North American Plant Protection Organization cooperative agreement

Official title: North American Plant Protection Organization Cooperative Agreement

Subject category:
Biodiversity / Ecosystems
Type of agreement / instrument:
Cooperative arrangement
  • Signed by Canada: October 13, 1976, October 17, 2014.
  • Ratified by Canada: October 13, 1976, October 17, 2014.
  • In force in Canada: October 13, 1976, October 17, 2014.
  • In force internationally: October 13, 1976, October 17, 2014.
Lead & partner departments:
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
United States Department of Agriculture – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; Servicio Nacional de Sanidad, Inocuidad y Calidad Agroalimentaria (in Spanish)
For further information:
Web links:
Compendium edition:
January 2020
Reference #:

Plain language summary

  • The North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO) is the Regional Plant Protection Organization (RPPO) for the North American region (Canada, United States, Mexico), created under Article IX of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.
  • NAPPO facilitates cooperation in the North American region to prevent the entry, establishment and spread of pests.
  • Canada actively engages in the activities of the NAPPO, which in turn facilitates safe bilateral and trilateral trade of Canadian plant and products, thus leading to protection of Canadian plant resources and economic growth.
  • Canada has a seat on the NAPPO Executive Committee and Canadian experts participate in all key projects of importance to the region.
  • NAPPO pre-dates the North American Free Trade Agreement (INAFTA) and supports the work of the NAFTA Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Committee.


The objective of this agreement is to:

  • encourage and facilitate cooperative efforts among its member countries to prevent the entry, establishment and spread of regulated pests in the NAPPO region and limit the economic impact of regulated non-quarantine pests;
  • facilitate and promote safe international trade in plants, plant products and other regulated articles; and,
  • encourage and participate in similar hemispheric and global cooperative efforts.

Key elements

  • Develops and adopts Regional Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (RSPMs) to harmonize the phytosanitary measures of its member countries in order to facilitate the safe movement of plants, plant products and other regulated articles into and within the NAPPO region;
  • Provides a forum for government and industry to discuss phytosanitary issues of concern to the NAPPO region;
  • Harmonizes plant protection activities in the NAPPO region;
  • Supports the IPPC Secretariat and the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (CPM) by assisting in the development and implementation of ISPMs and other activities agreed to in the Convention;
  • Encourages coordinated phytosanitary approaches in the hemisphere through active participation in the Inter-American Coordinating Group in Plant Protection (GICSV, based on the Spanish acronym); and,
  • Collaborates with other RPPOs and international organizations to implement the provisions of the IPPC and its ISPMs and where appropriate, assists in the development and delivery of training or other assistance to facilitate this goal.

Expected results

NAPPO activities intend to help create a scientifically sound and consistent regulatory framework for commerce involving plants and plant products within and beyond the NAPPO region.

Canada’s involvement

The NAPPO Cooperative Agreement and its activities results in a coordinated North American approach to prevent the entry, establishment and spread of pests, which in turn protects Canada’s plant resources, exports and facilitate market access.

NAPPO support strengthens Canada’s influence in the international arena, specifically at the IPPC and Plant Health Quadrilateral (Canada, U.S., Australia and New Zealand). Canada holds a seat in the NAPPO Executive Committee and Canadian experts lead and participate in various projects of priority to the region.

NAPPO enables a better interaction and collaboration with industry stakeholders, and encourages their participation in plant protection activities.

Results / progress


Canada proposed and is leading the development of an international standard on authorization of entities (alternative service delivery), which is a priority for the NAPPO region. NAPPO developed and implemented a regional standard on authorization of entities.

Canada hosted the 43rd NAPPO Annual meeting in 2019. The meeting was held in Montreal, QC and brought together over 130 participants from governments, industry and non-government organizations.

In support of United Nation’s International Year of Plant Health (IYPH) in 2020, NAPPO formed an Expert Group on IYPH. Chaired by Canada, this Expert Group will help the North American region to prepare for IYPH.

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