Guidance document for Off-Road Small Spark-Ignition Engine Emission Regulations: chapter 11

11. Compliance and Enforcement

Manufacturers and importers are responsible for ensuring that their products comply with the Regulations and are required to produce the evidence of conformity upon request.

Environment Canada administers a comprehensive program to verify compliance with federal emission standards. The program includes:

If an engine is found not to comply with the Regulations, the manufacturer or importer is subject to the provisions of CEPA 1999. In this situation, the normal course of events is to perform sufficient engineering assessment to determine if a notice of defect should be issued.

Environment Canada's Compliance and Enforcement Policy will be applied when verifying compliance with the Regulations. The policy sets out the range of possible responses to alleged violations: warnings, environmental protection compliance orders, ticketing, ministerial orders, injunctions, prosecution and environmental protection alternative measures (which are an alternative to a court prosecution after the laying of charges for a CEPA 1999 violation). In addition the policy explains when Environment Canada will resort to civil suits by the Crown for recovery.

Whenever a possible violation of the Regulations is identified, enforcement officers may carry out inspections, investigations or both. Alleged violations may be identified by Environment Canada's technical personnel, through information transmitted by the Canada Customs and Revenue Agency or though complaints received from the public. Enforcement activities may also include inspections by enforcement officers at Canada's international borders.

When, following an inspection or an investigation, a CEPA enforcement officer discovers an alleged violation, the officer will choose the appropriate enforcement action based on the following criteria:

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