Migratory Birds Regulations in Canada 2014

Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) Waterfowl Committee

CWS Migratory Birds
Regulatory Report Number 43

Long-tailed Ducks painted by Claude Thivierge
Long-tailed Ducks
Photo: © painted by Claude Thivierge
Long description for figure 1

Image of the 2013 Canadian Wildlife Habitat Conservation Stamp. It features Long-tailed Ducks painted by Claude Thivierge, a Canadian wildlife artist.

Document Information

Migratory Birds Regulations in Canada - July 2014

For more information on migratory birds, please visit the Migratory Birds website.

Cover Art:

The Canadian Wildlife Habitat Conservation Stamp, entitled Break the ice, features the Long-tailed Duck. It is a creation of the Canadian wildlife artist Claude Thivierge of St. Zotique, Quebec.

Through a special partnership with Environment Canada, Wildlife Habitat Canada receives the revenues from the sale of the Canadian Wildlife Habitat Conservation Stamp, purchased primarily by waterfowl hunters to validate their Migratory Game Bird Hunting Permits. The conservation stamp is also sold to stamp and print collectors and those interested in contributing to habitat conservation. In 2012-2013, Wildlife Habitat Canada provided 34 grants totalling more than $1.3 million. This in turn helped leverage an additional $9 million in partner funding for conservation projects, resulting in the conservation, restoration and enhancement of more than 1 million acres of wildlife habitat across Canada (Wildlife Habitat Canada 2013).

For more information on Wildlife Habitat Canada or the conservation stamp and print program, please call Wildlife Habitat Canada at 613-722-2090 (in the Ottawa region) or toll-free at 1-800-669-7919, or consult Wildlife Habitat Canada's website.

Helpful Tip:

Canadians may be exposed to avian-borne viruses when birdwatching, hunting or handling migratory birds and other wild game. Environment Canada recommends the following website, maintained by the Public Health Agency of Canada, for information on minimizing the risk of exposure.

Authors:

This report was prepared by the Canadian Wildlife Service Waterfowl Committee, and edited by Renée Bergeron of the National Office of the Canadian Wildlife Service.

Correct citation for this report:

Canadian Wildlife Service Waterfowl Committee. 2014. Migratory Birds Regulations in Canada: July 2014. CWS Migratory Birds Regulatory Report Number 43.

Comments:

Comments regarding this report, the regulation-setting process or other concerns relating to national migratory game birds should be sent to Environment Canada's Canadian Wildlife Service, National Office:

Director of Population Conservation and Management
Canadian Wildlife Service
Environment Canada
Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3

Region-specific comments should be sent to the appropriate Regional Director, Canadian Wildlife Service, Population Conservation Service, at the following addresses:

Atlantic Region:

17 Waterfowl Lane
P.O. Box 6227
Sackville, NB
E4L 1G6

Quebec Region:

1141 Route de l'Église
P.O. Box 10100
Quebec, QC
G1V 3W5

Ontario Region:

4905 Dufferin Street
Toronto, ON
M3H 5T4

Prairie and Northern Region:

Twin Atria No. 2
4999 98 Avenue
Edmonton, AB 
T6B 2X3

Pacific and Yukon Region:

5421 Robertson Road
R.R. #1
Delta, BC
V4K 3N2

This report may be downloaded from the following web site

Unless otherwise specified, you may not reproduce materials in this publication, in whole or in part, for the purposes of commercial redistribution without prior written permission from Environment Canada's copyright administrator. To obtain permission to reproduce Government of Canada materials for commercial purposes, apply for Crown Copyright Clearance by contacting:

Environment Canada
Inquiry Centre
10 Wellington, 23rd Floor
Gatineau QC
K1A 0H3
Telephone: 819-997-2800
Toll Free: 1-800-668-6767 (in Canada only)
Facsimile: 819-994-1412
Teletypewriter (TTY): 819-994-0736
Email: enviroinfo@ec.gc.ca

Establishment of the hunting regulations for migratory game birds

The purpose of the amendments to Schedule 1 of the Migratory Birds Regulations is to change hunting season dates, set daily bag limits and possession limits, as well as make other related modifications for certain species of migratory game birds.

Commencing with the 2014-2015 hunting season, Environment Canada (EC) is moving from an annual to a biennial regulatory amendment cycle for the hunting regulations, meaning that the regulations in place are for the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 hunting seasons (fall 2014 and fall 2015; special conservation measures for overabundant geese will be in effect for spring 2015 and spring 2016).

The objective of this new policy approach is to reduce the resource burden to government associated with the regulatory process, while continuing to ensure that conservation and harvesting objectives are achieved. The amendment and corresponding formalized consultation processes will remain consistent with what was carried out in previous years, with the only change being that the amendments will now occur every two years. Environment Canada will continue evaluating the status of migratory game birds on an annual basis to ensure that the regulations are appropriate, and could amend the regulations at mid-intervals if necessary for conservation reasons. The proposal to adopt a two-year regulatory cycle underwent extensive consultations, and was supported unanimously by the Provinces and Territories.

Within each two-year regulatory cycle, hunting regulations for migratory game birds are reviewed by EC, with input from the provinces and territories and a range of other interested stakeholders. As part of this process, EC's Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) produces three reports. The first report, Population Status of Migratory Game Birds in Canada , commonly called the November report, contains population and other biological information on migratory game birds, and thus provides the scientific basis for management. The population status of migratory birds is examined each year to ensure that conservation and harvesting objectives are achieved. Thus, the November report on migratory bird population status is published every year.

The second report, Proposals to Amend the Canadian Migratory Birds Regulations (including Regulation Proposals for Overabundant Species) (the December report), outlines the proposed changes to the hunting regulations, as well as other proposed amendments to the Migratory Birds Regulations. Proposals for hunting regulations are developed in accordance with the Objectives and Guidelines for the Establishment of National Regulations for Migratory Game Bird Hunting.

The third report, Migratory Birds Regulations in Canada (the July report), summarizes the hunting regulations for the upcoming hunting seasons. The three documents are distributed to organizations and individuals with an interest in migratory game bird conservation, to provide an opportunity for input into the development of hunting regulations in Canada.

The process for developing regulations in Canada requires that any changes be in the form of final proposals by late February on years of regulatory changes. That means that regulations must be set without the benefit of knowledge about the breeding conditions and production forecasts of the coming year. This does not usually present difficulties because the hunting regulations are based on trends over several years, but in some cases the results from recent harvest surveys or breeding population surveys conducted in May and June will indicate that changes in the national approach are needed to ensure conservation of migratory game birds. In this case, EC will process a regulatory amendment and issue a bulletin updating these regulations.

Schedule for the development of hunting regulations

The schedule for development of the biennial hunting regulations is based on the requirement to have the hunting regulations made into law by early June:

  • October through November - The Population Status of Migratory Game Birds in Canada report, containing biological information on migratory game birds, is developed. In early January, it is distributed and posted on the EC Nature website.
  • November - the CWS regional offices develop proposals for hunting regulations in consultation with the provinces and territories and interested stakeholders.
  • Early to mid-January - The Proposals to Amend the Canadian Migratory Birds Regulations report containing the regulation proposals is posted on the EC Nature website and distributed to allow for public, inter-regional and international consultation.
  • Early June - Hunting regulations become law.
  • Early July - The Migratory Birds Regulations in Canada report, containing the approved hunting regulations, is distributed and posted on the EC Nature website. The migratory game bird hunting regulation summaries are available on the EC Nature website.
  • Early August - Hunting regulation summaries are available at Canada Post outlets.

Note to American Readers

The cycle of regulation development takes place earlier in Canada than in the United States. To meet the requirements of the process for development of regulations in Canada, proposals for hunting regulations must be finalized no later than late February. Canadian representatives at the summer Flyway Council meetings and other hearings are not reporting on what is being considered, but on what has been passed into law.

Breeding population surveys

The results of the 2014 breeding population surveys will be described in detail and compared with historical data sets in the Population Status of Migratory Game Birds in Canada report to be published in January 2015.

American Black Duck harvest strategy

The Black Duck International Harvest Strategy was adopted in July 2012 by the CWS and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The objectives of the strategy, based on the principles of adaptive harvest management, are to:

  • maintain a Black Duck population that provides consumptive and non-consumptive use commensurate with habitat carrying capacity;
  • maintain societal values associated with the hunting tradition; and
  • maintain equitable access to the Black Duck resource.

As such, the strategy is designed to identify appropriate harvest levels in Canada and the United States based on population levels of Black Ducks and sympatric Mallards while sharing the Black Duck harvest equally between the two countries. However, recognizing incomplete control of harvest through regulations, the strategy allows harvest in either country to vary between 40-60% of the annual continental harvest. Frequent evaluations of the strategy are conducted to ensure that it continues meeting the objectives stated above. Thus, the strategy allows the regulations for Black Ducks to change on a more frequent basis.

In its first year of implementation in 2013-2014, the strategy allowed a liberal harvest regime in Canada, with higher daily bag limits and in some cases longer Black Duck seasons. For the 2014-2015 hunting season, EC is implementing a moderate harvest regime for Black Ducks, which represents a return to 1997-2013 harvest levels. The return to moderate regulations is mainly due to a large increase in the Mallard breeding population in the east in 2013. The Mallard increase is predicted to have a negative impact on Black Duck production through competition for resources between the two species on the breeding grounds and thus reduced production of young Black Ducks. Details on the Black Duck regulations can be found in the "Hunting Regulations for the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 Seasons" section.

Proposals to modernize Canada's migratory birds regulations to improve the management of hunting in Canada

The CWS held consultations on the modernization of aspects related to the management of hunting within the Migratory Birds Regulations. The consultation period ended on June 9, 2014. Hundreds of comments were sent to EC expressing interest in the management of migratory game bird hunting in Canada.

In general, Canadians appreciate EC's and the CWS' effort to reform the Migratory Birds Regulations to make it easier for hunters to enjoy hunting migratory birds in Canada. Canadians also appreciated the opportunity that was given to them to comment on the proposed changes.

Biennial regulatory amendment to the hunting regulations

The regulatory amendment cycle for migratory game bird hunting has been changed from one year to two years, to reduce administrative costs while continuing to ensure that conservation objectives are achieved.

The first two-year period of hunting regulations is starting with the coming hunting season (2014-15), and ending with the 2015-16 season.

This first two-year cycle will also establish special conservation measures for overabundant geese in spring 2015 and spring 2016 (note that the regulations for spring 2014 were made into law as part of the 2013-2014 process; see Appendix).

Management of overabundant geese

Conservation Issue

Most Snow Goose and Ross's Goose populations are well above their population objectives (North American Waterfowl Management Plan 2012). This becomes an important conservation issue when the rapid growth and increasing abundance affect the habitats on which they, and other species, depend. This relatively new issue was first highlighted 15 years ago, through comprehensive assessments of the environmental effects of the rapidly growing populations of mid-continent Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Greater Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica). The analyses, completed by Canadian and American experts, are contained in the reports Arctic Ecosystems in Peril - Report of the Arctic Goose Habitat Working Group (Batt 1997) and The Greater Snow Goose - Report of the Arctic Goose Habitat Working Group (Batt 1998).

These working groups concluded that the increase in Snow Goose populations was primarily human-induced. Changing farming practices supplied a reliable, highly nutritious food source for migrating and wintering geese. Combined with the safety found in refuges, this improved nutritional status led to increased survival and higher reproductive rates for Snow Geese. These populations have become so large that they are affecting the plant communities at staging areas and breeding grounds on which they and other species rely. Grazing and grubbing by geese not only permanently removes vegetation, but also changes soil salinity, nitrogen dynamics and moisture levels. The result is alteration or elimination of the plant communities. Although the Arctic is vast, the areas that support migrating and breeding geese and other companion species are limited in extent, and some areas are likely to become inhospitable for decades. Increasing crop damage is another undesirable consequence of the growing goose populations.

Management Response

Initial management efforts focused on mid-continent Lesser Snow Geese and Greater Snow Geese populations where there was strong evidence for detrimental effects on habitats. Canada, the United States and Mexico agreed that the habitat damage being caused was a significant conservation issue, and that the populations were overabundant to the detriment of the arctic and sub-arctic ecosystems. Following that declaration, several concurrent management measures were initiated to curtail the rapid population growth and reduce population size to a level consistent with the carrying capacity of the habitat. Population models showed that, of all the potential management techniques, the most successful approach to control population growth would be to reduce survival rates for adult geese.

Therefore, beginning in 1999, Canada amended the Migratory Birds Regulations and created new tools that could be invoked to help manage overabundant species. These included special conditions under which hunters were encouraged to increase their take during the regular hunting season and the special spring harvest season for conservation reasons and, in some cases and subject to specific controls, to use exceptional methods and equipment such as electronic calls and bait. The special conservation measures for Snow Geese were implemented in 1999 in selected areas of Quebec and Manitoba, and were expanded in 2001 to Saskatchewan and Nunavut, and in 2012 to southeastern Ontario. The dates and locations of application of these special conservation measures were determined in consultation with the provincial governments, other organizations and local communities.

Effectiveness of Special Conservation Measures

Evaluations showed that success of the special conservation measures to date has been mixed. In the case of Greater Snow Geese, the special conservation measures were successful in reducing the annual survival rate for adults from 83% to about 72.5% (Calvert and Gauthier 2005). The growth of the population was halted, but the special measures have not succeeded in reducing the size of the population, which appears stabilized at approximately 1 million birds in spring (Lefebvre 2013). Models showed that, without the special take by hunters in spring, the population would begin to grow rapidly once more (Gauthier and Reed 2007).

For mid-continent Lesser Snow Geese, the evaluation concluded that the population has continued to grow, although perhaps at a reduced rate (Leafloor et al. 2012). It also concluded that, although the annual harvest increased as a result of the conservation measures, it failed to reduce the population size. It was apparent that measures invoked to date have not been successful and that other measures would be required if population control were deemed essential. The report recommended that special conservation measures be maintained, and that additional measures to increase harvest be sought.

The evaluation report also suggested that the conditions for overabundance designation are met by Ross's Geese (Chen rossii), and predicted that continued growth and expansion of Lesser Snow Goose populations was especially likely in the central and western Arctic of Canada (Leafloor et al. 2012).

Significance of Overabundant Population

An overabundant population is one for which the rate of population growth has resulted in, or will result in, a population whose abundance directly threatens the conservation of migratory birds (themselves or others) or their habitats, or is injurious to or threatens agricultural, environmental or other similar interests. As such, designation provides tools to liberalize harvest under special conservation measures, such as spring harvest, use of electronic calls, and baiting, in order to help reduce the population size and growth of the population through hunting.

Designation of Western Arctic Population of Lesser Snow Geese as Overabundant

Based on the recommendation of the Arctic Goose Joint Venture (Leafloor et al. 2012), the western Arctic population of Lesser Snow Goose has been designated as overabundant by the CWS. Experience has shown that serious habitat loss from the destructive foraging activities of Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese occurred in parallel with very rapid population growth in the central and eastern Arctic (Batt 1997). Some localized habitat damage has already occurred on Banks Island (Hines et al. 2010). If the western Arctic population continues to increase at the present rate, the negative impacts to habitat and other species are predicted to expand.

The western Arctic population of Lesser Snow Geese breeds primarily on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, with smaller breeding colonies on the mainland of the Northwest Territories and Alaska. The population migrates mainly through Alberta and western Saskatchewan in spring and autumn. The majority of birds winter in the Pacific Flyway, mostly in California, where they mix with the Wrangel Island population of Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese. Some birds also winter in the western Central Flyway, where they mix with mid-continent Snow Geese.

Western Arctic Snow Geese are already well above the spring population objective of 200 000 birds (North American Waterfowl Management Plan 2012). Photographic surveys of the nesting colonies indicate that the number of nesting birds has grown from about 171 000 adults in 1976 to about 500 000 adults in recent years (Kerbes et al. 1999; Hines et al. 2010; Canadian Wildlife Service, unpubl. data). The fall estimate of western Arctic/Wrangel Island Snow Geese in the Pacific Flyway was over 1 million birds in 2011, which represents an average increase of 6% per year from 2003 to 2011 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2012). Increases have also been observed in the western Central Flyway population of Snow Geese (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2012).

Based on band return data, adults from the western Arctic population have an 85% chance of surviving from one year to the next (Canadian Wildlife Service, unpubl. data). This survival rate is high, and similar to estimates of other increasing white goose populations. Recent recovery rates for banded adult birds were only 2-3%, suggesting that non-hunting mortality is currently higher than hunting mortality (Canadian Wildlife Service, unpubl. data).

Conversely, increased survival is thought to be mainly due to increased agricultural food supplies, increased use of refuges during migration and winter, and reduced harvest rates by hunters (Abraham et al. 1996; Abraham and Jefferies 1997).

The western Arctic population is showing a pattern of rapid population growth similar to that which has been observed in other populations of Snow Geese and Ross's Geese. For this reason, it is important to consider implementation of special conservation measures, such as spring harvest, before the western Arctic population reaches a level that cannot be controlled through increased harvest by hunters. Similar efforts to stabilize Greater Snow Goose numbers in eastern North America were successful because the population was still small enough to be controlled through increased harvest (Reed and Calvert 2007). Based on experience with the mid-continent population of Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese, it is likely easier to recover goose populations that reach low levels than to reduce them after they experience runaway growth (Leafloor et al. 2012). It may still be possible to stabilize the western Arctic population if liberalized harvest measures are implemented soon.

Designation of Ross's Geese as Overabundant

Based on the recommendation of the Arctic Goose Joint Venture (Leafloor et al. 2012), the Ross's Goose has been designated as overabundant by the CWS. Following publication of the Ecosystems in Peril report (Batt 1997), unprecedented management actions were initiated in 1999 to reduce damage caused to arctic and subarctic ecosystems by the foraging activities of increasing numbers of Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese (Batt 1997; Moser 2001). Most of these actions were aimed at reducing survival of adult geese through increased harvest by hunters throughout the range of the mid-continent population, which was thought to be the most efficient means of reducing population size (Rockwell et al. 1997). Hunting regulations were liberalized during regular seasons, traditional hunting restrictions (e.g., prohibition on use of electronic calls, requirement for plugged shotguns, bag and possession limits) were relaxed or removed to promote increased harvest, and habitat management regimes on some refuges were altered to increase exposure of the birds to hunting outside of refuge areas. Additional amendments to the Migratory Birds Regulations in Canada and the United States were made to allow conservation harvests of such overabundant species outside of hunting seasons.

Though most attention was focused on overabundance of Lesser Snow Geese, Ross's Geese were designated as overabundant in the United States in 1999, and have been included in regulations allowing spring conservation harvests in that country since that time. In Canada, a court decision in 1999 determined that overabundance regulations could not be applied to Ross's Geese because it had not been demonstrated that they were contributing to the habitat damage at that time.

It is now clear that Ross's Geese contribute to habitat degradation on nesting and staging areas where they occur in large numbers (Alisauskas et al. 2006b, Abraham et al. 2012). Like Lesser Snow Geese, Ross's Geese grub during nest building and spring staging, when a large portion of their diet is composed of the roots and rhizomes of sedges and grasses (Ryder and Alisauskas 1995). Alisauskas et al. (2006b) found that vegetative cover was removed in areas occupied by nesting Ross's Geese, resulting in exposure of mineral substrate and peat. This led to reduced vegetative species richness that worsened over time, particularly in low-lying habitats preferred by Ross's Geese for nesting. Reduced graminoid abundance caused by foraging geese has also led to dramatic declines in small mammal abundance around dense nesting colonies (Samelius and Alisauskas 2009). Didiuk et al. (2001) suggested that use by Ross's Geese of nesting areas previously degraded by Lesser Snow Geese (e.g. on the west coast of Hudson Bay) may slow the recovery of those areas due to the ongoing effects of foraging and nest building. The smaller bill morphology of Ross's Geese may allow them to crop vegetation more closely to the ground than Lesser Snow Geese, adding to the intensity of grazing pressure.

Ross's Geese are closely related to Lesser Snow Geese, and co-occur with the latter species throughout the year. Their behavioural and morphological similarity has led to harvest management of the two species in aggregate since 1978 (Moser and Duncan 2001). In the mid-1960s, most Ross's Geese (> 90%) nested in the central Arctic of Canada and wintered in the Central Valley of California (Melinchuk and Ryder 1980). Although comprehensive estimates of population size were not available until recently, photographic surveys of known nesting areas indicated fewer than 100 000 nesting Ross's Geese in the mid-1960s (Kerbes 1994). The continental population objective for Ross's Geese has been 100 000 birds since inception of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan in 1986. By the mid-2000s, Ross's Geese had expanded their range eastward on both nesting and wintering areas (Alisauskas et al. 2006a), and the population was estimated to number between 1.5-2.5 million adult birds (Alisauskas et al. 2009, 2011, 2012), despite efforts to stop the population through increased harvest by hunters.

Alisauskas et al. (2006a) analyzed hunter recoveries of Ross's Geese captured and marked in the Queen Maud Gulf region of the central Canadian Arctic, and found that survival of adults had declined during the period 1994-2000, reaching a low of approximately 0.80, apparently in response to concurrent increases in harvest. The authors noted, however, that during this same time period, the Ross's Goose population at one of the largest known breeding colonies in the Queen Maud Gulf region had shown sustained growth, suggesting that an adult survival rate of 0.80 was unlikely to have negative consequences for continental Ross's Goose populations. Since 2001 (the last year that Alisauskas et al. [2006a] considered), continental harvest of adult Ross's Geese has apparently stabilized, and harvest rates (the annual proportion of the adult population harvested by hunters) have declined to only about 0.02-0.03 (Alisauskas et al. 2009, 2012; Dufour et al. 2012). Annual survival of Ross's Geese declined from 0.897 (95% CI = 0.789-0.953) to a low of 0.827 (95% CI = 0.801-0.850) during the period 1989-1997, then increased steadily from 1998 onward, reaching a high of 0.950 (95% CI = 0.899-0.976) in 2009. Notably, this reversal of the survival trajectory occurred in the face of some of the highest annual harvest levels estimated for adult Ross's Geese since 1989 (Alisauskas et al. 2012).

Multiple lines of evidence indicate that Ross's Goose populations have continued to grow, both in the central Arctic and at the continental level (Alisauskas et al. 2009, 2012). Collectively, these observations suggest that, like Snow Geese, increases in harvest of Ross's Geese have been outpaced by concurrent increases in abundance, thereby diminishing the effects of harvests on adult survival (Dufour et al. 2012). In fact, Ross's Goose numbers have continued to increase at a higher rate than have Lesser Snow Geese since the start of conservation actions in 1999, and continued growth of the Ross's Goose population is predicted to occur (Alisauskas et al. 2006a, 2012; Dufour et al. 2012). Thus, the environmental damage being caused, with its effects on other species and ecosystem structure and function, is expected to continue to increase.

Summary of hunting regulations for Snow Geese and Ross's Geese for the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 seasons

Ross's Geese and the western Arctic population of Lesser Snow Geese have been designated overabundant. Therefore, amendments to Schedule 1 of the Migratory Birds Regulations created special conservation harvests in spring, outside the regular hunting season, during which hunters are encouraged to take these overabundant species for conservation reasons.

A spring conservation harvest for Western Arctic Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese was introduced in Alberta and the Northwest Territories.

A spring conservation harvest for Ross's Geese was established in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Nunavut.

The conservation season dates and locations were implemented as determined through consultation with the provincial governments, wildlife management boards, other organizations and local communities.

The following additional changes have been made to the regulations for Snow Geese and Ross's Geese within the regular hunting and already existing spring conservation seasons:

  • The daily bag limit for Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese (combined) has been increased in Manitoba, Alberta, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.
  • The possession limit has been removed for Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, the Northwest Territories (for non-residents of Canada) and Nunavut (for non-residents).
  • The spring conservation season length for Snow Geese has been extended by one month in Saskatchewan. The season changed from April 1 to May 31 to March 15 to June 15.
  • All-day hunting of Snow Geese and Ross's Geese has been extended to include the entire province of Saskatchewan through all available season dates.
  • The use of recorded Ross's Goose calls when hunting Snow Geese and Ross's Geese has been allowed in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and Nunavut.

The special conservation season dates that will be effect in fall 2014 and spring 2015 are posted on the EC website and are contained in the Appendix (Migratory Birds Hunting Regulations Summaries).

The following section contains further detail regarding the new regulations for overabundant species.

Hunting regulations for the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 seasons

Outcome of the consultations

The hunting regulation amendments were developed in consultation with the provinces and territories, other countries such as the United States and Mexico, and a range of other interested stakeholders, including hunters, Aboriginal groups and conservation groups. They were published in the Canada Gazette, Part II, on June 18, 2014.

Many comments were received throughout the consultation period. Overall, provincial governments, hunter associations and individual hunters were supportive of the amendments to the migratory game bird hunting regulations for the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 seasons.

A limited amount of concern was raised by some hunters and hunter organizations in the Maritime provinces and Ontario over the return to moderate harvest levels for Black Ducks after a year of more liberal harvest levels. In Prince Edward Island, most of the comments received were supportive of maintaining the current closing date of December 31, although a minority believed that the season should end earlier, before winter freeze-up that could result in the hunt distribution being restricted to a few areas of open water. Maintaining the closing date of December 31, along with the reduced bag limits, is within the parameters of the moderate regime of the Black Duck International Harvest Strategy, and has been supported by the majority of hunters and hunter organizations. Furthermore, the new regulations for Black Ducks are comparable to the harvest levels that were in place for the 1997-2013 period. The Black Duck is a valued game bird and is in high demand by hunters in eastern Canada and the northeast United States. The Black Duck International Strategy, which was adopted in 2012 by the CWS and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, is designed to identify sustainable harvest levels in Canada and the United States, and allows the regulations for Black Ducks to shift on a more frequent basis. This is the only species for which a formal international harvest strategy is required, as the overall demand for Black Ducks is greater than the population could sustain.

An international group of experts (Arctic Goose Joint Venture) has found that populations of Ross's Geese and Western Arctic Lesser Snow Geese are causing, or are likely to cause, significant damage to their staging and nesting habitats. As a result, the CWS has designated Ross's Geese and the Western Arctic Snow Geese population as overabundant. This designation has been supported by stakeholders; however, one letter was received opposing this measure and suggesting that previous regulatory measures to control overabundance had failed to reduce the targeted populations and should therefore be abandoned.

The regulations in effect for 2014-2015 are contained in the Appendix (Migratory Birds Hunting Regulations Summaries) and are posted on the EC website.

Newfoundland and Labrador

Implementation of the American Black Duck International Harvest Strategy

The strategy recommended a return to a moderate regime for the 2014-2015 season after one year of a liberal regime. The moderate regulatory package for American Black Ducks in Newfoundland and Labrador is a daily bag limit of four on the island of Newfoundland for the entire duck hunting season (a decrease compared to 2013-2014, from six to four) and the bag limit remained six in Labrador. The strategy allows the regulations for Black Ducks to shift on a more frequent basis.

The 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 regulations for Black Ducks are comparable to the harvest levels that were in place for the 1997-2013 period, which is the equivalent to the moderate regulatory package.

Prince Edward Island

Implementation of the American Black Duck International Harvest Strategy

The strategy recommended a return to a moderate regime after one year of a liberal regime. The moderate regulatory package for American Black Ducks in Prince Edward Island is a daily bag limit of four American Black Ducks (a decrease compared to 2013-14 from six to four) for the first part of the hunting season (October 1 to November 7). Due to an increase in harvest susceptibility later in the season, a restriction of two American Black Ducks /Mallard hybrids or two American Black Ducks (a decrease compared to 2013-2014, from four to two) in the daily bag is in effect for the last part of the hunting season. The strategy allows the regulations for Black Ducks to shift on a more frequent basis.

The 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 regulations for Black Ducks are comparable to the harvest levels that were in place for the 1997-2013 period, which is the equivalent to the moderate package.

Nova Scotia

Implementation of the American Black Duck International Harvest Strategy

The strategy recommended a return to a moderate regime after one year of a liberal regime. The moderate regulatory package for American Black Ducks in Nova Scotia is a daily bag limit of four American Black Ducks for the entire hunting season. In the previous hunting season (2013-2014), the daily bag limit for Black Ducks was six for the first two months of the duck season, and four for the last few weeks. The open season for ducks (other than Common and Red-breasted Mergansers, Long-tailed Ducks, Harlequin Ducks, eiders, scoters, Goldeneyes and Buffleheads) is October 1 to December 31 in Zone 1, and October 22 to January 15 in Zones 2 and 3.

The 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 regulations for Black Ducks are comparable to the harvest levels that were in place for the 1997-2013 period, which is the equivalent to the moderate harvest package.

New Brunswick

Implementation of the American Black Duck International Harvest Strategy

The strategy recommended a return to a moderate regime after one year of a liberal regime. The moderate regulatory package for American Black Ducks in New Brunswick is a daily bag limit of three American Black Ducks for the entire hunting season. In the previous hunting season (2013-2014), the daily bag limit for Black Ducks was six for the first two months of the duck season, and four for the last month. The open season for ducks (other than Common and Red-breasted Mergansers, Long-tailed Ducks, Harlequin Ducks, eiders and scoters), geese (other than Canada Geese and Cackling Geese) and snipes is October 15 to January 4 in Zone 1, and October 1 to December 18 in Zone 2.

The 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 regulations for Black Ducks are comparable to the harvest levels that were in place for the 1997-2013 period, which is the equivalent to the moderate harvest package.

Quebec

Implementation of the American Black Duck International Harvest Strategy

The strategy for American recommended a return to a moderate regime after one year of a liberal regime. The daily bag limit has been reduced from six to four Black Ducks for all hunting districts in Quebec except within a zone in district F, west of route 155 and highway 55, where the daily bag remains two American Black Ducks.

The strategy allows the regulations for Black Ducks to shift on a more frequent basis. The 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 regulations for Black Ducks are comparable to the harvest levels that were in place for the 1997-2013 period.

Season length for woodcock

The length of the woodcock season in Hunting Districts B, C, D, E and F of Quebec has been decreased by 1 day and now stands at 106 days. The total season length is 107 days including the Waterfowler Heritage Day, the maximum allowed open season length.

Ontario

Implementation of the American Black Duck International Harvest Strategy

The strategy recommended a return to a moderate regime after one year of a liberal regime. The moderate regulatory package for American Black Ducks in Ontario is a daily bag limit of two Black Ducks (decrease from four to two) in the Hudson-James Bay and Northern Hunting Districts and one Black Duck (decrease from two to one) in the Central and Southern Hunting Districts. Opening dates will remain the same. Season length is 107 days in the Hudson-James Bay, Northern and Central Hunting Districts while the season will be shorter in the Southern Hunting District closing on December 20.

The strategy allows the regulations for Black Ducks to shift on a more frequent basis. The 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 regulations for Black Ducks are comparable to the harvest levels that were in place for the 1997-2013 period.

Removing restrictions on the daily bag limit of Canada and Cackling Geese

Restrictions on the daily bag limit for Canada Geese in the Hudson-James Bay (Provincial Wildlife Management Unit [WMU] 1D) and Northern Hunting Districts (WMUs 23 to 31 and 37 to 41) have been removed. This change means an increase of the daily bag limit from three to five Canada Geese / Cackling Geese.

Band recovery data show that this change in daily bag limit has the potential to increase the harvest of temperate-breeding Canada Geese with minimal effect on the Southern James Bay population of Canada Geese. Currently, the population of temperate-breeding Canada Geese is above its maximum population objective, and the population of Southern James Bay Canada Geese is above its minimum population objective.

Clarifying hunting restrictions

The wording in Table 1, Section 4(c) and (d), has been changed from "natural rush bed" to "area of emergent vegetation." This change clarifies, for both hunters and enforcement personnel, the intent of the hunting restriction.

Manitoba

Increasing the daily bag limit and eliminating the possession limit for Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese (combined)

The daily bag limit for Lesser Snow and Ross's Geese (combined) has been increased from 20 to 50, and the possession limit has been abolished. This measure will provide additional opportunity to manage these overabundant species, and contribute to reducing the growth of the populations through hunting. At the same time, it will facilitate the proper use of harvested birds.

Allowing the use of recorded Ross's Goose calls in fall

The use of recorded Ross's Goose calls during the regular hunting season has been allowed for hunting Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese. The use of Snow Goose recorded calls was already permitted. This measure will provide additional opportunity to manage these overabundant species.

Introducing a spring conservation harvest for Ross's Geese

A spring conservation harvest for Ross's Geese has been implemented at the same time as the existing conservation harvests for Lesser Snow Geese throughout the province. This measure will provide additional opportunity to manage this overabundant species, and to contribute toward reducing the growth of the population through hunting.

Increasing the daily bag and possession limits for Canada Geese, Cackling Geese, White-fronted Geese and Brant (combined) for non-residents of Canada

The daily bag limit for Canada Geese, Cackling Geese, White-fronted Geese and Brant (combined) for non-residents of Canada has been increased from 5 to 8 and the possession limit has been increased from 15 to 24 in Game Bird Hunting Zone 1. Dark goose harvest in this zone includes Temperate Breeding Canada Geese (molt migrants), Cackling Geese and the Eastern Prairie population of Canada Geese, all of which have stable or increasing populations (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2012). Harvest in this zone is expected to remain low due to the small number of non-resident hunters.

Saskatchewan

Eliminating the possession limit for Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese (combined)

The possession limit for Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese (combined) has been abolished. This change will provide additional opportunity to manage these overabundant species, contribute to reducing the growth of the population through hunting, and facilitate the proper use of harvested birds.

Extending all-day hunting for Lesser Snow and Ross's Geese to the entire province

All-day hunting of Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese has been extended to include the entire province, through all available season dates. This measure provides additional opportunity to manage these overabundant species, and contributes to reducing the growth of the populations through hunting.

Allowing the use of recorded Ross's Goose calls in fall

The use of recorded Ross's Goose calls during the regular hunting season has been allowed for hunting Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese. The use of Snow Goose recorded calls was already permitted. This measure provides additional opportunity to manage these overabundant species.

Introducing a spring conservation harvest for Ross's Geese

A spring conservation harvest for Ross's Geese has been implemented during the same period as the existing conservation harvests for Lesser Snow Geese throughout the province. The season will run from March 15 to June 15. This measure will provide additional opportunity to manage this overabundant species, and will contribute to reducing the growth of the population through hunting.

Extension of the existing spring conservation season for Lesser Snow Geese

The spring conservation hunting season, for Lesser Snow Geese, has been extended by one month, changing from April 1-May 31 to March 15-June 15. This measure will provide additional opportunity to manage this overabundant species, and will contribute to reducing the growth of the population through hunting.

Increasing the daily bag and possession limits of White-fronted Geese for non-residents of Canada

The daily bag limit has been increased from 4 to 5, and the possession limit has been increased from 12 to 15, for White-fronted Geese for non-residents of Canada. This change will harmonize bag and possession limits for all hunters and remove harvest restrictions placed on non-resident hunters. Furthermore, current population estimates are high and have been stable for several years.

Alberta

Increasing the daily bag limit and eliminating the possession limit for Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese (combined)

The daily bag limit for Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese (combined) has been increased from 20 to 50, and the possession limit has been abolished. This measure will provide additional opportunity to manage these overabundant species, and contribute to reducing the growth of the populations through hunting. At the same time, it will facilitate the proper use of harvested birds.

Introducing a spring conservation harvest for Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese

A spring conservation harvest for Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese has been implemented from March 15 to June 15 throughout the province. This measure will provide additional opportunity to manage these overabundant species, and contribute to reducing the growth of the populations through hunting.

Increasing the daily bag and possession limits of White-fronted Geese for non-residents of Canada

The White-fronted Goose daily bag limit for non-residents of Canada has been increased from 4 to 5, and the possession limit has been increased from 12 to 15. This change will harmonize bag and possession limits for all hunters and remove harvest restrictions placed on non-resident hunters. Furthermore, current population estimates are high and have been stable for several years.

British Columbia

No regulatory changes were made for the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 hunting seasons.

Yukon Territory

No regulatory changes were made for the 2014-2015 and 2015-16 hunting seasons.

Northwest Territories

Increasing the daily bag limit and eliminating the possession limit for Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese (combined)

The daily bag limit for Lesser Snow and Ross's Geese (combined) has been increased from 15 for residents of Canada and 5 for non-residents to 50 per day for all hunters. The possession limit has been abolished for non-residents; there was no possession limit for residents. This measure will provide additional opportunity to manage these overabundant species, and contribute to reducing the growth of the populations through hunting. At the same time, it will facilitate the proper use of harvested birds.

Introducing a spring conservation harvest for Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese

A spring special conservation season has been implemented for Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese from May 1 to June 30 on Banks Island, Victoria Island and the Queen Elizabeth Islands, and from May 1 to May 28 throughout the rest of the territory. This measure will provide additional opportunity to manage these overabundant species, and contribute to reducing the growth of these populations through hunting.

Nunavut

Increasing the daily bag limit and eliminating the possession limit for Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese (combined)

The daily bag limit for Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese (combined) has been increased from 15 for residents of Canada and 5 for non-residents to 50 per day for all hunters. The possession limit has been abolished for non-residents; there was no possession limit for residents. This measure will provide additional opportunity to manage these overabundant species, and contribute to reducing the growth of the populations through hunting. At the same time, it will facilitate the proper use of harvested birds.

Introducing a spring conservation harvest for Ross's Geese

A spring conservation harvest for Ross's Geese has been implemented throughout the territory at the same time as the existing conservation harvests for Lesser Snow Geese. This measure will provide additional opportunity to manage this overabundant species, and contribute to reducing the growth of the population through hunting.

Allowing the use of recorded Ross's Goose calls

Ross's Goose calls are now also allowed to be used for hunting Snow Geese and Ross's Geese. The use of Snow Goose calls was already permitted. In addition, the restriction to use blue or white phase Snow Goose decoys has been lifted and their use is now permitted in Nunavut. These changes will provide additional opportunity to manage these overabundant species.

Bag and possession limits in the islands and waters of James Bay

The bag limits and possession limits in the islands and waters of James Bay have been adjusted to match the regulations in the adjacent areas of Ontario and Quebec. In western James Bay, the daily bag limit has been increased to 5 Canada Geese or Cackling Geese, and the possession limit has been eliminated entirely. Also, in western James Bay, the possession limit for ducks has been increased to 18, with not more than 6 American Black Ducks and 1 Barrow's Goldeneye. In eastern James Bay, the possession limit has been set to 20 for geese other than Snow Geese and Ross's Geese, and 18 for ducks, with not more than 1 Barrow's Goldeneye and 2 Blue-winged Teals.

Please report bird bands

The North American Bird Banding Program relies on the public to report bird bands to its office. Reporting bird bands helps scientists and wildlife managers continue to learn about, monitor and conserve bird populations.

There are three ways to report bands to the Canadian Bird Banding Office: online, calling toll-free 1-800-327-2263 (1-800-327-BAND), or writing to:

Bird Banding Office
National Wildlife Research Centre
Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada
Ottawa ON
K1A 0H3
Email: BBO_CWS@ec.gc.ca

After submitting your encounter reports online, you will promptly receive banding data, and have the option to print a certificate of appreciation.

On new bands, the website URL has replaced the postal address, and the toll-free number remains. Hunters can still expect to find various types of bands on waterfowl, including bands without the website or phone number.

Updates to the migratory birds regulations

Amendment to allow for the temporary possession of migratory birds for disease testing

The Government of Canada wished to inform the public of a variance in the application of paragraph 6(b) of the Migratory Birds Regulations, issued under the authority of section 36 of the same regulations, to allow for the temporary possession of found dead migratory birds, which is in effect until August 28, 2015. This variance order will be extended to August 28, 2016.

As public participation in the study of dead migratory birds is necessary to help conduct surveys on avian viruses, it is permitted to temporarily possess dead migratory birds, in order to allow for prompt delivery of such birds to provincial or territorial authorities for analysis. The Government of Canada is responsible, under the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994, to ensure that migratory birds are protected and conserved, and testing dead birds is believed to be the most effective method available for the detection of avian viruses.

If you find a dead migratory bird:

For more information on the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994.

Literature cited

  • Abraham, K. F., R. L. Jefferies, R. F. Rockwell, and C.D. MacInnes. 1996. Why are there so many white geese in North America? Pages 79-92 in Proceedings of the 7th International Waterfowl Symposium, Memphis (TN). J. T. Ratti (ed.).
  • Abraham, K. F., and R. L. Jefferies. 1997. High populations, causes, impacts and implications. Pages 7-72 in Batt, B. D. J. (ed.). Arctic Ecosystems in Peril: Report of the Arctic Goose Habitat Working Group. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington (D.C.), and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa (ON). 126 pp.
  • Abraham, K. F., R. L. Jefferies, R. T. Alisauskas, and R. F. Rockwell. 2012. Northern wetland ecosystems and their response to high densities of lesser Snow Geese and Ross's geese. Pages 9-45 in Leafloor, J. O., T. J. Moser and B. D. J. Batt (eds). Evaluation of special management measures for midcontinent lesser Snow Geese and Ross's geese. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington (D.C.), and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa (ON).
  • Alisauskas, R. T., K. L. Drake, S. M. Slattery, and D. K. Kellett. 2006a. Neckbands, harvest and survival of Ross's geese from Canada's central arctic. Journal of Wildlife Management 70:89-100.
  • Alisauskas, R. T., J. Charlwood, and D. K. Kellett. 2006b. Vegetation correlates of nesting history and density by Ross's and lesser Snow Geese at Karrak Lake, Nunavut. Arctic 59:201-210.
  • Alisauskas, R. T., K. L. Drake, and J. D. Nichols. 2009. Filling a void: abundance estimation of North American populations of arctic geese using hunter recoveries. In D. L. Thomson, E. G. Cooch, and M. J. Conroy (eds). Modeling demographic processes in marked populations. Environmental and Ecological Statistics 3:463-489.
  • Alisauskas, R. T., R. F. Rockwell, K. W. Dufour, E. G. Cooch, G. Zimmerman, K. L. Drake, J. O. Leafloor, T. J. Moser and E. T. Reed. 2011. Harvest, survival, and abundance of midcontinent lesser Snow Geese relative to population reduction efforts. Wildlife Monographs 179:1-42.
  • Alisauskas, R. T., J. O. Leafloor, and D. K. Kellett. 2012. Population status of midcontinent Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese following special conservation measures. Pages 132-177 in Leafloor, J. O., T. J. Moser, and B. D. J. Batt (eds.). Evaluation of special management measures for midcontinent lesser Snow Geese and Ross's geese. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa (ON).
  • Batt, B.D.J. (ed.). 1997. Arctic Ecosystems in Peril - Report of the Arctic Goose Habitat Working Group. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington (D.C.), and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa (ON).
  • Batt, B.D.J. (ed.). 1998. The Greater Snow Goose - Report of the Arctic Goose Habitat Working Group. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington (D.C.), and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa (ON).
  • Calvert, A.M. and G. Gauthier. 2005. Effects of exceptional conservation measures on survival and seasonal hunting mortality in greater Snow Geese. Journal of Applied Ecology 42:442-252.
  • Didiuk, A. B., R. T. Alisauskas, and R. F. Rockwell. 2001. Interaction with arctic and subarctic habitats. Pages 19-32 in T. Moser, editor. The status of Ross's geese. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C., USA, and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
  • Dufour, K. W., R. T. Alisauskas, R. F. Rockwell, and E. T. Reed. 2012. Temporal variation in survival and productivity of midcontinent lesser Snow Geese and survival of Ross's geese and its relation to population reduction efforts. Pages 95-131 in Leafloor, J. O., T. J. Moser, and B. D. J. Batt (eds.). Evaluation of special management measures for midcontinent lesser Snow Geese and Ross's geese. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington (D.C.) and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa (ON).
  • Gauthier, G., and E. T. Reed. 2007. Projected growth rate of the Greater Snow Goose population under alternative harvest scenarios. In Reed, E. T., and A. M. Calvert (eds.). Evaluation of the special conservation measures for Greater Snow Geese: Report of the Greater Snow Goose Working Group. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Sainte-Foy (QC).
  • Hines, J.E., P.B. Latour, and C.S. Machtans. 2010. The effects on lowland habitat, breeding shorebirds and songbirds in the Banks Island Migratory Bird Sanctuary Number 1 by the growing colony of Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens). Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper No. 118. Environment Canada, Ottawa (ON).
  • Kerbes, R. H. 1994. Colonies and numbers of Ross' geese and lesser Snow Geese in the Queen Maud Gulf Migratory Bird Sanctuary. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper No. 81.
  • Kerbes, R. H., Meeres, K. M. and J. E. Hines (eds). 1999. Distribution, survival, and numbers of Lesser Snow Geese of the Western Canadian Arctic and Wrangel Island, Russia. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper No. 98. Environment Canada, Ottawa (ON).
  • Leafloor, J. O., T. J. Moser, and B. D. J. Batt (eds). 2012. Evaluation of special management measures for midcontinent lesser Snow Geese and Ross's geese. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington (D.C.) and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa (ON).
  • Lefebvre, J. 2013. Population estimate for Spring Population of Greater Snow Goose in southern Quebec. Environment Canada. Canadian Wildlife Service. July 2013.
  • Melinchuk, R., and J. P. Ryder. 1980. The distribution, fall migration routes and survival of Ross's geese. Wildfowl 31:161-171.
  • Moser, T. J. 2001. The status of Ross's geese. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington (D.C.), and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa (ON).
  • Moser, T. J., and D. C. Duncan. 2001. Harvest of Ross's geese. Pages 43-54 in T. J. Moser (ed.). The status of Ross's geese. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington (D.C.) and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa (ON).
  • North American Waterfowl Management Plan, Plan Committee. 2012. North American Waterfowl Management Plan 2012: People Conserving Waterfowl and Wetlands. Canadian Wildlife Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales. 48 pp.
  • Rockwell, R. F., E. Cooch, and S. Brault. 1997. Part III - Dynamics of the mid-continent population of lesser Snow Geese: Projected impacts of reductions in survival and fertility on population growth rates. Pages 73-100 in Batt B.D.J. (ed.), Arctic Ecosystems in Peril: Report of the Arctic Goose Habitat Working Group. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C., and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa (ON).
  • Ryder, J. P. and R. T. Alisauskas. 1995. Ross' goose. Number 162 in Poole A. and F. Gill (eds.). The Birds of North America. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (PA), and the American Ornithologists' Union, Washington (D.C.).
  • Samelius, G. and R. T. Alisauskas. 2009. Habitat alteration by geese at a large arctic goose colony: consequences for lemmings and voles. Canadian Journal of Zoology 87:95-101.
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  • Wildlife Habitat Canada. 2014. Wildlife Habitat Canada - Update on Activities, April 2014.

Appendix: 2014-2015 Migratory birds hunting regulations summaries by province and territory

Summaries are available on the Environment Canada Nature website.

Additional information can be obtained at:

Environment Canada Inquiry Centre
10 Wellington, 23rd Floor
Gatineau QC
K1A 0H3
Telephone: 819-997-2800
Toll Free: 1-800-668-6767 (in Canada only)
Facsimile: 819-994-1412
Teletypewriter (TTY): 819-994-0736
Email: enviroinfo@ec.gc.ca
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