Guidance document for subfleet averaging and reporting for on-road motorcycles: chapter 3


3. Exhaust and Evaporative Emission Standards

3.1 What are Canada's regulated exhaust emission standards for motorcycles?

Canada's regulated exhaust emission standards for motorcycles are aligned with those of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and are incorporated by reference to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations as set out in sections 17 and 19 of the Canadian Regulations. Motorcycles are required to comply with emission standards for a defined “full useful life” period. The useful life is specified in years or as accumulated mileage, whichever comes first, and varies depending on the class of motorcycle. Motorcycle classes are based on engine displacement. Table 1 summarizes the exhaust emission standards, engine displacement and useful life for the various classes of motorcycles.

Table 1
Exhaust Emission Standards for Motorcycles
Class Model
Year
Engine
Displacement
(cc)
Useful Life

(years / km)
HC+NOx

(g/km)
HC

(g/km)
CO

(g/km)
IA 2006 and later <50 5 / 6,000 1.4* 1.0 12.0
IB 2006 and later 50--169 5 / 12,000 1.4* 1.0 12.0
II 2006 and later 170--279 5 / 18,000 1.4* 1.0 12.0
III 2006--2009 (Tier 1) 280+ 5 / 30,000 1.4 - - 12.0
2010 and later (Tier 2) 0.8 - - 12.0

* Companies have the option of meeting a combined HC+NOx standard for Class I and Class II motorcycles instead of the HC standard.

3.2 The parent Regulations did not establish limits to control evaporative emissions5 from on-road motorcycles. Do motorcycles have to meet any form of evaporative emission standards under the amended Regulations?

Yes. The Regulations were amended to require that, beginning in the 2008 model year, fuel tanks and fuel hoses on on-road motorcycles meet permeation emission6 standards that are aligned with those of the U.S. The U.S. standards are incorporated by reference to the U.S.Code of Federal Regulations as set out in sections 17 and 19 of the Canadian Regulations. These standards limit fuel tank permeation to 1.5 grams per square meter per day (g/m2/day) based on the inside area of the tank, and limit fuel hose permeation to 15 g/m2/day based on the inside area of the hose.

3.3 The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has alternative emission standards for companies that manufacture or import a “small volume” of motorcycles. Do these Regulations have similar provisions?

Yes. A company that manufactures or imports fewer than 200 motorcycles for sale in Canada per year and has fewer than 500 employees worldwide is only required to comply with the Tier 1 exhaust emission standards for its Class III motorcycles beginning in the 2008 model year. The company's motorcycles of the 2006 and 2007 model year would continue to be subject to the previous standards applicable to 2005 model year motorcycles (i.e. 5.0 g/km HC and 12.0 g/km CO) and would not be eligible for subfleet averaging for those model years. These alternative standards are set out in subsections 17.1(1) and 17.1(2) of the Regulations.

In addition, a company that manufactures or imports a “small volume” of motorcycles, as set out above, is not required to comply with the evaporative emission standards for all classes of motorcycles until the 2010 model year. This provision is set out in subsection 17.1(3) of the Regulations.

The types of classic and custom motorcycles typically built by small-volume manufacturers tend to make the addition of new technologies a uniquely resource-intensive prospect. The general intent of the U.S. special provisions for small-volume manufacturers was stated by the U.S. EPA as "to reduce the burden while ensuring the vast majority of the program is implemented to ensure timely emission reductions".

3.4 Is there an option for companies to certify motorcycles above the applicable exhaust and evaporative emission standards?

Yes. The Regulations include the option for companies to meet emission standards for HC+NOx and fuel tank permeation on the basis of subfleet averaging. As set out in subsection 32.2(1), a motorcycle can conform to a family emission limit (FEL) for HC+NOx or for fuel tank permeation in lieu of the emission standards. There are no averaging options for the fuel line permeation standard.

The complete details on FELs, the calculation of average emission values for subfleets and the generation of emission credits/deficits are discussed in chapters 4, 5 and 6 of this document.

5 “Evaporative emissions” refers to HC emissions that result from the evaporation of fuel.

6 “Permeation emissions” refers to evaporative emissions that result from the permeation of fuel through the fuel system materials.

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