Pits and quarries reporting guide

This document provides information to help you estimate emissions of National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) substances related to operations at pits and quarries. It provides estimation methods and factors, as well as links to useful tools.

Definitions

A "pit" means an excavation that is open to the air and that is operated for the purpose of extracting sand, clay, marl, earth, shale, gravel, stone or other rock but not coal, a coal-bearing substance, oil sands, or oil sands-bearing substance or an ammonite shell and includes any associated infrastructure, but does not include a quarry.

A "quarry" means an excavation that is open to the air and that is operated for the purpose of working, recovering and extracting stone, limestone, sandstone, dolostone, marble, granite, construction materials and any mineral other than coal, a coal bearing substance, oil sands, or oils sands-bearing substance or an ammonite shell and includes any associated infrastructure but does not include a pit.

Should any inconsistencies be found between this Guide and the official Canada Gazette Notices and their amendments, the most recent Government Notice from the Department of the Environment in the Canada Gazette with respect to the substances in the National Pollutant Release Inventory will prevail.

The industries engaged in pits and quarries activities, as defined by the Gazette Notice fall under the following North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes:

  • 2123 Non-metallic mineral mining and quarrying
    • 21231 Stone mining and quarrying
      • 212314 Granite mining and quarrying
      • 212315 Limestone mining and quarrying
      • 212316 Marble mining and quarrying
      • 212317 Sandstone mining and quarrying
    • 21232 Sand, gravel, clay, and ceramic and refractory minerals mining and quarrying
      • 212323 Sand and gravel mining and quarrying
      • 212326 Shale, clay and refractory mineral mining and quarrying

Reporting requirements

Pits and quarries, where annual production is 500,000 tonnes or greater are required to report to the NPRI, regardless of the number of employee hours worked, as long as the substance-specific threshold criteria are met; refer to Figure 1.

Figure 1: Reporting requirements for pits and quarries based on production quantities.

Figure 1: Steps for determining if your facility is required to report for 2022.  If the facility produces less than 500000 tonnes/year the facility is exempt from reporting to the NPRI.  If the facility produces greater than or equal to 500000 tonnes/year the facility must report to the NPRI regardless of the number of employee hours worked provided that the other threshold criteria are met.

Long Description

The flow chart contains three rows of boxes.

The first row contains one box that reads “Facility”. This box leads to one of two boxes in the second row with a down arrow. That box asks the following question: “Production ≥ 500 000 tonnes/year”.

If the answer is “No”, a left-facing arrow leads to a box that reads “The facility is exempt from reporting to the NPRI”.  If the answer is “Yes”, a down arrow leads to a box that reads: “The facility is required to report to NPRI, regardless of the number of employee hours worded, provided that the other threshold criteria are met.”

Please refer to the NPRI substance listing and Guide for Reporting to the National Pollutant Release Inventory for the detailed reporting criteria and thresholds.

Sources of NPRI substance emissions

The following operations/factors are the most common sources of NPRI substance emissions in pits and quarries operations:

  1. Overburden removal
  2. Boring/blast hole drilling
  3. Blasting
  4. Blasting explosives
  5. Crushing
  6. Screening
  7. Pulverizing
  8. Material handling
  9. Wind erosion of stockpile surfaces
  10. Drying (sand and gravel processing)
  11. Generator equipment (power output up to 600 Hp)
  12. Diesel Generator equipment (power output > 600 Hp)
  13. Combustion of fuels in external combustion equipment
  14. Unpaved road dust
  15. Grading activities
  16. Other releases of NPRI substances from puts and querries processes

The following sections will help you estimate emissions from each of the sources listed above. You are not limited to using the estimation methods and factors outlined on this document; you can use other methods (e.g. direct measurement, site-specific emission factors, etc.) if they are more representative.  Please note that, whatever method you use, it is important to document and keep copies of the required information, together with any calculations, measurements and other data on which the information is based as required in the Gazette Notice.

To assist you, Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) has developed a series of Excel spreadsheets that you can use to estimate air emissions for some of the processes mentioned in this guide. The spreadsheets are based on published default emission factors or emission factor equations for Part 1 through Part 5 substances. Access these spreadsheets on the NPRI Toolbox.

Overburden removal

It is often necessary to remove vegetation, soil and loose rock in order to establish a production face where drilling and/or blasting can take place. The only NPRI substances emitted from this operation are the three sizes of particulate matter (PM). The following emission factor (EF) equations (U.S. EPA, 1998) may be used to estimate the PM emissions from the overburden removal through the use of heavy equipment, such as bulldozers, prior to other operations. The equations require knowledge of the silt content and moisture content of the overburden being moved.

Equations for total particulate matter (TPM), particulate matter ≤ 10 micrometres (PM10) and particulate matter ≤ 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5) emissions from overburden removal are given below:

EF(TPM) = 2.6 (s)1.2 / (M)1.3

EF(PM10) = (0.45 (s)1.5 / (M)1.4) x 0.75

EF(PM2.5) = (2.6 (s)1.2 / (M)1.3) x 0.105

Where

EF is the emission factor for the corresponding PM fraction (kg/hr)

s is the material silt content (%)

M is the average material moisture content (%)

Release estimate

The general equation for estimating emissions is:
PM released (tonnes/yr) = PM emission factor (kg/hr) x annual activity (hr/yr) x (1 tonne/1 000 kg)

Emission factors for these activities are highly variable and depend on assumptions made regarding the type of material, moisture content and control efficiency. As well, you should use these factors with caution and be aware of their limitations; they have been developed through field sampling of various western surface coal mine materials.

Overburden emission control techniques

Particulate matter emissions can be reduced through the use of wind screens, enclosures or water sprays. However, no quantifiable recognized reduction efficiencies are currently available. You may use your own data if it is available. Control techniques reduce PM emissions and, in such cases, percentage emission reduction efficiencies can be applied to the above equations. (See the “Controlled emissions” section of this document for more information.)

Boring/blast hole drilling

The following emission factors (U.S. EPA, 1998; MDAQMD, 2013) may be used to estimate the PM emissions from boring activities in general or from the drilling of charge holes in particular. Drilling equipment is generally powered by internal combustion engines and this method does not account for the exhaust emissions from these sources.

Emission factors for total particulate matter (TPM), particulate matter ≤ 10 micrometres (PM10) and particulate matter ≤ 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5) emissions from drilling are:

EF(TPM) = 0.59

EF(PM10) = 0.31

EF(PM2.5) = 0.31

Where

EF is the emission factor for the corresponding PM fraction (kg/hole)


Please note that the emission factors are based on wet drilling operations.

Release estimate

The method requires an estimate of the number of holes drilled on an annual basis.

The general equation for estimating emissions is:

PM released (tonnes/yr) = PM emission factor (kg /hole) x number of holes drilled per year x (1 tonne/1 000 kg)

Drilling emission control techniques

Enclosures, air return or other control techniques may be used; however, no quantifiable recognized reduction efficiencies are currently available. You may use your own data if it is available. Control techniques reduce PM emissions and, in such cases, percentage emission reduction efficiencies can be applied to the above equations. (See the “Controlled emissions” section of this document for more information.).

Blasting

The following emission factors (U.S. EPA, 1998) may be used to estimate PM emissions from the displacement (fracturing, loosening or shifting) of solid rock through the use of explosives. Please note that you should use these factors only if blasting depth does not exceed 21 meters. In addition, the emission factors have been developed at western surface coal mines.

Emission factors for total particulate matter (TPM), particulate matter ≤ 10 micrometres (PM10) and particulate matter ≤ 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5) emissions from blasting can be calculated as follows:

EF(TPM) = 0.00022 (A)1.5

EF(PM10) = (0.00022 (A)1.5) x 0.52

EF(PM2.5) = (0.00022 (A)1.5) x 0.03

Where

EF is the emission factor for the corresponding PM (kg/blast)

A is the horizontal area (m2), with blasting ≤ depth 21

Release estimate

The method requires an estimate of the number of blasts per year.

The general equation for estimating emissions is:

PM released (tonnes/yr) = PM emission factor (kg /blast) x number of blasts per year x (1 tonne/1 000 kg)

Blasting control techniques

Blast blankets may be used; however, no quantifiable recognized reduction efficiencies are currently available. You may use your own data if it is available. Control techniques reduce PM emissions and, in such cases, percentage emission reduction efficiencies can be applied to the above equations. (See the “Controlled emissions” section of this document for more information)

Blasting explosives

Table 1 below provides emission factors by type of explosive and use. The emission factors for CO, NOx, H2S and SO2 are shown; however, as no emission factors for particulates are available, they are not included in this table.

Table 1. Emission factors for certain explosives used in pits and quarry operations (U.S. EPA, 1980)
Type Composition Uses CO
(kg/tonne)
NOx (kg/tonne) H2S (kg/tonne) SO2 (kg/tonne)
Dynamite,
ammonia
20-60%
Nitroglycerine /
ammonium
nitrate/sodium
nitrate/wood
pulp
Quarry work,
stump blasting
32 ND 16 -
Dynamite,
gelatine
20-100%
Nitroglycerine
Demolition,
construction
work,
blasting in
mines
52 26 2 1
ANFO Ammonium
nitrate with
5.8-8% fuel oil
Construction
work,
blasting in
mines
34 8 - 1

ND: No data

Release estimate

The method requires an estimate of the weight of explosives used.

The general equation for estimating emissions is:

Substance released (tonnes/yr) = substance emission factor (kg /tonne) x weight of explosives used (tonne/yr) x (1 tonne/1 000 kg)

Please note that volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are considered negligible for all explosives. In addition, while particulates are also produced, the quantity of particulates from the explosive charge cannot be distinguished from that generated from the shattering of the rock (see “Blasting” for the calculation of particulates released).

Blasting explosives emission control techniques

While best operational management practices can be used to reduce emissions from blasting operations, there are some additional abatement techniques that could be used such as the addition of neutralizing additives to explosive charges to reduce NOx. You may use your own data if it is available. Control techniques reduce blasting explosive emissions, and, in such cases, percentage emission reduction efficiencies can be applied to the above equations. (See the “Controlled emissions” section of this document for more information.).

Crushing

Crushing emissions are estimated by applying the emission factors shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Emission factors for crushing operations at pit and quarries (U.S. EPA, 2004)
Emission source Source Classifcation Codes (SCC)
EF TPM (kg/tonne) EF PM10 (kg/tonne) EF PM2.5 (kg/tonne)
Primary1, secondary1 and tertiary crushing, uncontrolled2

3-05-020-01,

3-05-020-02,

3-05-020-03

0.0027 0.0012 0.0006 3
Primary1, secondary1 and tertiary crushing, controlled2

3-05-020-01,

3-05-020-02,

3-05-020-03  

0.0006 0.00027 0.00005
Fines crushing, uncontrolled2 3-05-020-05 0.0195 0.0075 ND
Fines crushing, controlled2 3-05-020-05 0.0015 0.0006 0.000035

1 The revised reference section (U.S. EPA, 2004) does not include emission factors for primary and secondary crushing of stone. However, the emission factors for tertiary stone crushing can be used as an upper limit to primary and secondary crushing (U.S EPA, 2003). Controlled emission source employs wet suppression method.

2 Uncontrolled moisture content (0.21-1.3%) and controlled moisture content (0.55-2.88%). (U.S. EPA, 2004)  

 The development of methodology, activity data and emission factors for estimating fugitive particulates from the aggregate mining and rock quarrying (AMEC Earth & Environmental, 2007; U.S. EPA, 2003).

ND: No Data

Release estimate

The method requires an estimate of the annual quantity of material processed through each crusher in the plant.

The general equation for estimating emissions is:

PM released (tonnes/yr) = PM emission factor (kg /tonne) x annual throughput (tonne/yr) x (1 tonne/1000 kg)

Crusher emission control techniques

Table 3 presents the control factor (1-ER) that may be applied to the estimated uncontrolled emissions based on the type of control method employed at the facility for reducing crushing emissions. (See the “Controlled emissions” section of this document for more information on how to apply these factors.)

Table 3. Control factors (1-ER) for methods used to control emissions from crushing (AMEC Earth & Environmental, 2007)
Control Method Control factor (1-ER)
No Control (TCEQ, 2002) 1
Wet Material (TCEQ, 2002) 0.5
Water Spray (MDAQMD, 2013) 0.5
Surfactant (TCEQ, 2002) 0.2
Water Spray and Surfactant (MDAQMD, 2013) 0.25
Partial Enclosure (TCEQ, 2002) 0.15
Full Enclosure (TCEQ, 2002) 0.1
Enclosed by Building (TCEQ, 2002) 0.1
Central Baghouse (MDAQMD, 2013) 0.05
Fabric Filter (MDAQMD, 2013) 0.025
Building under negative pressure (TCEQ, 2002) 0.0

A spreadsheet is available to assist with the calculation of Criteria Air Contaminant (CACs) releases, also known as the Part 4 substances, from crushing operations. The spreadsheet entitled “Crushed Stone Processing” contains emission factors for the following processes: crushing (primary, secondary and tertiary), fines crushing, screening, fines screening, and conveyor transfer points. Access the spreadsheet in the NPRI Toolbox

Screening

Emissions from screening operations are estimated by applying emission factors as shown in Table 4.

Table 4. Emission factors for screening operations at pits and quarries (U.S. EPA, 2004)
Emission source Source Classification Code (SCC)
EF TPM (kg/tonne) EF PM10 (kg/tonne) EF PM2.5 (kg/tonne)
Screening, uncontrolled1

3-05-020-02,

3-05-020-03

0.0125 0.0043 ND
Screening, controlled1

3-05-020-02,

3-05-020-03

0.0011 0.00037 0.000025
Fines screening, uncontrolled1 3-05-020-21 0.15 0.036 ND
Fines screening, controlled1 3-05-020-21 0.0018 0.0011 ND

1 Controlled emission source employs wet suppression method. Uncontrolled moisture content (0.21-1.3%) and controlled moisture content (0.55-2.88%). (U.S. EPA, 2004)

ND: No data

Release estimate

The method requires an estimate of the annual quantity of material processed through each screen.

The general equation for estimating emissions is:

PM released (tonnes/yr) = PM emission factor (kg /tonne) x annual throughput (tonne/yr) x (1 tonne/1000 kg)

Screening emission control techniques

Particulate emissions can be reduced through the use of screens and water sprays. Control techniques reduce PM emissions and, in such cases, percentage emission reduction efficiencies can be applied to the above equations. (See the “Controlled emissions” section of this document for more information on how to apply the control factors.)

Table 5 presents the control factor (1-ER) that may be applied to the estimated uncontrolled emissions based on the type of control method employed at the facility for reducing screening emissions. (See the “Controlled emissions” section of this document for more information.)

Table 5. Control factors (1-ER) for methods used to control emissions from screening (AMEC Earth & Environmental, 2007)
Control Method Control factor (1-ER)
Covered screen 0.5
Covered screen with water spray 0.25
Covered screen with water spray
and surfactant
0.10
Covered screen with control fabric
filter
0.05
Covered screen with insertable filter 0.025

ECCC has developed a spreadsheet calculator that helps estimate the release of CACs from screening operations. The spreadsheet entitled “Crushed Stone Processing” contains emission factors for the following processes: crushing (primary, secondary and tertiary), fines crushing, screening, fines screening and conveyor transfer points. You can access the spreadsheet in the NPRI Toolbox.

Pulverizing

The pulverization process uses material from tertiary screening and produces an end product with diameters ranging from 1 μm to 75 μm. Dry and wet pulverization modes may be used. However, as the use of wet processing is limited in Canada, only dry pulverization is discussed here.

The process description emission sources for the dry mode together with the corresponding emission factors are presented in Table 6.

Table 6. Emission factors for pulverization operations at pits and quarries (U.S. EPA, 2004)
Process description and control technique (Source) Standard Classification Code (SCC) EF TPM (kg/tonne) EF PM10 (kg/tonne) EF PM2.5 (kg/tonne)
Grinding (dry) with fabric filter control 3-05-038-11 0.0202 0.0169 0.006
Classifiers (dry) with fabric filter control 3-05-038-12 0.0112 0.0052 0.002
Flash drying with fabric filter control 3-05-038-35 0.0134 0.0073 0.0042
Product storage with fabric filter control 3-05-038-13 0.0055 0.0008 0.0003

Release estimate

The method requires an estimate of the annual quantity of material processed through the equipment.

The general equation for estimating emissions is as follows:

PM released (tonnes/yr) = PM emission factor (kg /tonne) x annual throughput (tonne/yr) x (1 tonne/1000 kg)

Pulverizing emission control techniques

Emission controls have already been incorporated into the emission factors presented in Table 6 above.

Material handling

Emissions of particulate matter occur during the handling and transfer of material from one process to another within the facility though the use of open storage piles and conveyor belts (transfer points).

Open storage piles

Adding or removing aggregate material to/from a storage pile usually involves dropping the material onto a receiving surface. Truck dumping on the pile or loading out from the pile to a truck with a front-end loader are examples of batch drop operations. Adding material to the pile by a conveyor is an example of a continuous drop operation.

Open area storage piles have numerous potential sources of dust emissions, including

  • pile loading of material (batch or continuous)
  • load out of material from the pile for shipment or return to the process stream (batch or continuous)
  • wind erosion (see “Wind erosion of stockpile surfaces” for more information) and
  • truck or equipment movement around the stockpile (see “Unpaved road dust” for more information

Only emissions from material handling (material loading and unloading) are discussed in this section.

A spreadsheet is available to assist you with estimating the release of CACs from aggregate handling operations in general. The primary variables affecting PM emissions from stockpiles are wind and material moisture. These two variables are included in the spreadsheet entitled “Aggregate Handling Operations”. You can access this spreadsheet in the NPRI Toolbox.

The method to estimate PM emission from material handling uses a predictive emission factor equation (U.S. EPA, 2006):

EF = k * 0.0016 * (U/2.2)1.3 / (M/2)1.4

Where,

EF is the emission factor (kg/tonne)
U is the mean wind speed (m/s)
M is the material moisture content (%)
k is the particle size multiplier:

  • k(TPM) = 0.74
  • k(PM10) = 0.35
  • k(PM2.5) = 0.053

Release estimate

The input information needed to estimate emissions is the mean wind speed, material moisture content and total quantity of material processed for each storage pile.

The general equation for estimating emissions is as follows:

PM released (tonnes/yr) = PM emission factor (kg /tonne) x quantity of material handled per year (tonne/yr) x (1 tonne/1000 kg)

Storage pile emission control techniques

These emission factors are based on uncontrolled emissions. If you are using an emission control device or method, you will have to adjust the emissions calculated by this spreadsheet accordingly. (See the “Controlled emissions” section of this document for more information.)

Conveyor belt transfer points

The emission factors employed for PM emissions from conveyor belt transfer points (where a stream of material makes an abrupt change in direction or a change to another elevation) are presented in Table 7. PM emissions occur when material is transferred from one conveyor belt to another (discharge chutes).

Table 7. Emission factors for conveyor belt transfer points (U.S. EPA 2004).
Process description and control technique (Source) Standard Classification Code (SCC) EF TPM (kg/tonne) EF PM10 (kg/tonne) EF PM2.5 (kg/tonne)
Conveyor transfer point (uncontrolled) 3-05-020-06 0.0015 0.00055 ND
Conveyor transfer point (controlled)1 3-05-020-06 0.00007 2.3 x 10-5 6.5 x 10-6

1 Controlled emission source employs wet suppression method. Uncontrolled moisture content (0.21-1.3%) and controlled moisture content (0.55-2.88%). (U.S. EPA 2004).

ND: No data

ECCC has developed a spreadsheet calculator to help estimate the release of CACs from transfer point operations. The spreadsheet entitled “Crushed Stone Processing” contains emission factors for the following processes: crushing (primary, secondary and tertiary), fines crushing, screening, fines screening and conveyor transfer points. You can access the spreadsheet in the NPRI Toolbox.

Transfer point emission control techniques

These emission factors are based on wet controlled and uncontrolled emissions. If you use your own emission control devices with known overall reduction efficiency, you will have to adjust the emissions calculated by this spreadsheet accordingly. (See the “Controlled emissions” section of this document for more information on how to take into account other emission controls).

Wind erosion of stockpile surfaces

The stockpiles and exposed area wind erosion guidance and emission calculator maybe used to estimate the releases to air, due to wind erosion from active stockpiles and exposed areas which are disturbed at least once during the reporting year.  

Stockpiles are defined as being either elevated (with a height-to-base ratio greater than 0.2), or non-elevated (flat) (with a height-to-base ratio of 0.2 or less). This distinction is based on the US EPA definitions in AP-42 Section 13.2.5 (US EPA, 2006b).

For elevated stockpiles (whether frequently or infrequently disturbed) and infrequently disturbed flat stockpiles (flat stockpiles that are disturbed less than once per week), the Emissions Calculator uses an empirical formulation to estimate the emission factor that is consistent with the approach detailed in Chapter 9 of the WRAP Fugitive Dust Handbook (WRAP, 2006) and the MDAQMD Guidance for Mineral Handling and Processing Industries (MDAQMD 2013). This method is referenced in the Stockpiles and exposed area wind erosion guidance and emission calculator as Method A.

For large, flat exposed areas that are frequently disturbed (at least once per week), the stockpiles and exposed area wind erosion guidance and emission calculator uses the method detailed in US EPA AP-42 Section 13.2.5 (US EPA, 2006b).  This method (Method B) provides a more accurate estimate as it considers the number of disturbances per year and the erosion potential of the stockpile. The method calculates the total emissions between pile disturbances, and the total annual emission factor is calculated as the sum of the individual erosion events.

Release Estimate

The input information needed to estimate emissions is the exposed surface area of each storage pile along with details about stockpiled materials, meteorological data and applied wind erosion emission control techniques (if any). Information on how to determine and apply these inputs is provided in the stockpiles and exposed area wind erosion guidance and emission calculator.

The general equation for estimating PM emissions is as follows:

PM released (tonnes/yr) = PM emission factor (kg/m2) x exposed surface area of stockpile (m2) x (1 tonne/1000 kg)

Drying process (sand and gravel processing)

Generally, sand and gravel materials are wet and moist when they are handled, and some of their processing operations involve washing, froth flotation and drainage. The material goes through driers to reduce its moisture content. The driers are generally fired with natural gas or oil. Emission factors for some of the NPRI substances are presented in Tables 8 and 9.

Table 8. Emission factors for drying processes at pit and quarries (U.S. EPA, 1995)
Source Source Classification Code (SCC)
Total PM (kg/tonne) NOx
(kg/tonne)
Sand dryer
3-05-027-20 0.98 0.016
Sand dryer with wet scrubber
3-05-027-20 0.019 0.016
Sand dryer with fabric filter
3-05-027-20 0.0053 0.016
Sand handling, transfer, and storage
with wet scrubber
3-05-027-60 0.00064 ND
Sand screening with venturi scrubber
3-05-027-13 0.0042 ND

ND: No data

Table 9. Emission factors for diesel-fired rotary sand dryer with fabric filter (SCC 3-05-027-22) (U.S. EPA, 1995)
CAS number Name EF (kg/tonne)
50-00-0 Formaldehyde 0.0021
206-44-0 Fluoranthene 3.0 x 10-6
91-20-3 Naphthalene 2.9 x 10-5
85-01-8 Phenanthrene 7.5 x 10-6

Release estimate

The input information needed to estimate emissions is the annual quantity of material processed (dried).

The general equation for estimating emissions is as follows:

Substance released (tonnes/yr) = Substance emission factor (kg /tonne) x Annual quantity of material processed (tonnes) x (1 tonne/1000 kg)

Generators (power output up to 600 horsepower)

ECCC has developed several spreadsheets to assist you with estimating the releases of NPRI substances from generators (reciprocating engines) using gasoline and diesel fuel. You can access these spreadsheets in the NPRI Toolbox.

The spreadsheets names together with the Source Classification Codes (SCC) corresponding to the processes mentioned in the spreadsheets are described Table 10 below.

Table 10. Emission factors for generators with up to 600 hp power output
Process description (source) Source Classification Codes (SCC)
Input information Spreadsheet name
Distillate oil (diesel) / reciprocating

2-02-001-02

2-03-001-01

Fuel usage Diesel fuel generator - fuel usage
Distillate oil (diesel) / reciprocating

2-02-001-02

2-03-001-01

Hours of operation Diesel fuel generator - hours of operation
Gasoline / reciprocating

2-02-003-01

2-03-003-01

 

Fuel usage
Gasoline generator - fuel usage
Gasoline / reciprocating

2-02-003-01

2-03-003-01

 

Hours of operation Gasoline generator - hours of operation

For each fuel type, the input information may be either fuel usage or hours of operation.

The spreadsheets for “Diesel fuel generator” (fuel usage and hours) can be used to calculate emissions from diesel fuel generators with up to 600 horsepower.

The spreadsheets contain default heating values for diesel fuel and gasoline. You may change these values if site-specific values are available.

Diesel Generator equipment (power output > 600 Hp)

Large diesel stationary internal combustion engines are those that may operate at more than 600 horsepower and can be used to generate power for equipment such as crushers and screens, especially in remote areas.

A spreadsheet has been designed to assist you with estimating the releases of NPRI substances from the combustion of diesel fuel in a large stationary engines (greater than 600 horsepower) (Source Classification Code (SCC): 2-02-004-01). The calculator uses fuel usage as the input information. Only NPRI substances for which the emission factors are available are included in the “Large stationary diesel engine (>600 hp)” spreadsheet calculator. You can access the spreadsheet in the NPRI Toolbox.

Combustion of fuels in external combustion equipment

The NPRI Toolbox provides Excel spreadsheets for estimating releases from external combustion equipment using various fuel types. The spreadsheets include available AP-42 and WebFIRE emission factors for Part 1 through Part 5 substances for those covered processes. For example, you can access spreadsheets for the combustion of anthracite coal, natural gas, and fuel oil fuel oils in the NPRI Toolbox.

Unpaved road dust

Since 2007, facilities have had to report emissions from unpaved roads. Gravel surfaced roads, thin membrane bituminous surface treatments and bituminous cold mix surfaces are considered to be unpaved roads. If a dust suppressant is applied to an unpaved road, this segment of road is still considered to be an unpaved road surface. The reporting threshold for including PM, PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from road dust is more than 10,000 vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT) on unpaved surfaces within the contiguous facility in a given year. A guidance document has been created to help facilities report road dust emissions from unpaved surfaces to the NPRI. A calculator has also been developed to estimate dust emissions due to vehicular traffic on unpaved roads within the facility. You can access the guidance and spreadsheet via the NPRI Toolbox.

Grading activities

Grading involves the removal or leveling of loose road material (on unpaved roads) by scraping and planing. The emission factors for releases of PM from grading (kg/VKT) are calculated using the mean vehicle speed of the grader (U.S. EPA, 1998). The use of any emission control techniques by a facility can also be factored into the final emission estimate.

EF(TPM) = 0.0034 x (S)2.5

EF(PM10) = 0.60 x (0.0056 x (S)2.0)

EF(PM2.5) = 0.031 x (0.0034 x (S)2.5)

Where,

EF is the emission factor for the corresponding PM fraction (kg/VKT)
S is the mean vehicle operational speed (km/h)

Release estimate

The method requires an estimate of the annual kilometers of road graded (VKT).

The general equation for estimating emissions is as follows:

PM released (tonnes/yr) = PM emission factor (kg /VKT) x VKT (km travelled) x (1 tonne/1 000 kg)

Other releases of NPRI substances from process at pits and quarries

Some of the processes may involve the use of chemical substances (chemical wetting agents) that may end up in the environment. These processes may also release other NPRI substances. It is therefore important to determine if those NPRI substances meet the required thresholds and, if they do, to report them accordingly.

Controlled emissions

Particulate emissions can be reduced through the use of equipment. Emission control techniques and, where applicable, percentage emission reduction efficiencies are applied to the uncontrolled emission estimates using:

Ec = E x (1-ER/100)

Where,

Ec is the controlled emissions
E is the uncontrolled emissions
ER is the overall emission reduction efficiency, %

References

  • [AMEC Earth & Environmental, 2007] The development of methodology, activity data and emission factors for estimating fugitive particulates from the aggregate mining and rock quarrying sector - Final Report. Submitted to Environment Canada.  (Environment Canada Internal Report)
  • [MDAQMD, 2013] Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District, Antelope Valley Air Pollution Control District, Emissions Inventory Guidance, Mineral Handling Handbook and Processing Industries, April, 2013
  • [TCEQ, 2002] Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. 2002. Rock Crushing Plants: Technical Guidance for Rock Crushing Plants. Air Permits Division, Austin TX.
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  • [U.S EPA, 1995] United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1995.  AP-42, Fifth Edition Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors, Volume 1: Stationary Point and Area Sources, Chapter 11, Mineral Products Industry, section 11.19.1: Sand & Gravel Processing.  Available on-line at: AP-42, CH 11.19.1: Sand And Gravel Processing (epa.gov).
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  • [U.S EPA, 2003] United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2003.  AP-42, Fifth Edition Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors, Volume 1: Stationary Point and Area Sources, Chapter 11, Mineral Products Industry, section 11.19.2: Crushed Stone Processing and Pulverized Mineral Processing; Background Document.  Available on-line at: AP-42 Background Document, Section 11.19.2 Crushed Stone Processing (epa.gov).
  • [U.S EPA, 2004] United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2004.  AP-42, Fifth Edition Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors, Volume 1: Stationary Point and Area Sources, Chapter 11, Mineral Products Industry, section 11.19.2: Crushed Stone Processing and Pulverized Mineral Processing.  Available on-line at: AP-42 Section 11.19.2 Crushed Stone Processing and Pulverized Mineral Processing (epa.gov).
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