Ecological Screening Assessment Report on Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers: chapter 3
The approach taken in this ecological screening assessment was to examine various supporting information and develop conclusions based on a weight of evidence approach as required under Section 76.1 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). Particular consideration was given to risk quotient analyses and persistence, bioaccumulation, chemical transformation and trends in environmental concentrations.
This assessment has used data corresponding to commercial products, individual congeners and homologues/isomer groups. The presentation of data and the risk quotient analyses have been structured around the Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDE) commercial products since a great deal of empirical data which are central to this assessment (for example, relevant to environmental toxicity) have been determined using the commercial products. Nonetheless, the risk analysis and scientific evidence presented in this report relate to all congeners found in the commercial products, Pentabromodiphenyl Ether (PeBDE), Octabromodiphenyl Ether (OBDE) and Decabromodiphenyl Ether (DBDE).
The risk determined for each commercial product is a result of the combined activity of the various co-occurring PBDEs, adding complexity to the interpretation of the results. Due to these reasons, their common chemical structure, and due to issues relating to their chemical transformation, PeBDE, OBDE, DBDE and their brominated constituents are assessed as a group.
Risk quotient analyses, integrating known or potential exposures with known or potential adverse environmental effects, were performed for each of the commercial PBDE products subject to this assessment. An analysis of exposure pathways and subsequent identification of sensitive receptors were used to select ecological assessment endpoints (for example, adverse reproductive effects on sensitive fish species in a community). For each endpoint, a conservative estimated exposure value (EEV) was selected based on empirical data from monitoring studies. Where monitoring data were not available, the EEVs were based on simple calculation procedures taking into account some degree of local environmental conditions, but largely relying on generic environmental parameters. Chemical concentrations from the Canadian and North American environment were used preferentially for EEVs; however, data from other regions in the world were used in the absence of sufficient Canadian data of satisfactory quality or to provide a weight of evidence. EEVs usually represented worse-case scenarios, as an indication of the potential for these substances to reach concentrations of concern and to identify areas where those concerns would be most likely.
An estimated no-effects value (ENEV) was also determined by dividing a critical toxicity value (CTV) by an application factor. CTVs typically represented the lowest ecotoxicity value from an available and acceptable data set. Preference was generally for chronic toxicity data, as long-term exposure was a concern. Where these data were not available, the following were used in order of preference: acute data, analogue data, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) data and data derived from equilibrium partitioning methods.
Application factors were derived using a multiplicative approach, which uses 10-fold factors to account for various sources of uncertainty associated with making extrapolations and inferences related to the following: intra- and interspecies variations; differently sensitive biological endpoints; laboratory-to-field impact extrapolation required to extrapolate from single-species tests to ecosystems; and potential effects from concurrent presence of other substances. For substances that meet the persistence and bioaccumulation criteria as outlined in the CEPA regulations (see Table 6), an additional application factor of 10 is applied to the CTV.
Risk quotients derived for PBDEs are summarized in Table 8. Exposure data used as EEVs can be found in Tables 4 and table5 or are summarized in the notes to Table 8. Toxicity data used to determine CTVs and ENEVs are summarized in Table 7.
Since testing is frequently carried out using commercial mixtures, effects must frequently be best considered in relation to the total exposures to all congeners involved.
|Commercial products||Pelagic organisms
|PeBDE||2 × 10 -4||5.3||100||0.053||4 × 10 -3||1.4||3.1||100||0.031||45.2|
|OBDE||2 × 10 -4||1.7||100||0.017||0.01||3.03||1340||100||9.1l||0.33|
|Commercial products||Soil organisms
- Stapleton and Baker (2001).
- CMABFRIP (1997d, 1998).
- AF (application factors): 10 applied for extrapolation from laboratory to field conditions, intraspecies and interspecies variations in sensitivity; 10 applied because components of PeBDE and OBDE are bioaccumulative and persistent
- PeBDE: Due to a lack of empirical data characterizing PeBDE sediment concentrations in Canada and due to uncertainty in concentrations throughout North America, data from Sweden were used as a surrogate for Canadian data. Concentrations of PeBDE-related components (tetraBDE and pentaBDE) totalled 1.4 mg/kg dw in sediments from Sweden in a heavily industrialized area downstream from a polymer processing site involved with the production of circuit boards (Sellström 1996). This value is used as the EEV. Although climate and local hydrological regimes may be different in the two countries, polymer processing facilities also exist in Canada. The European Union risk assessment of PeBDE also used this value to assess local risk from a polyurethane production site (European Communities 2001).
OBDE: PBDEs found in OBDE are very poorly characterized in North America. Therefore, measured OBDE concentrations from Europe were used as a surrogate for Canadian data. Concentrations of OBDE up to 3.03 mg/kg dw have been reported for sediments in the UK downstream of a warehouse facility. This value is used as the EEV (Environment Agency 1997; European Communities 2002, 2003).
DBDE: There has been insufficient sampling conducted to properly characterize DBDE concentrations in sediments in North America. Concentrations of DBDE in UK sediments up to 3.19 mg/kg dw were determined, with the highest concentration located near a foam manufacturer downstream of a wastewater treatment plant (Law et al. 1996; Allchin et al. 1999). As a surrogate for the Canadian environment, this value is taken as the EEV.
- Great Lakes Chemical Corporation (2000a, 2001a,b); ACCBFRIP (2001a,b).
- Due to the lack of measured data, the EEVs were estimated for tilled agricultural soil and pastureland based on the equation (Bonnell Environmental Consulting 2001)
EEVsoil = (Csludge × ARsludge × T) / (Dsoil × BDsoil)
EEVsoil = EEV for soil (mg/kg);
Csludge = concentration in sludge (mg/kg);
ARsludge = application rate to soils (kg/m2 per year, default value = 0.5);
Dsoil = sludge is mixed in soil to a depth of 0.2 m (depth of tillage) in agricultural soils and 0.1 m in pastureland (European Communities 1994);
BDsoil = bulk density of soil (kg/m3, default value = 1700); and
T = number of years sludge is applied to soils (assumed 10 years).
This equation assumes the following:
- no PBDE loss due to erosion
- no PBDE transformation (including transformation of highly brominated PBDEs to tetra- to hexaBDE congeners)
- no PBDE input from atmospheric deposition
- no background PBDE accumulation in the soil
- Great Lakes Chemical Corporation (2000b, 2001c); ACCBFRIP (2001c).
- Johnson and Olson (2001); Allchin et al. (1999); Sellström et al. (2001); Lindberg et al. (2004).
PeBDE: Johnson and Olson (2001) measured a total PBDE (that is, BDEs 47, 99, 100, 153 and 154) concentration of 1250 µg/kg ww in mountain whitefish from the Spokane River in an area receiving drainage from urbanized areas. No sources other than those typically associated with urbanization (for example, sewage discharge and urban runoff) are known to exist upstream of the sampling sites (Johnson, personal communication. 2003). Although these data are from the United States, such a scenario could exist in Canada, and therefore, the concentration 1250 µg/kg ww in mountain whitefish is used as the EEV.
OBDE: Due to very limited sampling for PBDEs found in OBDE in Canadian biota, the concentration of OBDE of 325 µg/kg ww in dab from the River Tees, UK, was used as the EEV (Allchin et al. 1999). Although this concentration was determined in liver tissues, it was assumed to equal the concentration of OBDE on a whole body basis.
DBDE: There is also a similar lack of data characterizing PBDEs found in DBDE in Canadian biota. DBDE was detected in 18 of 21 analyzed eggs of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) from Sweden, at concentrations from 28 to 430 µg/kg lipid weight (lw) (Sellström et al. 2001; Lindberg et al. 2004). The value 430 µg/kg lw (or 0.43 mg/kg lw) will be used as the EEV.
- Studies reporting dietary or oral exposure were used for the evaluation of secondary poisoning. The results of these studies are usually expressed as a concentration in food (mg/kg) or a dose (mg/kg body weight [bw] per day) causing low or no observed effects. For derivation of a CTVfood and ENEVfood, the results were expressed as a concentration in food (in units mg/kg food), requiring information on the effect level (CTVtotal daily intake, mg/kg bw per day) in units of daily food intake (DFI, kg ww/day) and body weight (bw, kg ww) for the receptor species being considered.
CTVfood = (CTVtotal daily intake × bw) / DFI. This equation assumes that all substance is exposed via food, and that the substance is completely bioavailable for uptake by the organism. There are no available data characterizing the toxicity of PBDEs to wildlife species; therefore, data derived using rodents and rabbits were used as surrogates. Interspecies scaling using data for a typical adult mink was used to extrapolate to determine a food concentration protective of this species. This calculation involved the use of a typical adult body weight (that is, 0.6 kg) and daily food ingestion rate (0.143 kg ww/day) of a female American mink (Mustela vison) (CCME 1998). References for toxicity data used in the calculation of the CTVfood include Great Lakes Chemical Corporation (1984), Breslin et al. (1989) and Norris et al. (1974). It is noted that Norris et al. (1974) used the product, Dow FR-300-BA, an older DBDE formulation which was composed of 77.4% decaBDE, 21.8% nonaBDE and 0.8% octaBDE. This product is no longer produced and current formulations of DBDE are composed of a much higher proportion of decaBDE (
- To derive the ENEVs, the CTVs were divided by a factor of 10 to account for extrapolation from laboratory to field conditions, a factor of 10 to extrapolate from a rodent to a wildlife species and a further factor of 10 since components of PeBDE and OBDE are bioaccumulative and persistent, and DBDE congeners are persistent and there is a weight of evidence indicating debromination to bioaccumulative PBDEs.
- Not applicable. An ENEV was not derived for pelagic organisms and a risk quotient analysis was not conducted. Based on the available DBDE studies and the toxicity of other less brominated PBDEs, it was considered very unlikely that effects for DBDE will be observed in aquatic organisms up to the substance’s water solubility limit.
- Adjusted to 4% organic carbon.
- Adjusted to 2% organic carbon.
The risk quotient analysis indicates that the greatest potential for risk from PBDEs in the Canadian environment is due to the secondary poisoning of wildlife from the consumption of prey containing elevated PeBDE and OBDE congener concentrations. Elevated concentrations of components of PeBDE in sediments may present risk to benthic organisms. hexaBDE is a component of both PeBDE and OBDE and could be a product of heptaBDE, octaBDE, nonaBDE or decaBDE transformation. Therefore, risk associated with components of PeBDE may be due to the use of OBDE or debromination of highly brominated PBDEs, in addition to the use of PeBDE itself. The risk analysis for soil organisms indicates that risk quotients were below 1 for PeBDE, OBDE and DBDE; however, the lack of data characterizing PBDE concentrations in soil and sewage sludge applied to soil indicates the need for further research. PeBDE, OBDE and DBDE would present low potential for risk as a result of direct toxicity to pelagic organisms due to their very low water solubility. In the water column, risk associated with components of PeBDE and OBDE (tetra-, penta- and hexaBDE congeners) may be due to bioaccumulation and toxicity to secondary consumers.
There is a lack of data characterizing the toxicity of PBDEs to wildlife. Recent studies using rodents provide evidence that exposure to PBDEs may lead to behavioural disturbances, disruptions in normal thyroid hormone activity and liver effects (for example, Eriksson et al. 2002, Zhou et al. 2001 and 2002, Great Lakes Chemical Corporation 1984). The relationship of these studies to potential effects from accumulation in the wild is not clear at this time.
There are a variety of data indicating that all PBDE congeners subject to this assessment are highly persistent and each satisfies the requirements for persistence as defined by CEPA Persistence and Bioaccumulation Regulations.
Although uncertainty regarding the possible transformation products of decaBDE exists, there is sufficient evidence to conclude that some level of decaBDE phototransformation likely occurs in the environment and that lower brominated PBDEs are being formed during this process. These products are likely to be more bioaccumulative than the parent compound and could be considered persistent and may be directly toxic to organisms. There is limited information available on the relative rates of lower BDE formation, and the rates by which these products subsequently degrade in the environment. In addition, results from some studies suggest that other as yet unidentified products are also being formed as well as PBDFs. It is expected that decaBDE in the environment would mainly sequester into sediment or soil and this could limit the amount available for photodegradation, but it could make some amount available for transformation via other processes such as anaerobic biodegradation or reaction with reducing agents. Overall, it is very difficult to determine the extent to which the transformation of decaBDE in the environment may contribute to the potential accumulation of lower BDEs and other products. Nevertheless, it is reasonable to consider that various transformation processes could contribute to the formation of at least some amount of lower brominated PBDEs and PBDFs. Future monitoring would help to clarify whether and the degree to which decaBDE transformation contributes to the overall risk presented by the lower brominated DEs such as tetra- to hexaBDEs.
DBDE has become the prevalent commercial PBDE product used in North America and the world. In North America and Europe, it is often found in concentrations which exceed those of other PBDEs in sewage sludge and sediments. Concentrations of DBDE are now exceeding mg/kg dw levels in North American sewage sludge. High accumulation of DBDE in the environment and evidence of debromination has led researchers to note that even slight and very long term degradation to lower brominated diphenyl ethers over periods spanning several decades could have serious ecological consequences. Thus, while current concentrations measured in the environment for homologues found in commercial DBDE do not appear to exceed known effect thresholds, their overall persistence and potential transformation to bioaccumulative forms, and observed commercial and environmental trends, indicate environmental concerns.
Measured data indicate that tetra-, penta- and hexaBDE are highly bioaccumulative and satisfy the criteria for bioaccumulation in the CEPA regulations. Concentrations of PBDEs in herring gull eggs have increased exponentially between 1981 and 2000 at Lake Ontario, Huron and Michigan sampling sites. Concentrations of PBDEs (predominantly tetra- and pentaBDE congeners) have also increased exponentially between 1981 and 2000 in Arctic male ringed seals.
Pyrolysis and extreme heating can cause all PBDEs to form brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (European Communities 2001, 2002, 2003). These transformation products are considered brominated analogues of the TSMP Track 1 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.
The PBDEs subject to this assessment have low vapour pressures and low Henry’s Law constants (see Table 2) and are not expected to partition significantly into the atmosphere. As such, they are considered to present a negligible risk with respect to atmospheric processes such as global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion and ground-level ozone formation; however, they do reside in the atmosphere adsorbed to suspended particulates and can be transported over long distances.
It is therefore concluded that tetraBDE, pentaBDE, hexaBDE, heptaBDE, octaBDE, nonaBDE and decaBDE, which are found in commercial PeBDE, OBDE and DBDE, are entering the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that have or may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment or its biological diversity and thus meets the criteria under Paragraph 64(a) of CEPA. Based on considerations of potential contribution to atmospheric processes, it is concluded that PBDEs are not entering the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that constitute or may constitute a danger to the environment on which life depends, and thus do not meet the criteria under Paragraph 64(b) of CEPA.
The available data regarding persistence and bioaccumulation of tetraBDE, pentaBDE and hexaBDE indicate that they satisfy the criteria outlined in the Persistence and Bioaccumulation Regulations of CEPA. Their presence in the environment results primarily from human activity, and they are not naturally occurring radionuclides or naturally occurring inorganic substances.
ACCBFRIP (American Chemistry Council Brominated Flame Retardant Industry Panel). 2001a. Decabromodiphenyl ether: A prolonged sediment toxicity test with Lumbriculus variegatus using spiked sediment with 2% total organic carbon. Final report. Project No. 439A-113, Wildlife International, Ltd., February.
ACCBFRIP (American Chemistry Council Brominated Flame Retardant Industry Panel). 2001b. Decabromodiphenyl ether: A prolonged sediment toxicity test with Lumbriculus variegatus using spiked sediment with 5% total organic carbon. Final report. Project No. 439A-114, Wildlife International, Ltd., February.
ACCBFRIP (American Chemistry Council Brominated Flame Retardant Industry Panel). 2001c. Effect of decabromodiphenyl oxide (DBDPO) on the survival and reproduction of the earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Final report. Study No. 465440, ABC Laboratories, Inc., December.
Alaee, M. and R.J. Wenning. 2002. The significance of brominated flame retardants in the environment: current understanding, issues and challenges. Chemosphere 46: 579-582.
Alaee, M., J. Luross, D.B. Sergeant, D.C.G. Muir, D.M. Whittle and K. Solomon. 1999. Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the Canadian environment. Organohalogen Compd. 40: 347-350 [cited in Peltola and Ylä-Mononen 2001].
Alaee, M., D. Sergeant, J. Luross and C. Cannon. 2000. Determination of brominated flame retardants in environmental matrices. Poster, 48th American Society for Mass Spectrometry Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, Long Beach, CA, June 11-15.
Allchin, C.R., R.J. Law and S. Morris. 1999. Polybrominated diphenylethers in sediments and biota downstream of potential sources in the UK. Environ. Pollut. 105: 195-207.
Bonnell Environmental Consulting. 2001. Conducting the multi-media exposure assessment of new substances in Canada. Report submitted to New Substances Division, Environment Canada, Hull, Quebec.
Breslin, W.J., H.D. Kirk and M.A. Zimmer. 1989. Teratogenic evaluation of a polybromodiphenyl oxide mixture in New Zealand White rabbits following oral exposure. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 12: 151-157.
BSEF (Bromine Science and Environmental Forum). 2003. Major brominated flame retardants volume estimates. BSEF, Brussels.
CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment). 1998. Protocol for the derivation of Canadian tissue residue guidelines for the protection of wildlife that consume aquatic biota. CCME, Winnipeg [reprinted in CCME. 1999. Canadian environmental quality guidelines. Chapter 8. CCME, Winnipeg].
CITI (Chemicals Inspection and Testing Institute). 1982. The bioaccumulation of compound S512 by carp. Chemical Biotesting Center, CITI, Tokyo.
CMABFRIP (Chemical Manufacturers Association Brominated Flame Retardant Industry Panel). 1997a. Octabromobiphenyl oxide (OBDPO): Determination of the vapour pressure using a spinning rotor gauge. Project No. 439C-114, Wildlife International, Ltd., July 31.
CMABFRIP (Chemical Manufacturers Association Brominated Flame Retardant Industry Panel). 1997b. Octabromodiphenyl oxide (OBDPO): Determination of the water solubility. Project No. 439C-110, Wildlife International, Ltd., June 13.
CMABFRIP (Chemical Manufacturers Association Brominated Flame Retardant Industry Panel). 1997c. Octabromodiphenyl oxide (OBDPO): Determination of n-octanol/water partition coefficient. Project No. 439C-112, Wildlife International, Ltd., July 23.
CMABFRIP (Chemical Manufacturers Association Brominated Flame Retardant Industry Panel). 1997d. Octabromodiphenyl oxide (OBDPO): A flow-through life-cycle toxicity test with the cladoceran (Daphnia magna). Final report. Project No. 439A-104, Wildlife International, Ltd., May.
CMABFRIP (Chemical Manufacturers Association Brominated Flame Retardant Industry Panel). 1997e. Decabromodiphenyl oxide (DBDPO): determination of the vapor pressure using a spinning rotor gauge. Project No. 439C-115, Wildlife International, Ltd., July 31.
CMABFRIP (Chemical Manufacturers Association Brominated Flame Retardant Industry Panel). 1997f. Decabromodiphenyl oxide (DBDPO): determination of water solubility. Project No. 439C-102, Wildlife International, Ltd., June.
CMABFRIP (Chemical Manufacturers Association Brominated Flame Retardant Industry Panel). 1997g. Decabromodiphenyl oxide (DBDPO): Determination of n-octanol/water partition coefficient. Project No. 439C-101, Wildlife International, Ltd., June 16.
CMABFRIP (Chemical Manufacturers Association Brominated Flame Retardant Industry Panel). 1998. Pentabromodiphenyl oxide (PeBDPO): A flow-through life-cycle toxicity test with the cladoceran (Daphnia magna). Project No. 439A-109, Wildlife International, Ltd., September.
de Boer, J., H.A. Leslie, P.E.G. Leonards, P. Bersuder, S. Morris and C.R. Allchin. 2004. Screening and time trend study of decabromodiphenylether and hexabromocyclododecane in birds. Abstract. The 3rd International Workshop on Brominated Flame Retardants (BFR 2004). Toronto, Canada, June 6-9, 2004. pp.125-128.
de Wit, C. 2002. An overview of brominated flame retardants in the environment. Chemosphere 46: 583-624.
de Wit, C. 2003. Personal communication with J.P. Pasternak, Commercial Chemicals Division, Environment Canada, Vancouver, B.C. Institute of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, July 2003.
Dodder, N.G., B. Strandberg and R.A. Hites. 2002. Concentrations and spatial variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and several organochlorine compounds in fishes from the northeastern United States. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36: 146-151.
Dugani, C. and F. Wania. 2002. Estimating the long range transport potential of polybrominated diphenyl ethers. 4th Annual Workshop on Brominated Flame Retardants in the Environment. June 17-18, 2002. Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario. P. 55-58.
Environment Agency. 1997. Report on the monitoring of brominated flame retardants in the environment. The Environment Agency, Bath, UK [cited in European Communities 2001].
Environment Canada. 2000. Persistence and Bioaccumulation Regulations. Canada Gazette Part II 134(7): 607-612, 29 March 2000.
Environment Canada. 2003. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Brominated Flame Retardant (BFR) Report of Section 71 (CEPA, 1999) Notice with Respect to Certain Substances on the Domestic Substances List (DSL). Existing Substances Branch, Environment Canada. June 2003 (Version 2.0).
Eriksson, J., E. Jakobsson, G. Marsh and Å. Bergman. 2001. Photo decomposition of brominated diphenyl ethers in methanol/water. Abstracts. The Second International Workshop on Brominated Flame Retardants. BFR 2001 Stockholm. May 14-16. Stockholm University, Sweden. p. 203-206.
Eriksson, P., H. Viberg, E. Jakobsson, U. Örn and A. Fredriksson. 2002. A brominated flame retardant, 2,2,4,4,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether: Uptake, retention, and induction of neurobehavioral alterations in mice during a critical phase of neonatal brain development. Toxicol. Sci. 67: 98-103.
European Communities. 1994. Technical Guidance Document, Part I-V, ISBN 92-827-801 , as described in EC Regulation 1488/94 O.J. No L 161, 29/06/1994. pp. 0003-0011.
European Communities. 2001. European Union risk assessment report. Diphenyl ether, pentabromo derivative (pentabromodiphenyl ether). CAS No.: 32534-81-9. EINECS No.: 251-084-2. Risk assessment. Final report, August 2000. United Kingdom on behalf of the European Union.
European Communities. 2002. European Union risk assessment report. Bis(pentabromophenyl) ether. CAS No.: 1163-19-5. EINECS No.: 214-604-9. Risk assessment. Final report, 2002. France and United Kingdom on behalf of the European Union.
European Communities. 2003. European Union risk assessment report. Diphenyl ether, octabromo derivative. CAS No.: 32536-52-0. EINECS No.: 251-087-9. Risk assessment. Final report, 2003. France and United Kingdom on behalf of the European Union.
Gerecke, A.C., P.C. Hartmann, N.V. Heeb, H.-P. E. Kohler, W. Giger, P. Schmid, M. Zennegg and M. Kohler. 2005. Anaerobic degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39(4): 1078-1083.
Gouin, T. and T. Harner. 2003. Modelling the environmental fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Environment International 29(6): 717 - 724.
Gouin, T. and D. Mackay. 2002. Modelling the long-range transport potential of PBDEs. 4th Annual Workshop on Brominated Flame Retardants in the Environment. June 17-18, 2002. Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario. P. 59-62.
Gouin, T., G.O. Thomas, I. Cousins, J. Barber, D. Mackay and K.C. Jones. 2002. Air-surface exchange of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36(7): 1426-1434.
Great Lakes Chemical Corporation. 1984. 90-day dietary study in rats with pentabromodiphenyl oxide (DE-71). Final report. Project No. WIL-12011,WIL Research Laboratories, Inc.
Great Lakes Chemical Corporation. 2000a. Pentabromodiphenyl oxide (PeBDPO): A prolonged sediment toxicity test with Lumbriculus variegatus using spiked sediment. Project No. 298A-109, Wildlife International, Ltd., April.
Great Lakes Chemical Corporation. 2000b. Pentabromodiphenyl oxide (PeBDPO): A toxicity test to determine the effects of the test substance on seedling emergence of six species of plants. Final report. Project No. 298-102, Wildlife International, Ltd., April.
Great Lakes Chemical Corporation. 2000c. Analytical method verification for the determination of pentabromodiphenyl oxide (PeBDPO) in soil to support an acute toxicity study with the earthworm. Final report. Project No. 298C-117, Wildlife International, Ltd., February.
Great Lakes Chemical Corporation. 2001a. Octabromodiphenyl ether: A prolonged sediment toxicity test with Lumbriculus variegatus using spiked sediment with 2% total organic carbon. Final report. Project No. 298A-112, Wildlife International, Ltd., February.
Great Lakes Chemical Corporation. 2001b. Octabromodiphenyl ether: A prolonged sediment toxicity test with Lumbriculus variegatus using spiked sediment with 5% total organic carbon. Final report. Project No. 298A-113, Wildlife International, Ltd., February.
Great Lakes Chemical Corporation. 2001c. Effect of octabromodiphenyl oxide on the survival and reproduction of the earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Study No. 46419, ABC Laboratories, Inc., December.
Great Lakes Chemical Corporation. 2005. Great Lakes Chemical Corporation Completes Phase-Out of Two Flame Retardants. Press Release. January 18, 2005 (www.e1.greatlakes.com/corp/common/jsp/index.jsp).
Gustafsson, K., M. Björk, S. Burreau and M. Gilek. 1999. Bioaccumulation kinetics of brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 18: 1218-1224.
Hale, R.C., M.J. La Guardia, E.P. Harvey, T.M. Mainor, W.H. Duff and M.O. Gaylor. 2001. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in Virginia freshwater fishes (USA). Environ. Sci. Technol. 35(23): 4585-4591.
Hale, R.C., M.J. La Guardia, E. Harvey and T.M. Mainor. 2002. Potential role of fire retardant-treated polyurethane foam as a source of brominated diphenyl ethers to the U.S. environment. Chemosphere 46: 729-735.
Hale, R.C., M. Alaee, J.B. Manchester-Neesvig, H.M. Stapleton, and M.G. Ikonomou. 2003. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in the North American environment. Environment International 29: 771-779.
Harner, T., M. Ikonomou, M. Shoeib, G. Stern and M. Diamond. 2002. Passive air sampling results for polybrominated diphenyl ethers along an urban-rural transect. 4th Annual Workshop on Brominated Flame Retardants in the Environment, June 17-18, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, Ontario. pp. 51-54.
Harner, T. and M. Shoeib. 2002. Measurements of octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): Predicting partitioning in the environment. J. Chem. Eng. Data 47: 228-232.
Herrmann, T., B. Schilling and O. Papke. 2003. Photolysis of PBDEs in solvents by exposure to sunlight in a routine laboratory. Organohalogen Compd. 63: 367-364.
Hua, I., N. Kang, C.T. Jafvert and J.R. Fábrega-Duque. 2003. Heterogeneous photochemical reactions of decabromodiphenyl ether. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 22(4): 798-804.
ICL Industrial Products. 2005. Termination of the production and sales of FR-1208 (Octabromodiphenyl oxide). Press Release. February 2, 2005. (http://www.iclfr.com)
Ikonomou, M.G., M. Fischer, T. He, R.F. Addison and T. Smith. 2000. Congener patterns, spatial and temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in biota samples from the Canadian west coast and the Northwest Territories. Organohalogen Compounds 47:77-80.
Ikonomou, M.G., S. Rayne and R.F. Addison. 2002a. Exponential increases of the brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, in the Canadian Arctic from 1981 to 2000. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36: 1886-1892.
Ikonomou, M.G., S. Rayne, M. Fischer, M.P. Fernandez and W. Cretney. 2002b. Occurrence and congener profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental samples from coastal British Columbia, Canada. Chemosphere 46: 649-663.
Jafvert, C. and I. Hua. 2001. Photochemical reactions of decabromodiphenyl oxide and 2,2’,4,4’- tetrabromodiphenyl oxide. Final report submitted to American Chemistry Council, Brominated Flame Retardant Industry Panel (BFRIP). School of Engineering, Purdue University. West Lafayette IN. August 6, 2001. 56 pp.
Johnson, A. and N. Olson. 2001. Analysis and occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Washington State freshwater fish. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 41: 339-344.
Johnson A. 2003. Personal telephone communication with John Pasternak, Commercial Chemicals Division, Environment Canada, Vancouver, B.C. Washington State Department of Ecology, Environmental Assessment Program, 300 Desmond Drive, Olympia, Washington 98504-7710, 9 September 2003.
Keum, Y.-S. and Q.X. Li. 2005. Reductive debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by zerovalent iron. Envion. Sci. Technol. 39(7): 2280-2286.
Kierkegaard, A., A. Bignert, U. Sellström, M. Olsson, L. Asplund, B. Jansson and C.A. de Wit. 2004. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and their methoxylated derivatives in fish from Swedish waters with emphasis on temporal trends, 1967-2000. Environ. Pollut. 130: 187-198.
Kolic, T.M., K.A. MacPherson, E.J. Reiner, T. Ho, S. Kleywegt, M. Payne and M. Alaee. 2003. Investigation of brominated diphenyl ethers in various land applied materials. Abstract. 5th Annual Workshop on Brominated Flame Retardants in the Environment, August 22-23, 2003. Boston, MA.
Kolic, T.M., K.A. MacPherson, E.J. Reiner, T. Ho, S. Kleywegt, A. Dove and C. Marvin. 2004. Brominated diphenyl ether levels: a comparison of tributary sediments versus biosolid material. Organohalogen Compounds 66: 3830-3835.
La Guardia, M.J., R.C. Hale, E. Harvey, T.M. Mainor and M.O. Gaylor. 2001. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in land-applied sewage sludge (biosolids). Poster presented at the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, November.
Law, R.J., C.R. Allchin, S. Morris and J. Reed. 1996. Analysis of brominated flame retardants in environmental samples. DFR No. C956H108, Directorate of Fisheries Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Burnham-on-Crouch, UK [cited in European Communities 2002].
Law, R.J., M. Alaee, C.R. Allchin, J.P. Boon, M. Lebeuf, P. Lepom and G.A. Stern. 2003. Levels and trends of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and other brominated flame retardants in wildlife. Environ. Int. 29: 757-770.
Lebeuf, M., K. Love and S. Trottier. 2001. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucus) from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada: levels and temporal trends. Abstracts of the 2nd International Workshop on Brominated Flame Retardants, BFR 2001, May 14-16, Stockholm University. pp. 305-308.
Lindberg, P., U. Sellström, L. Häggberg and C.A. de Wit. 2004. Higher brominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane found in eggs of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) breeding in Sweden. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34(1): 93 - 96..
Luckey, F.J., B. Fowler and S. Litten. 2002. Establishing baseline levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Lake Ontario surface waters. Unpublished manuscript dated 2002/03/01. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Water, 50 Wolf Road, Albany, NY 12233-3508.
Luross, J.M., M. Alaee, D.B. Sergeant, C.M. Cannon, D.M. Whittle, K.R. Solomon and D.C.G. Muir. 2002. Spatial distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated biphenyls in lake trout from the Laurentian Great Lakes. Chemosphere 46: 665-672.
MacGregor, J.A. and W.B. Nixon. 1997. Pentabromodiphenyl oxide (PeBDPO): Determination of n-octanol/water partition coefficient. Project No. 439C-108, Wildlife International, Ltd., September [cited in European Communities 2001].
Muir, D., C. Teixeira, M. Chigak, F. Yang, I. D’Sa, C. Cannon, G. Pacepavicius and M. Alaee. 2003. Current deposition and historical profiles of decabromodiphenyl ether in sediment cores. Dioxin 2003, 23rd International Symposium on Halogenated Environmental Organic Pollutants and POPs. Organohalogen Compd. 61: 77-80.
Norris, J.M., J.W. Ehrmantraut, C.L. Gibbons, R.J. Kociba, B.A. Schwetz, J.Q. Rose, C.G. Humiston, G.L. Jewett, W.B. Crummett, P.J. Gehring, J.B. Tirsell and J.S. Brosier. 1973. Toxicological and environmental factors involved in the selection of decabromodiphenyl oxide as a fire retardant chemical. Appl. Poly. Symp. 22: 195-219.
Norris, J.M., J.W. Ehrmantraut, C.L. Gibbons, R.J. Kociba, B.A. Schwetz, J.Q. Rose, C.G. Humiston, G.L. Jewett, W.B. Crummett, P.J. Gehring, J.B. Tirsell and J.S. Brosier. 1974. Toxicological and environmental factors involved in the selection of decabromodiphenyl oxide as a fire retardant chemical. J. Fire Flamm. Combust. Toxicol. 1: 52-77.
Norstrom, R.J., M. Simon, J. Moisey, B. Wakeford and D.V.C. Weseloh. 2002. Geographical distribution (2000) and temporal trends (1981-2000) of brominated diphenyl ethers in Great Lakes herring gull eggs. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36(22): 4783-4789.
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 1994. Selected brominated flame retardants. Risk Reduction Monograph No. 3, OECD Environment Monograph Series No. 102, Paris (http://www.oecd.org/ehs/ehsmono/#RISK).
Palm, A., I.T. Cousins, D. Mackay, M. Tysklind, C. Metcalfe and M. Alaee. 2002. Assessing the environmental fate of chemicals of emerging concern: a case study of the polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Environmental Pollution 117: 195-213.
Palm, W.-U., R. Kopetzky, W. Sossinka, H-U. Kruger, Q. Lin, S.T. Barcellos da Rosa and C. Zetzsch. 2003. Environmental photochemistry of decabromodiphenyl ethers in organic solvents and adsorbed on particles in air and in aqueous suspension (including a feasibility study on OH reactivities in an aerosol smog chamber facility). Report for the Bromine Science and Environmental Forum [cited in United Kingdom 2004].
Palm, W.-U., R. Kopetzky, W. Sossinka, W. Ruck and C. Zetzsch. 2004. Photochemical reactions of brominated diphenylethers in organic solvents and adsorbed on silicon dioxide in aqueous suspension. Organohalogen Cmpd. 66: 4101-4105.
Peltola, J. and L. Ylä-Mononen. 2001. Pentabromodiphenyl ether as a global POP. TemaNord 2000:XX, Chemicals Division, Finnish Environment Institute. 71 pp. (http://www.unece.org/env/popsxg/pentabromodiphenyl_ether.pdf).
Peterman, P.H., C.E. Orazio and K.P. Feltz. 2003. Sunlight photolysis of 39 mono-hepta PBDE congeners in lipid. Organohalogen Compd. 63: 357-360.
Phipps G.L., G.T. Ankley, D.A. Benoit and V.R. Mattson. 1993. Use of the aquatic oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus for assessing the toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 12: 269-279.
Rayne, S. and M.G. Ikonomou. 2002. Reconstructing source polybrominated diphenyl ether congener patterns from semipermeable membrane devices in the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada: comparison to commercial mixtures. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 21(11): 2292-2300.
Rayne, S., M.G. Ikonomou and B. Antcliffe. 2003a. Rapidly increasing polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in the Columbia River system from 1992 to 2000. Environ. Sci. Technol. 37(13): 2847-2854.
Rayne, S., M.G. Ikonomou and M.D. Whale. 2003b. Anaerobic microbial and photochemical degradation of 4, 4´-dibromodiphenyl ether. Water Research 37: 551-560.
Reiner, E.J., Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Laboratory Services Branch, Toronto, Canada. Personal communication with J. Pasternak, Environment Canada, Environmental Protection Branch, 2004.
RPA Ltd. (Risk Policy & Analysts Limited). 2000. Risk reduction strategy and analysis of advantages and drawbacks for pentabromodiphenyl ether. March 2000. Report prepared for the UK Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions.
Sellström, U. 1996. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the Swedish environment. ITM-Rapport 1996: 45, Licentiate Thesis, Institute of Applied Environmental Research, Stockholm University.
Sellström, U., P. Lindberg, L. Häggberg and C. de Wit. 2001. Higher brominated PBDEs found in eggs of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) breeding in Sweden. Abstracts of the 2nd International Workshop on Brominated Flame Retardants, BFR 2001, May 14-16, Stockholm University. pp. 159-162.
Sellström, U., A. Bignert, A. Kierkegaard, L. Häggberg, C.A. de Wit, M. Olsson and B. Jansson. 2003. Temporal trend studies on tetra- and pentabrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in guillemot egg from the Baltic Sea. Environ. Sci. Technol. 37(24): 5496-5501.
She, J., M. Petreas, J. Winkler, P. Visita, M. McKinney and D. Kopec. 2002. PBDEs in the San Francisco Bay area: measurements in harbor seal blubber and human breast adipose tissue. Chemosphere 46: 697-707.
Sjödin, A. 2000. Occupational and dietary exposure to organohalogen substances, with special emphasis on polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Doctoral dissertation, Stockholm University.
Söderström, G., U. Sellström, C.A. de Wit and M. Tysklind. 2004. Photolytic debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209). Environ. Sci. Technol. 38(1): 127-132.
Song, W., J.C. ford, L. An, W.J. Buckleya and K.J. Rockne. 2004. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments of the Great Lakes. 1. Lake Superior. Environ. Sci. Tech. 38(12): 3286-3293.
Stapleton, H.M. and J.E. Baker. 2001. Comparing the temporal trends, partitioning and biomagnification of PBDEs and PCBs in Lake Michigan. Abstract. 3rd Annual Workshop on Brominated Flame Retardants in the Environment, August 23-24, 2001, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, Ontario.
Stapleton, H.M. and J.E. Baker. 2003. Debromination of BDE congeners by the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). 5th Annual Workshop on Brominated Flame Retardants in the Environment, August 22-23, Boston, MA.
Stapleton, H.M., M. Alaee, R.J. Letcher and J.E. Baker. 2004a. Debromination of the flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ether by juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio). Environ. Sci. Technol. 38: 112-119.
Stapleton, H.M., R.J. Letcher and J.E. Baker. 2004b. Debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers BDE 99 and BDE 183 in the intestinal tract of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Environ. Sci. Technol. 38: 1054-1061.
Stapleton, H.M., R.J. Letcher, J. Li and J.E. Baker. 2004c. Dietary accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio). Environ Toxicol Chem. 23: 1939-1946.
Stenzel, J.I. and B.J. Markley. 1997. Pentabromodiphenyl oxide: Determination of the water solubility. Project No. 439C-109, Wildlife International, Ltd. [cited in European Communities 2001].
Stenzel, J.I. and W.B. Nixon. 1997. Pentabromodiphenyl oxide: Determination of the of vapour pressure using a spinning rotor gauge. Report No: 439C-116, Wildlife International Ltd. [cited in European Communities 2001].
Stern, G.A. and M. Ikonomou. 2000. Temporal trends of polybrominated biphenyl ethers in SE Baffin beluga: increasing evidence of long range atmospheric transport. Organohalogen Compd. 47: 81-84.
Strandberg, B., N.G. Dodder, I. Basu and R.A. Hites. 2001. Concentrations and spatial variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and other organohalogen compounds in Great Lakes air. Environ. Sci. Technol. 35: 1078-1083.
Tittlemier, S.A., T. Halldorson, G.A. Stern and G.T. Tomy. 2002. Vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities and Henry’s law constants of some brominated flame retardants. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 21(9): 1804-1810.
United Kingdom. 2004. Update of the risk assessment of bis(pentabromophenyl) ether (decabromodiphenyl ether). CAS No.: 1163-19-5. EINECS No.: 214-604-9. Final environmental draft of May 2004. United Kingdom on behalf of the European Union.
United Kingdom. 2005. Addendum to the May 2004 environmental risk assessment report of decabromodiphenyl ether (CAS no. 1163-19-5). Draft for comment. August 2005. United Kingdom on behalf of the European Union.
U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Polybrominated diphynylethers (PBDEs) Significant New Use Rule (SNUR) Questions and Answers. (www.epa.gov/oppt/pbde/qanda.htm).
Wakeford, B.J., M.J. Simon, J.E. Elliott and B.M. Braune. 2002. Analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) in wildlife tissues -- Canadian Wildlife Service contributions. Abstracts of the 4th Annual Workshop on Brominated Flame Retardants in the Environment, June 17-18, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, Ontario.
Wania, F. and C.B.Dugani. 2003. Assessing the long-range transport potential of polybrominated diphenyl ethers: a comparison of four multimedia models. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 22(6): 1252 - 1261.
Watanabe I. and R. Tatsukawa. 1987. Formation of brominated dibenzofurans from the photolysis of flame retardant decabromobiphenyl ether in hexane solution by UV and sunlight. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 39; 953-959.
Watanabe, I. and R. Tatsukawa. 1990. Anthropogenic brominated aromatics in the Japanese environment. In: Proceedings of Workshop on Brominated Aromatic Flame Retardants, Skokloster, Sweden, 24-26 October, 1989. Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate, KEMI, Solna, Sweden, 1990, p. 63-71.
WHO (World Health Organization). 1994. Brominated diphenyl ethers. Environmental Health Criteria 162, International Programme on Chemical Safety, WHO, Geneva.
Zhou, T., D.G. Ross, M.J. DeVito and K.M. Crofton. 2001. Effects of short-term in vivo exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers on thyroid hormones and hepatic enzyme activities in weanling rats. Toxicol. Sci. 61: 76-82.
Zhou, T., M.M. Taylor, M.J. DeVito and K.M. Crofton. 2002. Developmental exposure to brominated diphenyl ethers results in thyroid hormone disruption. Tox. Sci. 66: 105-116.
The Health Canada assessment for PBDEs is available upon request at the following e-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Date modified: