earnings including $04 $13,847 $15,986 $16,223 $14,074 $10,464 $10,976 $15,283 $17,316 $18,385 $18,417 $18,682 $14,119 $16,510 $2,391
Earnings excluding $05 $16,962 $18,135 $17,885 $16,306 $13,252 $13,914 $19,014 $22,608 $24,743 $25,934 $27,502 $16,508 $22,286 $5,778
Proportion employed 80% 88% 90% 86% 79% 79% 80% 77% 74% 71% 69% 85% 75% -10pp
Proportion on EI 26% 32% 51% 59% 49% 21% 20% 24% 25% 24% 21% 43% 22% -21pp
EI benefits $1,218 $1,521 $2,677 $3,091 $3,023 $921 $1,076 $1,351 $1,345 $1,382 $1,161 $2,306 $1,206 -$1,100
Number of weeks on EI 4.5 5.2 9.3 10.7 10 3.1 3.5 4.3 4.1 4 3.3 7.9 3.7 -4.2
Proportion on SA 22% 20% 18% 19% 24% 31% 23% 21% 17% 16% 15% 21% 20% -1pp
SA benefits $1,037 $868 $825 $743 $1,044 $1,468 $1,159 $980 $917 $949 $984 $903 $1,076 $173
Dependence on income support 19% 17% 23% 29% 32% 23% 19% 18% 17% 18% 17% 24% 21% -3pp
2006 to 2008 participants (n=278)
Earnings including $04 $16,395 $18,170 $17,012 $16,962 $14,369 $15,563 $20,931 $21,366 $22,715 - - $16,582 $21,671 $5,089
Earnings excluding $05 $17,511 $18,885 $18,053 $18,673 $16,413 $18,121 $24,166 $25,618 $27,648 - - $17,907 $25,811 $7,904
Proportion employed 94% 96% 94% 91% 88% 86% 87% 83% 82% - - 93% 84% -9pp
Proportion on EI 36% 44% 57% 61% 58% 28% 25% 29% 27% - - 51% 27% -24pp
EI benefits $2,046 $2,400 $3,508 $3,587 $3,768 $1,208 $1,498 $1,970 $1,975 - - $3,062 $1,814 -$1,248
Number of weeks on EI 6 8 11 11 11 4 4 6 5 - - 9 5 -4
Proportion on SA 19% 20% 19% 21% 25% 29% 23% 26% 21% - - 21% 23% 2pp
SA benefits $755 $858 $970 $1,024 $1,555 $1,608 $1,433 $1,690 $1,575 - - $1,032 $1,566 $534
Dependence on income support 18% 19% 24% 27% 35% 23% 19% 24% 20% - - 25% 26% 1pp
Sub-groups of former claimants
Youth (under 30 years old) – 2001 to 2007 participants (n =220 )
Earnings including $04 $7,252 $9,966 $12,299 $11,832 $10,532 $11,614 $16,332 $17,888 $21,085 $20,212 $22,140 $10,376 $18,212 $7,836
Earnings excluding $05 $9,088 $11,172 $13,213 $13,167 $12,268 $13,378 $18,911 $21,864 $26,507 $26,949 $29,016 $11,782 $22,771 $10,989
Proportion employed 72% 86% 92% 90% 86% 87% 86% 82% 80% 75% 77% 85% 81% -4pp
Proportion on EI 12% 22% 43% 56% 49% 23% 17% 23% 27% 31% 21% 36% 24% -12pp
EI benefits $601 $809 $1,934 $2,725 $2,389 $1,098 $895 $1,194 $1,260 $1,537 $1,210 $1,692 $1,199 -$493
Number of weeks on EI 2.4 3.1 6.9 10.4 8.9 3.7 3 4.3 4 4.6 3.4 6.3 3.8 -2.5
Proportion on SA 21% 21% 19% 19% 28% 34% 25% 19% 17% 15% 14% 21% 21% 0pp
SA benefits $959 $899 $694 $779 $1,138 $1,382 $1,178 $864 $667 $693 $769 $894 $925 $31
Dependence on income support 18% 14% 18% 27% 29% 24% 18% 17% 16% 18% 14% 21% 20% -1pp
Older workers (55 years old and over) – 2001 to 2007 participants (n=116)
Earnings including $04 $19,421 $21,698 $18,695 $15,160 $10,162 $9,753 $13,399 $14,871 $14,954 $11,847 $10,478 $17,027 $12,550 -$4,477
Earnings excluding $05 $23,264 $23,971 $20,653 $17,944 $12,408 $12,856 $16,534 $21,297 $21,415 $19,917 $18,337 $19,648 $18,393 -$1,255
Proportion employed 83% 91% 91% 85% 82% 76% 81% 70% 70% 60% 59% 86% 69% -17pp
Proportion on EI 26% 35% 52% 60% 53% 19% 21% 22% 21% 18% 20% 45% 20% -25pp
EI benefits $1,233 $1,296 $2,875 $3,079 $3,973 $685 $865 $1,075 $926 $1,471 $1,389 $2,491 $1,069 -$1,422
Number of weeks on EI 4.4 4 9.5 10.3 12.8 3 3.1 3.6 2.8 3.9 3.9 8.2 3.4 -4.8
Proportion on SA 15% 11% 11% 22% 26% 28% 25% 20% 18% 16% 13% 17% 20% 3pp
SA benefits $682 $451 $633 $653 $987 $1,652 $1,445 $922 $1,233 $1,115 $755 $681 $1,187 $506
Dependence on income support 16% 11% 22% 29% 37% 23% 21% 15% 14% 17% 16% 23% 21% -2pp
1Average annual outcome pre-: Represents the average annual outcomes over the pre-participation period

2Average annual outcome post-: Represents the average annual outcomes over the post-participation period

3Change between pre- and post-: Represents the difference between the average annual outcomes calculated over the pre-/post-participation periods.

4Earnings outcome for all individuals covered by the study.

5Earnings outcomes excluding individuals who reported no earnings in a given year.

SA: Social Assistance; pp: percentage points.

Appendix G – List of seven studies included in the synthesis report

Table G1. Overview of studies included in this synthesis report
Study Evidence generated Methods Reference period Observation period
Profile, Outcomes and Incremental Impacts of Employment Benefits and Support Measures (EBSM) Participants in Yukon (Completed in 2014) - Incremental impacts.

– Labour market outcomes.

– Profile and socio-demographic characteristics of participants
- Non-experimental method using propensity score matching in combination with Difference-in-Differences

– Statistical profiling
2001 to 2007 participants 11 to 12 consecutive years between 1997 and 2013

(that is, 5 years pre-program,

1 to 2 years in-program and 5 years post-program) 
Cost-Benefit Analysis of Employment Benefits and Support Measures Delivered in Yukon (Completed in 2016) - Cost-benefit analysis - Non-experimental method using propensity score matching in combination with Difference-in-Differences

– Cost analysis
7 to 8 years between 2001 and 2014

(that is, 1 to 2 years in-program and 6 years post-program) 
Analysis of Employment Benefits and Support Measures (EBSM) Profile and Outcomes for 2006-2008 Participants in Yukon (Completed in 2015) - Labour market outcomes

– Profile and socio-demographic characteristics of participants
- Statistical profiling 2006 to 2008 participants 9 to 10 consecutive years between 2001 and 2013

(that is, 5 years pre-program, 1 to 2 years in-program and 3 years post-program)
Analysis of Employment Benefits and Support Measures (EBSM) Profile and  Outcomes for EI Claimant Category “Long-Tenured Workers” in Yukon (Completed in 2016) - Labour Market Outcomes. - Statistical profiling 2007 to 2009 participants 9 consecutive years between 2002 and 2012

(that is, 5 years pre-program, 1 year in-program and 3 years post-program)
Study on the Skills Development (SD)  Program in Yukon (Completed in 2016) - Program design and delivery

– Challenges and lessons learned
- 3 key informants interviews

– Literature and document review

– Questionnaire filled by Yukon officials
Design and delivery at the time of the data collection (that is, 2015)
Study of Skills Development – Apprenticeship in Yukon

(Completed in 2016)
- Labour market outcomes

– Profile and socio-demographic characteristics of participants

– Program design and delivery

– Challenges and lessons learned
- Statistical profiling

– 3 key informants interviews

– Literature and document review

– Questionnaire filled by Yukon officials
Study on Targeted Wage Subsidies (TWS): Yukon (Completed in 2016) - Program design and delivery

– Challenges and lessons learned
- 4 key informants interviews

– Document review

– Questionnaire filled by Yukon officials
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