# Wood products operations

Wood products operations include sawmills, lumber mills, panel board mills and wood product manufacturing facilities. They release criteria air contaminants (CACs), dioxins and furans, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB).

This tool calculates emissions from cyclones and baghouses used with dry wood chippers, dry wood handling, green wood material handling, miscellaneous wood handling, planers, saws and silos, as well as from lumber kilns, wood residue fired boilers and wood waste conical burners. Other documents that may help calculate releases from other processes at these facilities, such as from the combustion of distillate fuel oil (no. 2 oil) in industrial boilers, have not been incorporated in this tool.

The calculator focusses on releases to air and uses default emission factors. It can be adapted to use site-specific emission factors if they are available. If you want to use a site-specific emission factor, enter it in the emission factor column, but be sure to convert the units correctly.

The spreadsheet calculators use emission factors based on uncontrolled emission sources. If you use an emission control device and the default emission factor is uncontrolled, use this formula to adjust the spreadsheet calculation:

Controlled emissions = uncontrolled emission x ((100 - control efficiency)/100)

Since NPRI reporting thresholds are for the facility as a whole, you may need to combine the air releases you calculate with releases from other sources at your facility.

The following sections explain how the spreadsheet calculator works.

## Suggested estimation methodology: emission factor

The general equation for estimation using an emission factor is:

E = A x EF

where:

• E = emissions
• A = activity rate
• EF = emission factor

## Lumber kilns

### Input data

DLP = dried lumber production [thousand board feet (MBF)]
TP = Percentage of tree type [percent (%)]

Tree types include: black spruce, jack pine, lodgepole pine, red pine, white spruce

## Substance releases

### Part 1 releases

A = (DLP x TP)/1000

Black spruce

Substance Chemical Abstracts Service registry number (CAS RN)1 Emission factor (EF)(2)
EF Units
Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 0.0485 kilograms (kg)/MBF
Acrolein 107-02-8 0.000359 kg/MBF
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 0.0027 kg/MBF
Methanol 67-56-1 0.0522 kg/MBF

Lodgepole pine

Substance Chemical Abstracts Service registry number (CAS RN)1 Emission factor (EF)Footnote 3 EF Units
Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 0.033 kg/MBF
Acrolein 107-02-8 0.000925 kg/MBF
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 0.0023 kg/MBF
Methanol 67-56-1 0.034 kg/MBF

White spruce

Substance Chemical Abstracts Service registry number (CAS RN)1 Emission factor (EF)Footnote 4 EF Units
Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 0.03 kg/MBF
Acrolein 107-02-8 0.0007 kg/MBF
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 0.005 kg/MBF
Methanol 67-56-1 0.064 kg/MBF

### Part 4 releases

A = DLP x TP

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions [tonne VOC as carbon (C)/yr]

Wood species Emission factor (EF)Footnote 5 EF Units
Black spruce 0.2 kg VOC as C /MBF
Jack pine 0.44 kg VOC as C /MBF
Lodgepole pine 0.43 kg VOC as C /MBF
Red pine 0.94 kg VOC as C /MBF
White spruce 0.247 kg VOC as C /MBF

### Part 5 releases

A = (DLP x TP)/1000

Black spruce
Substance Chemical Abstracts Service registry number (CAS RN)1 Emission factor (EF)Footnote 2 EF Units
Alpha-pinene 80-56-8 0.0753 kg/MBF
Beta-phellandrene 555-10-2 0.0054 kg/MBF
Beta-pinene 127-91-3 0.0240 kg/MBF
Ethanol 64-17-5 0.0054 kg/MBF
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 0.0027 kg/MBF
Methanol 67-56-1 0.0522 kg/MBF
Myrcene 123-35-3 0.0050 kg/MBF

Lodgepole pine
Substance Chemical Abstracts Service registry number (CAS RN)1 Emission factor (EF)Footnote 3 EF Units
Alpha-pinene 80-56-8 0.0535 kg/MBF
Beta-phellandrene 555-10-2 0.1650 kg/MBF
Beta-pinene 127-91-3 0.0240 kg/MBF
Ethanol 64-17-5 0.0190 kg/MBF
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 0.0023 kg/MBF
Methanol 67-56-1 0.0340 kg/MBF
Myrcene 123-35-3 0.0091 kg/MBF

White spruce
Substance Chemical Abstracts Service registry number (CAS RN)1 Emission factor (EF)Footnote 4 EF Units
Alpha-pinene 80-56-8 0.0580 kg/MBF
Beta-phellandrene 555-10-2 0.0090 kg/MBF
Beta-pinene 127-91-3 0.0660 kg/MBF
Ethanol 64-17-5 0.0160 kg/MBF
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 0.0050 kg/MBF
Methanol 67-56-1 0.0640 kg/MBF
Myrcene 123-35-3 0.0090 kg/MBF

## Wood handling sources

### Input data

WHS = wood handling sources [oven dry tonne (ODT) or thousand board feet (MBF)]

Wood handling sources include: dry wood chipper [ODT], dry wood material handling (cyclones, dry wood residue) [ODT], green wood material handling (cyclones, green/wet wood residue) [ODT], miscellaneous wood handling (cyclones, mixed wood residues) [MBF], planer [ODT], saw [ODT] and silo [MBF].

## Substance releases

### Part 4 releases

The activity rate for wood handling sources is the amount of wood product from each source. Emissions must be calculated individually for each input and summed for each substance.

A = WHS/1000

Total particulate matter (TPM) [tonnes]Footnote **

Equipment Emission factor (EF)Footnote 5 EF Units
Dry wood chipper 1.18E-01 kg/ODT
Dry wood material handling (cyclones, dry wood residue) 9.14E-01 kg/ODT
Green wood material handling (cyclones, green/wet wood residue) 9.63E-03 kg/ODT
Miscellaneous wood handling (cyclones, mixed wood residues) 2.04E-02 kg/MBF
Planer 6.51E-01 kg/ODT
Saw 3.15E-02 kg/ODT
Silo 1.19E-02 kg/MBF

Particulate matter less than or equal to 10 microns (PM 10) [tonnes]Footnote **

Equipment Emission factor (EF)Footnote 5 EF Units
Dry wood chipper 9.10E-02 kg/ODT
Dry wood material handling (cyclones, dry wood residue) 6.16E-01 kg/ODT
Planer 1.52E-01 kg/ODT

Particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 microns (PM 2.5) [tonnes]Footnote **

Equipment Emission factor (EF)Footnote 5 EF Units
Dry wood chipper 8.00E-03Footnote * kg/ODT
Dry wood material handling (cyclones, dry wood residue) 9.75E-02 kg/ODT
Planer 3.61E-02 kg/ODT

A kg/ODT refers to one kilogram of compound per oven dried metric ton of wood material sent to the wood handling system (e.g., cyclone) and, if applicable, the control device (e.g., baghouse).

## Wood residue-fired boilers

### Input data

LT = lumber throughput [MBF]
BE = boiler energy (default ratio: 2.50) [million British thermal units (MMBtu)/MBF lumber dried]
BH = boiler heat input [MMBtu/yr]

A = (LT x BE x 1055056000)/1000 or A = (BH x 1055056000)/1000

## Substance releases

### Part 1 releases

Part 1 releases

Substance Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number (CAS RN)1 Emission factor (EF)Footnote 5 EF Units
Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 1.22E-13 kg/joule (J)
Acrolein 107-02-8 1.12E-13 kg/J
Benzene 71-43-2 4.21E-13 kg/J
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 4.51E-13 kg/J
Isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol) 67-63-0 1.94E-12 kg/J
Methanol 67-56-1 3.14E-13 kg/J
Methylene chloride (dichloromethane) 75-09-2 1.71E-13 kg/J
Napthalene 91-20-3 4.28E-14 kg/J
n-Butyraldehyde (butyraldehyde) 123-72-8 6.88E-14 kg/J
n-Hexane 110-54-3 1.24E-13 kg/J

### Part 4 releases

Carbon monoxide (630-08-0Footnote 1 )

Boiler configuration Emission factor (EF)Footnote 5 EF Units
Fluidized bed combustor 3.13E-11 kg/J
Fuel cell or dutch oven 1.91E-10 kg/J
Stoker combustor 3.11E-10 kg/J
Suspension burner 7.61E-11 kg/J

Oxides of nitrogen (NOx), expressed as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (11104-93-1Footnote 1)

Wood type Emission factor (EF)Footnote 5 EF Units
Clean wet wood (20% moisture) 9.11E-11 kg/J
Wood with UF resins 3.40E-10 kg/J

Total particulate matter (TPM)Footnote **

Control device Emission factor (EF)Footnote 5 EF Units
Fabric filter 4.30E-11 kg/J
Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) 7.48E-12 kg/J
Mechanical collector with fly ash reinjection 7.52E-11 kg/J
Mechanical collector without fly ash reinjection 7.52E-11 kg/J
Wet scrubber 2.84E-11 kg/J

Particulate matter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (µm) (PM10)Footnote **

Control device Emission factor (EF)Footnote 5 EF Units
Fabric filter 3.18E-11 kg/J
Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) 5.53E-12
kg/J
Mechanical collector with fly ash reinjection 6.84E-11
kg/J
Mechanical collector without fly ash reinjection 2.41E-11
kg/J
Wet scrubber 2.78E-11
kg/J

Particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 (µm) (PM2.5)Footnote **

Control device Emission factor (EF)Footnote 5 EF Units
Fabric filter 2.80E-11 kg/J
Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) 3.07E-12
kg/J
Mechanical collector with fly ash reinjection 4.06E-11
kg/J
Mechanical collector without fly ash reinjection 1.20E-11
kg/J
Wet scrubber 2.78E-11
kg/J

Other substances

Substance Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number (CAS RN)Footnote 1 Emission factor (EF)Footnote 5 EF Units
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) 7446-09-5 4.690E-12 kg/J
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 1.660E-12 kg/J

### Part 5 releases

Part 5 releases
Substance Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number (CAS RN)Footnote 1 Emission factor (EF)Footnote 5 EF Units
Benzene 71-43-2 4.21E-13 kg/J
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 4.51E-13 kg/J
Isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol) 67-63-0 1.94E-12 kg/J
Methanol 67-56-1 3.14E-13 kg/J
n-Hexane 110-54-3 1.24E-13 kg/J

## Wood waste incinerators or conical burners

### Input data

LT = lumber throughput [thousand board feet (MBF)]
RWP = residual wood production (default ratio: 0.50) [as-is tonne residual/MBF]
MC = moisture content (default : 50%) [percent]
ODT = lumber throughput [oven dry tonnes]
AIT = residual wood production [as-is tonnes]

## Substance releases

Part 1 releases
A = ((LT x RWP)/(1+MC) x 1.5)/1000Footnote ***  or A = (ODT + (AIT/(1+MC)) ) x 1.5/1000Footnote ***

Substance Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number (CAS RN)Footnote 1 Emission factor (EF)Footnote 5 EF Units
Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 0.00128 kg/tonne wood burned as is
Acrolein 107-02-8 0.0012 kg/tonne wood burned as is
Benzene 71-43-2 0.0044 kg/tonne wood burned as is
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 0.0047 kg/tonne wood burned as is
Isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol) 67-63-0 0.0203 kg/tonne wood burned as is
Methanol 67-56-1 0.0033 kg/tonne wood burned as is
Methylene chloride (dichloromethane) 75-09-2 0.0018 kg/tonne wood burned as is
Napthalene 91-20-3 0.0004 kg/tonne wood burned as is
n-Butyraldehyde (butyraldehyde) 123-72-8 0.0007 kg/tonne wood burned as is
n-Hexane 110-54-3 0.0013 kg/tonne wood burned as is

Part 3 releases
A = (LT x RWP)/(1+MC) or A = ODT + (AIT/(1+MC))

Substance Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number (CAS RN)Footnote 1 Emission factor (EF)Footnote 5 EF Units
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 1746-01-6 1.04E-09 g/ODT
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 40321-76-4 1.45E-09 g/ODT
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 39227-28-6 9.51E-10 g/ODT
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 19408-74-3 1.53E-09 g/ODT
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 57653-85-7 2.29E-09 g/ODT
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 35822-46-9 1.07E-08 g/ODT
Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 3268-87-9 2.69E-08 g/ODT
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran 51207-31-9 8.78E-09 g/ODT
2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran 57117-31-4 6.65E-09 g/ODT
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran 57117-41-6 4.37E-09 g/ODT
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran 70648-26-9 3.91E-09 g/ODT
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzofuran 72918-21-9 7.32E-10 g/ODT
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran 57117-44-9 3.47E-09 g/ODT
2,3,4,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran 60851-34-5 2.91E-09 g/ODT
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzofuran 67562-39-4 6.23E-09 g/ODT
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-Heptachlorodibenzofuran 55673-89-7 8.72E-10 g/ODT
Octachlorodibenzofuran 39001-02-0 5.46E-09 g/ODT
Hexachlorobenzene 118-74-1 No information not available

g/ODT = grams per oven-dried metric tons

Part 4 releases
A = (LT x RWP)/(1+MC) x 1.5 Footnote *** or A = ODT + (AIT/(1+MC)) x1.5Footnote ***

Substance Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number (CAS RN)Footnote 1 Emission factor (EF)Footnote l Footnote 6 EF Units
Carbon monoxide (CO) 630-08-0 0.065 tonnes/tonne
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) 7446-09-5 0.00005 tonnes/tonne
Oxides of nitrogen, expressed as NO2 (NOx) 11104-93-1 0.0005 tonnes/tonne
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 0.0055 tonnes/tonne

Total particulate matter (TPM)Footnote **

Burner operation type Emission factor (EF)Footnote 6 EF Units
SatisfactoryFootnote l 0.0005 tonnes/tonne
UnsatisfactoryFootnote ll 0.0035 tonnes/tonne
Very unsatisfactoryFootnote lll 0.01 tonnes/tonne

Part 5 releases
A = ((LT x RWP)/(1+MC) ) x 1.5/1000 Footnote ***  or A = (ODT + (AIT/(1+MC)) ) x 1.5/1000Footnote ***

Substance Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number (CAS RN)Footnote 1 Emission factor (EF)Footnote 5 EF Units
Benzene 71-43-2 0.0044 kg/tonne wood burned as is
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 0.0047 kg/tonne wood burned as is
Isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol) 67-63-0 0.0203 kg/tonne wood burned as is
Methanol 67-56-1 0.0033 kg/tonne wood burned as is
n-Hexane 110-54-3 0.0013 kg/tonne wood burned as is