Enhanced Fujita scale damage indicators and degrees of damage, chapter 2

One- or Two- Family Residences: 100-500m2 (FR12)

Typical Construction:

  • Asphalt shingles, tile, slate or metal roof covering
  • Flat, gable, hip, mansard or mono-sloped roof or combinations thereof
  • Plywood/Oriented Strand Board (OSB) or wood plank roof deck
  • Prefabricated wood trusses or wood joist and rafter construction
  • Brick veneer, wood panels, stucco, Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems (EIFS) vinyl or metal siding
  • Wood or metal stud walls, concrete blocks or insulating-concrete panels
  • Attached single or double garage


  • Includes modular homes; if unanchored, use lower-bound wind speed for Degree of Damage 5 (DODx).
  • With hip roof, increase toward upper-bound wind speed for DOD4 and DOD6
Table 2. Degree of Damage (DOD) for Expected (EXP), Lower Bound (LB) and Upper Bound (UB)
DOD Damage Description EXP LB UB
1 Threshold of visible damage 105 85 130
2 Loss of roof covering material (up to 20%), gutters and/or awning; loss of vinyl or metal siding 125 100 155
3 Broken glass in doors and windows 155 125 185
4 Uplift of roof deck and loss of significant roof covering material (more than20%); collapse of chimney; garage doors collapse inward; failure of porch or carport 155 130 185
5 Entire house shifts off foundation 195 165 225
6 Large sections of roof structure removed (more than 50%); most walls remain standing 195 165 230
7 Exterior walls collapsed 210 180 245
8 Most walls collapsed, except small interior rooms 245 205 285
9 All walls collapsed 275 230 320
10 Destruction of engineered and/or well-constructed residence; slab swept clean 320 265 355

*All wind speeds in km/h

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