Western toad (Bufo boreas) COSEWIC assessment and status report: chapter 14
Adam, M.D., and M.J. Lacki. 1993. Factors affecting amphibian use of road-rut ponds in Daniel Boone National Forest. Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science 54:13-16.
Bartelt, P. E., and C. R. Peterson. 1994. Riparian habitat utilization by Western Toads (Bufo boreas) and spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) on the Targee National Forest. USDA Forest Service Contract #INT-93780-CCSA Final Report.
Beasley, B.A., C. Addison, and K. Lucas. 2000. Clayoquot Sound Amphibian Inventory 1998-1999. Unpublished Report. The Long Beach Model Forest Society, Ucluelet, B.C.
Bellis, E.D. 1962. The influence of humidity on wood frog activity. American Midland Naturalist 68:139-148.
Berger, L., R. Speare, P. Daszak, D.E. Green, A.A. Cunningham, C.L. Goggin, R. Slocombe, M.A. Ragan, A.D. Hyatt, K.R. McDonald, H.B. Hines, K.R. Lips, G. Marantelli, and H. Parkes. 1998. Chytridiomycosis causes amphibian mortality associated with population declines in the rain forests of Australia and Central America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA 95:9031-9036.
Berven, K. A. 1990. Factors affecting population fluctuations in larval and adult stages of the wood frog (Rana sylvatica). Ecology 71:1599-1608.
Black, J.H., and J.N. Black. 1969. Postmetamorphic basking aggregations of the boreal toad, Bufo boreas boreas. The Canadian Field Naturalist 83:155-156.
Black, J.H., and R.B. Brunson. 1971. Breeding behavior of the boreal toad, Bufo boreas boreas (Baird and Girard), in western Montana. Great Basin Naturalist 31:109-113.
Blaustein, A.R., D.G. Hokit, R.K. O’Hara, and R.A. Holt. 1994a. Pathogenic fungus contributes to amphibian losses in the Pacific Northwest. Biological Conservation 67:251-254.
Blaustein, A.R., P.D. Hoffman, D.G. Hokit, J.M. Kiesecker, S.C. Walls, and J.B. Hays. 1994b. UV repair and resistance to solar UV-B in amphibian eggs: A link to population declines? Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 91:1791-1795.
Blaustein, A.R., J.J. Beatty, D.H. Olson, and R.M. Storm. 1995. The biology of amphibians and reptiles in old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-337. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR.
Brattstrom, B.H. 1963. A preliminary review of the thermal requirements of amphibians. Ecology 44:238-255.
Bridges, C.M. 2000. Long-term effects of pesticide exposure at various life stages of the southern Leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 39:91-96.
Brinkman, S. 1998. Boreal toad toxicology studies. In, Colorado Division of Wildlife Boreal toad Research Progress Report 1995-1997. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO.
British Columbia Wildlife Act 1982. Wildlife Branch, Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, B.C.
Campbell, J.B. 1970. Life history of Bufo boreas boreas on the Colorado Front Range. PhD. Dissertation. University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.
Carey, C. 1978. Factors affecting body temperatures of toads. Oecologia 35:197-219.
Carey, C. 1993. Hypothesis concerning the causes of the disappearance of boreal toads from the mountains of Colorado. Conservation Biology 7:355-362.
Carl, G.C. 1944. The natural history of the Forbidden Plateau area, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Report of the Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the Year 1943, Victoria:18-40.
Carpenter, C.C. 1954. A study of amphibian movement in the Jackson Hole Wildlife Park. Copeia 1954:197-200.
Cook, F.R. 1977. Records of the boreal toad from the Yukon and northern British Columbia. The Canadian Field Naturalist 91:185-186.
Cook, F.R. 1983. An analysis of toads of the Bufo americanus group in a contact zone in central northern North America. National Museums of Canada Publications in Natural Sciences Number 3.
Corkran, C., and C. Thoms. 1996. Amphibians of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. A Field Identification Guide. Lone Pine Publishing, Vancouver, B.C.
Corn, P.S. 1994. What we know and don’t know about amphibian declines in the west. Pp 59-67, In, Covington, W.W., and L.F. DeBanco. (ed.s). Sustainable Ecological Systems: Implementing and Ecological Approach to Land Management. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-247. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ft. Collins, Colorado.
Corn, P.S. 1998. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on boreal toads in Colorado. Ecological Applications. 8:18-26.
Corn, P.S., W. Stolzenburg, and R.B. Bury. 1989. Acid precipitation studies in Colorado and Wyoming: interim report of surveys of montane amphibians and water chemistry. Biological Report 80 (40.26). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.
Daszak, P., L. Berger, A.A. Cunningham, A.D. Hyatt, D.E. Green, and R. Speare. 1999. Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5: 735-748.
Davis, T.M. 2000. Ecology of the Western Toad (Bufo boreas) in forested areas on Vancouver Island. Final Report. Forest Renewal B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Devito, J., D.P. Chivers, J.M. Kiesecker, A. Marco, E.L. Wildy, and A.R. Blaustein. 1998. The effects of snake predation on metamorphosis of Western Toads, Bufo boreas (Amphibia, Bufonidae). Ethology 104:185-193.
Drost, C.A., and G.M. Fellers. 1996. Collapse of a regional frog fauna in the Yosemite area of the California Sierra Nevada, USA. Conservation Biology 10:414-425.
Dupuis, L.A., J.N.M. Smith, and F.L. Bunnell. 1995. Relation of terrestrial-breeding amphibian abundance to tree-stand age. Conservation Biology 9:645-653.
Dupuis, L.A. 1998. The effect of various silvicultural treatments on amphibian assemblages of the Robert’s Creek watershed. Ministry of Forests, Vancouver Region. Interim report.
Eaton, B.R., C. Grekul, and C. Paszkowski. 1999. An observation of interspecific amplexus between boreal, Bufo boreas, and Canadian, B. hemiophrys, toads, with a range extension for the boreal toad in central Alberta. Canadian Field Naturalist 113:512-513.
Erhardt, K. 1996. Western Toad, Bufo boreas. Animals of the Environmental Studies Area, California State University, Bakersfield, CA. http://www.csubak.edu/fact/bufo.html
Feder, M.E. 1983. Integrating the ecology and physiology of plethodontid salamanders. Herpetologica 39:291-310.
Ford, L.S. and D.C. Canatella. 1993. The major clades of frogs. Herpetological Monographs 7:94-117.
Franklin, J.F. 1988. Structural and functional diversity in temperate forests. In Biodiversity. Edited by E.O. Wilson. National Academy Press, Wahsington, D.C. Pp. 166-175.
Friend, G.R., and K.M. Cellier. 1990. Wetland herpetofauna of Kakadu National park, Australia: seasonal richness trends, habitat preferences and the effects of feral ungulates. Journal of Tropical Ecology 6:131-152.
Gibbs, J.P. 2000. Wetland loss and biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology 14:314-317.
Goebel, A.M. 1999. Phylogeny of the Southern Rocky Mountain group of Bufo boreas based on mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear AFLP data. In, Jones, M.S. (ed.) Colorado Division of Wildlife Boreal Toad Research Progress Report 1998. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO.
Green, D.M. 1975. Reptiles and Amphibians of Shuswap area 1975. Unpublished Report, British Columbia Parks Branch, Victoria.
Green, D., and W. Campbell. 1984. Amphibians of British Columbia. Royal B.C. Museum Handbook. Victoria.
Groff, J.M., A. Mughannam, T.S. McDowell, A. Wong, M.J. Dykstra, F.L. Frye, and R.P. Hedrick. 1991. An epizootic of cutaneous zygomycosis in cultured dwarf African clawed frogs (Hymenochirus cuttipes) due to Basidiobolus ranarum. Journal of Medical Veterinary Mycology 29:215-23.
Gyug, L. 1996. Part IV Amphibians. In, Timber harvesting effects on riparian wildlife and vegetation in the Okanagan Highlands of British Columbia. B.C. Environment, Penticton, B.C.
Hallock, L.A., and W.P. Leonard. 1997. Herpetofauna of Fort Lewis Military Reservation, Pierce and Thurston Counties, Washington. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.
Hardy, G.A. 1949. A report on the study of Jordan Meadows, Vancouver Island. Report of the Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the Year 1948, Victoria:20-46.
Haycock, R.D., and D. Knopp. 1998. Amphibian survey with special emphasis on the Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa). Selected wetland sites: Fraser River Lowlands and corridors to the interior Plateau. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. Draft report.
Hays, J.B., A.R. Blaustein, J.M. Kiesecker, P.D. Hoffman, I. Pandelova, D. Coyle, and T. Richardson. 1996. Developmental responses of amphibians to solar and artificial UVB sources: A comparative study. Photochemistry and Photobiology 64:449-456.
Hengeveld, P.E. 2000. Presence and distribution of amphibians in the Williston and Dinosaur Reservoir watersheds. Peace/Williston Fish and Wildlife Compensation Program Report No. 212.
Hillman, S.S. 1980. Physiological correlates of differential dehydration tolerance in anuran amphibians Copeia 1980:125-129.
Hollister, N. 1912. List of reptiles and batrachians of the Alpine Club Expedition to the Mount Robson region. Canadian Alpine Journal, 4 (special number):45-46.
Huey, R.B. 1980. Sprint velocity of tadpoles (Bufo boreas) through metamorphosis. Copeia 1980:537-540.
Ireland, T. 1997. Notice of Availability of the Draft Conservation Strategy for the Southern Rocky Mountain Population of the Boreal Toad for Review and Comment. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. http://www.xmission.com/~gastown/herpmed/boreal.htm
Jameson, D.L. 1956. Growth, dispersal and survival of the Pacific tree frog. Copeia 1956:25-29.
Johnson, P.T.J., K.B. Lunde, E.G. Ritchie, and A.E. Launer. 1999. The effect of trematode infection on amphibian limb development and survivorship. Science 284:802-804.
Jones, M.S. 1999a. Henderson/Urad boreal toad studies. In, Jones, M.S. (ed.). Boreal toad research progress report 1998. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO.
Jones, M.S. 1999b. Preface. In, Jones, M.S. (ed.). Boreal toad research progress report 1998. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO.
Jones, M.S. 2000. Boreal toad research in Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO. http://www.dnr.state.co.us/wildlife/aquatic/boreal/toadtext.html
Jones, M.S., and J.P. Goettl. 1998. Henderson/Urad boreal toad studies. In, Boreal toad research progress report 1995-1997. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO.
Jones, M.S., J.P. Goettl, and L.J. Livo. 1999. Bufo boreas (Boreal toad). Predation. Herpetological Review 30:91.
Kats, L.B., J.W. Petranka, and A. Sih. 1988. Antipredator defenses and the persistence of amphibian larvae with fishes. Ecology 69:1865-1870.
Kinsey, S.J, and L.E. Law 1998. Inventory of amphibians and reptiles in the Prince George Forest District. Report for B.C. Environment, Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Prince George, B.C. FRBC Project No. OP96 223.
Kiesecker, J.M., and A.R. Blaustein. 1997. Influences of egg laying behavior on pathogenic infection of amphibian eggs. Conservation Biology 11:214-220.
Kiesecker, J.M., D.P. Chivers, and A.R. Blaustein. 1996. The use of chemical cues in predator recognition by Western Toad tadpoles. Animal Behaviour 52:1237-1245.
Leonard, B.P., K.R. McAllister, L. Jones, H. Brown, and R.M. Storm. 1993. Amphibians of Washington and Oregon. Seattle Audubon Society, Seattle.
Licht, L.E., and K.P. Grant. 1997. The effects of ultraviolet radiation on the biology of amphibians. American Zoology 37:137-145.
Livo, L.J. 1998. Investigations of boreal toad tadpole ecology. In, Colorado Division of Wildlife Boreal Toad Research Progress Report 1995-1997. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO.
Livo, L.J. 1999. Predator communities and boreal toad breeding sites. In, Jones, M.S. (ed.) Colorado Division of Wildlife Boreal Toad Research Progress Report 1998. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO.
Livo, L.J., and D Yeakley. 1997. Comparison of current with historical elevational range in the boreal toad, Bufo boreas. Herpetological Review 28:143-144.
Mennell, R.L. 1997. Amphibians in Southwestern Yukon and Northwestern British Columbia In Amphibians in decline: Canadian studies of a global problem. Edited by D. Green. Herpetological Conservation 1: 107-109.
Mennell, R.L., and B.G. Slough. 1998. Amphibian and Biodiversity Inventories of Ecoregions in Northwestern British Columbia. Habitat Conservation Trust Fund Project TF28056. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. Whitehorse, YT.
Materi, J.J., and D.A. Blood. 2000. Wildlife Use of Some Constructed Aquatic Habitats Along the Inland Island Highway. Report prepared for the various agencies involved with the Vancouver Island Highway Project. Donald A. Blood and Associates Ltd. Nanaimo, B.C.
Ministry of Forests and B.C. Environment. 1995a. Riparian Management Area Guidebook. Forest Practices Code of British Columbia. Ministry of Forests and B.C. Environment, Victoria, B.C.
Ministry of Forests and B.C. Environment. 1995b. Biodiversity Guidelines. Forest Practices Code of British Columbia. Ministry of Forests & B.C. Environment, B.C.
Noble, G.K. 1954. The Biology of the Amphibia. Dover Publications, Inc. New York, NY.
Nowlan, L., and B. Jeffries. 1996. Protecting British Columbia’s Wetlands: a Citizens Guide. West Coast Environmental Law Research Foundation and British Columbia Wetlands Network. Vancouver, B.C.
Nussbaum, R.A., E.D. Brodie, and R.M. Storm. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University of Idaho Press. Moscow.
Oldham, R.S. 1965. Spring movements in the American Toad, Bufo americanus. Can. J. Zool. 44: 63-99.
Oliver, M.G. 1973. The Western Toad on southern Vancouver Island. The Victoria Naturalist 29(5):49-51.
Olson, D.H. 1988. The ecological and behavioral dynamics of breeding in three sympatric anuran amphibians. PhD. Dissertation. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.
Olson, D.H. 1989. Predation on breeding Western Toads (Bufo boreas). Copeia 1989:391-397.
Olson, D.H. 1992. Ecological susceptibility of amphibians to population declines. In, Proceedings of the Symposium on Biodiversity of Northwestern California, October 28-30, Santa Rosa, CA.
Olson, D.H. 2001. Ecology and management of montane amphibians of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Biota 2: 51-74.
Olson, D.H., A.R. Blaustein, and R.K. O’Hara. 1986. Mating pattern variability among Western Toad (Bufo boreas) populations. Oecologia 70:351-356.
Poll, O.M., M.M. Porter, G.L. Holroyd, R.M. Wershler, and L.W. Gyug. 1984. Ecological Land Classification of Kootenay National Park, B.C. Volume II. Wildlife Resource. Canadian Wildlife Service, Edmonton, AB.
Porter, K.R. 1972. Herpetology. W.B. Sanders Company. Philadelphia, PA.
Raphael, M.G. 1988. Long-term trends in abundance of amphibians, reptiles, and mammals in Douglas-fir forests of northwestern California. Pp.23-31. In, Szaro, R. C., K.E. Severson, and D.R. Patton. (eds.). Management of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Small Mammals in North America. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-166. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.
Raphael, M.G. 1991. Vertebrate species richness within and among seral stages of Douglas-fir/hardwood forest in northwestern California. Pp 415-424. In, Aubry, K.B., and M.H. Brookes. (eds.). Wildlife and Vegetation of Unmanaged Douglas-fir Forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-285. Pacific Northwest Research Station, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Portland, OR.
Reimchen, T.E. 1992. Gwaii Haanas/South Moresby National Park Reserve: biophysical data for freshwater habitats. Environment Canada. Canadian Parks Service, Calgary, AB.
Richter, K. 1997. Criteria for the restoration and creation of wetland habitats of lentic-breeding amphibians of the Pacific Northwest. In, Macdonald, K.B., and F. Weinmann. (eds.). Wetland and Riparian Restoration: Taking a Broader View. Contributed Papers and Selected Abstracts, Society for Ecological Restoration, 1995 International Conference, September 14-16, 1995, University of Seattle, WA. Publication EPA 910-R-97-007, USEPA, Region 10, Seattle, WA.
Roelle, B. 2000. Examining an intact “metapopulation” of boreal toads (Bufo boreas): use of habitat and large scale movements. Midcontinental Ecological Science Centre. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fort Collins, CO. http://www.mesc.nbs.gov/projects/boreal_toad_movements_habitat.html
Ross, D.A., and T.C. Esque. 1995. Historical distribution, current status, and a range extension of Bufo boreas in Utah. Herpetological Review 26:187-188.
Russell, A.P., and A.M. Bauer. 1993. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Alberta: A Field Guide and Primer of Boreal Herpetology. University of Alberta Press. Edmonton, AB.
Semlitsch, R.D. 1998. Biological delineation of terrestrial buffer zones for pond-breeding amphibians. Conservation Biology 12:1113-1119.
Slough, B. G. 1999. Status Report on 3 Amphibian Species in the Yukon Territory: Columbia Spotted Frog (Rana luteiventris), Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris triseriata maculata) and Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas boreas). Canadian Wildlife Service. Environment Canada. Whitehorse, YT.
Stebbins, R.C. 1951. Amphibians of Western North America. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA.
Stebbins, R.C. 1966. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. The Peterson Field Guide Series. National Audubon Society and National Wildlife Federation. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.
Stebbins, R.C. 1985. Western Reptiles and Amphibians. 2nd Ed. The Peterson Field Guide Series National Audubon Society and National Wildlife Federation. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.
Sullivan, J. 1994. Bufo boreas. In, Fischer, W.C. (compiler). The Fire Effects Information System (Data base). Intermountain Fire Sciences Laboratory, Intermountain Research Station. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Missoula, MT. http://www.fs./fed.us/database/feis/animals/amphibian/bubo/introductory/html.
Swift, P. 1974. Miscellaneous sightings at Ellison Provincial Park. Unpublished Report, British Columbia Parks Branch, Victoria.
Taylor, S.K., E.S. Williams, E.T. Thorne, K.W. Mills, D.I. Withers, A.C. Pier. 1999. Causes of mortality of the Wyoming toad. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 35:49-57
Tracy, C.R., and J.M. Dole. 1969. Orientation of displaced California toads, Bufo boreas, to their breeding sites. Copeia 4:693-700.
Verner, J., and A.S. Boss. (tech. coords.) 1980. California wildlife and their habitats: western Sierra Nevada. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-37. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA.
Wade, K. 1960. Report on the amphibians and reptiles of Wells Gray park – May and June 1960. Unpublished Report, British Columbia Parks Branch, Victoria.
Waldick, R.C., B. Freedman, and R.J. Wassersug. 1999. The consequences for amphibians of the conversion of natural, mixed-species forests to conifer plantations in southern New Brunswick, Canada. Canadian Field Naturalist 113:408-418.
Ward, K., and B. Chapman. 1995. The Cariboo underworld: amphibians in clearcuts and forests. B.C. Nature Federation. Cordillera Winter 1995:32-41.
Williams, M.Y. 1933. Fauna of the former Dominion Peace River Block, British Columbia. Report of the British Columbia Museum of natural history and anthropology for the year 1932, Victoria:14-22.
Wind, E. 2000. Aquatic–breeding Amphibian Monitoring Program Annual Report 2000. Weyerhaeuser B.C., Nanaimo, B.C.
Wind, E. 2001. Aquatic–breeding Amphibian Monitoring Program Annual Report 2001. Weyerhaeuser B.C., Nanaimo, B.C.
World Conservation Union 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The IUCN Species Survival Commission. Gland, Switzerland.
Worrest, R.C., and D.J. Kimeldorf. 1975. Photoreactivation of potentially lethal, UV-induced damage to boreal toad (Bufo boreas boreas) tadpoles. Life Sciences 17:1545-1550.
Report a problem or mistake on this page
- Date modified: