Code of Practice to reduce emissions of PM2.5 and VOCs from iron, steel and ilmenite sector: chapter 2


2.0 Sources of Fugitive TPM and VOC Emissions

Fugitive emissions are often uncontrolled, and sources can be distributed spatially over a wide area. Table 2.1 provides an overview of activities or equipment where emissions offugitive TPM and VOCs may be released into the atmosphere. These sources of emissions may vary between sub-sectors and between facilities within the same sub-sector.

Fugitive emissions can result from process leaks and spills that are associated with certain activities related to raw material storage and material handling, cokemaking, ironmaking, steelmaking, and some related process operations. These emissions can also result from leaks from pipes, ducts, valves or pumps.

Table 2.1: Common Sources of Fugitive Emissions

Table 2.1a: Common Sources of Process Fugitive Emissions
Activity Sub-sectorTablenotee Source
Materials handling All

TPM

  • Disturbing granular material
  • Unloading/loading materials
  • Transferring materials to conveyors or transfer points
Materials movement All

TPM

  • Conveying systems
  • Transporting materials using vehicles
Materials storage All

TPM

  • Piling
  • Leaking from buildings

VOCTablenotef

  • Leaking from buildings
  • Storing of drums, containers and tanks
Materials preparation All

TPM

  • Crushing
  • Grinding
  • Blending
  • Screening
Cokemaking Integrated mills

TPM

  • Charging of coal
  • Leaking from coke oven battery doors, lids and gas off-takes
  • Pushing of coke
  • Quenching of coke

VOC

  • Charging of coal
  • Leaking from coke oven battery doors, lids, tops and gas off-takes
  • Pushing of coke
Coke by- product plants Integrated mills

VOC

  • Storing, handling, transferring and separating organic compounds (mostly benzene), ammonia and sulphur from coke oven gas
  • Associated equipment such as pumps, compressors, valves and control devices
  • Separating tar
  • Separating naphthalene
  • Recovering light oil
  • Leaking of heat exchangers at cooling towers
Blast furnace ironmaking Integrated mills

TPM

  • Charging of materials to the furnace
  • Tapping molten metal from the furnace
  • Transporting molten metal
  • Crushing and screening of slag

VOC

  • Incomplete combustion of coke in the furnace
  • Tap-holes, runners, skimmers and the ladle charging area
  • Runner systems where tar-based binders are still used
Direct reduction ironmaking Mini-mills

TPM

  • Charging iron oxide to the top of the shaft furnace
  • Handling the iron oxide and the direct reduced iron
Ilmenite reduction Ilmenite smelting facility

TPM

  • Charging of materials to the furnace
  • Tapping molten metal from the furnace
  • Cleaning cars
  • Crushing and screening of slag
  • Tapping of slag
Basic oxygen furnace steelmaking Integrated mills, ilmenite smelting facility

TPM

  • Charging of the furnace
  • Blowing oxygen
  • Handling of flux
  • Tapping of molten metal and slag

VOCTablenotef

  • Hydrocarbons contained in the oils, wire casing, foam and plastics found in the steel scrap feedstock can vaporize when the iron is charged
Electric arc furnace steelmaking Integrated mills, mini-mills

TPM

  • Charging of the furnace
  • Tapping of the molten metal and slag
  • Transporting molten metal

VOC

  • Hydrocarbons contained in the oils, wire casing, foam and plastics found in the steel scrap feedstock can vaporize when melting takes place
  • Combusting auxiliary fuel
  • Decarburization of scrap
  • Charging of the furnace
  • Tapping of the molten metal and slag
Continuous casting All

TPM

  • Transferring molten metal to the tundish
  • Cutting steel
Hot rolling Integrated mills, mini-mills

TPM

  • Scarfing or grinding of the feedstock
  • Removing scale formed during hot rolling
  • Straightening and shearing of hot formed products

VOC

  • Rolling and lubrication oils
  • Combusting fuel in the reheat furnaces
Cold forming Integrated mills, mini-mills

VOC

  • Rolling and lubrication oils
  • Combusting fuel in the annealing furnace
Coating Integrated mills, mini-mills

TPM

  • Straightening and shearing

VOC

  • Spraying, immersion, rolling or brushing of non- metallic coatings (e.g., powders, paints and liquids containing organic compounds)
Transportation All

TPM

  • Paved and unpaved roads (vehicular traffic)

 

Table 2.1b: Common Sources of Non-Process and Fuel Combustion Fugitive Emissions
Sub-SectorTablenotee Source
All

VOCTablenotef and TPM

  • Pumps
  • Compressors
  • Pressure relief devices in gas/vapour service
  • Sampling connection systems
  • Valves
  • Lines
  • Pressure relief devices in liquid service
  • Flanges and other connectors
  • Product accumulation vessels
  • Closed vent systems
  • Control devices
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