Persistent organic pollutants: Stockholm Convention

Official title: Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

Subject category:
Chemicals & Wastes
Type of agreement / instrument:
Legally-binding treaty
  • Signed by Canada May 23, 2001
  • Ratified by Canada May 23, 2001
  • In force in Canada May 17, 2004
  • In force internationally May 17, 2004
Lead & partner departments:
Environment and Climate Change Canada
Health Canada-Pest Management Regulatory Agency, Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, Global Affairs Canada
For further information:
Web links:
ECCC Inquiry Centre
Compendium edition:
February 2017
Reference #:


The objective of the Stockholm Convention is to protect human health and the environment from Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).

Key elements

The Convention seeks the elimination or restriction of production and use of all intentionally produced POPs listed to Annexes A and B of the Convention, and requires Parties to implement measures to reduce unintentionally produced POPs listed to Annex C. Stockpiles and wastes containing POPs must be managed and disposed of in a safe, efficient, and environmentally sound manner, taking into account international rules, standards, and guidelines.

Each Party is required to develop a National Implementation Plan detailing the measures taken to implement its obligations under the Convention. In addition, periodic national reporting every four years is also required, where each Party provides statistical data on total quantities of production, import and export of listed chemicals, the measures it has taken to implement the provisions of the Convention and on the effectiveness of such measures in meeting the objectives of the Convention.

The Convention has a financial mechanism, operated by the Global Environment Facility, to assist developing countries and countries with economies in transition to implement and meet their obligations. A regular effectiveness evaluation will assess whether the Convention is meeting its objective.

Expected results

The Convention aims to reduce levels of POPs entering the environment over time; as a result of eliminating or restricting releases of POP industrial chemicals and pesticides, unintentionally produced POP by-products and stockpiles and wastes of POPs.

The effectiveness of the Convention in achieving these expected results is evaluated on the basis of available scientific, environmental, technical and economic information, including:

  1. Reports and other monitoring information on the presence of POPs and their regional and global environmental transport;
  2. National reports from Parties; and
  3. Non-compliance information.

Canada’s involvement

Effective implementation of the Stockholm Convention is of vital interest to Canada because it will reduce Canada’s exposure to major foreign sources of POPs. Due to the tendency of POPs to migrate long distances and accumulate in northern climates, Canada continues to be particularly impacted by POPs and inhabitants of Canada’s North are at particular risk for POPs exposure.

Canada takes a risk-based approach to chemical substances, using strong science, assessment, management and monitoring tools. The Chemicals Management Plan assesses chemicals used in Canada and takes action on chemicals found to be harmful, including POPs. The production, use and release of POPs are managed through a well-established regulatory and policy framework involving both federal and provincial/territorial agencies. At the federal level, key policies and legislation governing chemical substances in food, drugs, pesticides and products include the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, the Pest Control Products Act and the Toxic Substances Management Policy.

Results / progress


Canada played a major leadership role in early efforts to control POPs and to develop this global treaty, and was the first country to sign and ratify the Convention in 2004. Canada also championed inclusion of effectiveness evaluation provisions and provided a $20 million Canada POPs Fund to assist developing countries build their capacities to address POPs.

The National Implementation Plan (NIP) is reviewed periodically and updated to address new obligations under the Convention. Canada submitted its initial and updated NIPs in 2006 and 2013 respectively.

Canada actively participates on the POPs Review Committee (POPRC), a subsidiary technical body to the Convention, assisting efforts to scientifically assess candidate POPs for addition to the Convention. Canada has also contributed expertise to help develop technical guidelines on POP wastes efforts and to establish a Global POPs Monitoring Group for evaluating the effectiveness of the Convention. Canada has two members on the 14-member Effectiveness Evaluation Committee and chairs this committee. Canada monitors and conducts research on the pathways and effects of POPs through a number of programs, most notably the Northern Contaminants Program (NCP). Canada also participates in POPs related monitoring and assessment by the Arctic Council’s Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). The NCP and AMAP provided much of the foundational science on which the Convention is based.

POPs in Canada are regulated through the Prohibition of Certain Toxic Substances Regulations, 2012 and the Pest Control Products Act which prohibit production and use of several POPs. The The Export of Substances on the Export Control List Regulations control the export of POPs.


National reports contain information on the measures taken by a Party in implementing the Stockholm Convention, provide quantitative information on the effectiveness of such measures in meeting the objectives of the Convention, and are due every four years. Canada’s national reports, from December 31, 2006, October 31, 2010, and August 31, 2014, are available at the Convention’s National Reports website.

The Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) under the Convention provides a harmonized organizational framework for the collection of comparable monitoring data on the presence of POPs from all regions, in order to identify changes in their concentrations over time, as well as on regional and global environmental transport. Canada is a key contributor to this report, available at the Convention’s Monitoring Reports website.

Progress: National actions by all Parties to implement the Convention are ongoing. The most important indication of whether the Convention is meeting its objective comes from the results of the first six-year cycle (between 2010 and 2017) of the Convention’s Effectiveness Evaluation. Two key data sources for this evaluation are the National Reports submitted by Parties and the GMP report.


The Stockholm Convention currently includes 26 POPs for elimination or restriction. Canada has put in place regulatory measures for 21 POPs and has ratified the listing of these substances. Proposed measures may be considered for the five remaining POPs. Canada contributes expertise to the scientific review of candidate POPs and to global monitoring of POPs trends.

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