Turkey Lakes Watershed Study reference list: 2005

05-01 Foster*, N., J. Spoelstra, P. Hazlett, S. Schiff, F. Beall, I. Creed, and C. David. Heterogeneity in soil nitrogen within first-order forested catchments at the Turkey Lakes Watershed. Can. J. For. Res. 35, 797-805, 2005. (*Contact D.S. Jeffries for correspondence).

Summary: N processes in soils at the TLW were examined to determine how they relate to N export. N concentrations in soils were highly variable. Higher exports from soils than from streams were not explained by differences in soil water N with topographic position or denitrification in lower landscape topographic position.

05-02 Murray, C.D. and J.M. Buttle*. Infiltration and soil water mixing on forested and harvested slopes during spring snowmelt, Turkey Lakes Watershed, central Ontario. Journal of Hydrology 306, 1-20, 2005. (*Author of correspondence).

Summary: A combined hydrometric and isotopic tracer approach was used on a slope at the TLW to examine the effect of harvesting on water infiltration and storage in the soil profile. Premelt and daily water inputs were measured during the 2000 and 2001 snowmelts. Total water input was greater to the harvested soil surface relative to a forest site. Harvesting on slopes is seen to promote increased subsurface flow and overland flow during snowmelt.

05-03 Schiff, S.L., J. Spoelstra, R.G. Semkin, and D.S. Jeffries. Drought induced pulses of SO4 from a Canadian shield wetland: use of d34S and d18O in SO4 to determine sources of sulfur. Applied Geochemistry 20, 691-700, 2005.

Summary: Stable isotopes of S and O are used to determine the source of high S in the watershed following drought conditions. S isotope measurements in streams and groundwater show that SO42- is stored in the upper peat profile of the wetlands. O isotope values show that deep groundwater SO4 is from organic S reduced and stored and not from a bedrock source.

05-04 Skjelkvåle, B.L., J.L. Stoddard, D.S. Jeffries*, K. Tørseth, T. Høgåsen, J. Bowman, J. Mannio, D.T.Monteith, R. Mosello, M. Rogora, D. Rzychon, J. Vesely, J. Wieting, A. Wilander A. Worsztynowicz. Regional scale evidence for improvements in surface water chemistry 1990-2001. Environ. Pollut. 137, 165-176, 2005. (*Author of correspondence).

Summary: The TLW was considered part of the “Upper Midwest” region in an ICP Waters international monitoring program. The purpose was to ascertain the degree and extent of the impact of atmospheric pollution, especially acidification. Regional trends for 12 regions in Europe and N. America showed a decrease in SO4 concentrations from 1990-2001 at all but one site in Virginia. Fewer than half of the regions showed a decreasing trend in NO3, perhaps because the time scale was too short. Emission controls appear to be effective in promoting reduced ecosystem acidification although recovery may be affected by other factors such as climate change and increased leaching of N.

05-05 Lin*, Jing. Spatial and temporal modelling of water acidity in Turkey Lakes Watershed. MSc thesis, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario. 74pp, 2005. (*Contact D.S. Jeffries for correspondence).

Summary: A set of data from the TLW collected between 1980 and 1987 was chosen for use in a statistical model decribing variability, seasonal cycles and trends of acidity in that region. During this period steps were taken by the Canadian government to reduce sulphur dioxide emissions by half, and the U.S. government amended the Clean Air Act in 1990 to reduce SO2 emissions, thus contributing to a downward trend in SO4 concentration in the lakes and a slight increase in pH.

05-06 Lindsay, J.B. and I.F. Creed*. Removal of artifact depressions from digital elevation models: towards a minimum impact approach. Hydrological Processes 19, 3113-3126, 2005. (* Author of correspondence).

Summary: Digital elevation models describing hrdrological flow require corrections for artifact depressions that alter the model results. Four mnethods for removing such depressions were tested on a LIDAR DEM of the TLW to determine which had the least impact on the spatial and statistical distribution of elevation. Landscape with a large percentage of flat areas was most sensitive to depression removal.

05-07 Watmough*, S.A., J. Aherne, C. Alewell, P. Arp, S. Bailey, T. Clair, P. Dillon, L. Duchesne, C. Eimers, I. Fernandez, N. Foster, T. Larssen, E. Miller, M. Mitchell, S. Page. Sulphate, nitrogen and base cation budgets at 21 forested catchments in Canada, the United States and Europe. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 109, 1-36, 2005. (*Contact D.S. Jeffries for correspondence).

Summary: The TLW was one of 21 forested catchments for which input-output budgets for forest soils were assessed to examine the problem of declining base cation levels as a result of acid deposition. SO4 concentration in deposition has decreased in 13 of 14 regions and in runoff for 14 of 17 regions. NO3-N in deposition decreased in only 1 of 14 regions and in 4 of 17 for runoff. Despite reductions in SO4 and H+ deposition, soils continue to be acidified and the resulting losses of base cations are a concern.

05-08 Scott*, B.F., C. Spencer, J.W. Martin, R. Barra, H.A. Bootsma, K.C. Jones, A.E. Johnston and D.C.G. Muir. Comparison of haloacetic acids in the environment of the northern and southern hemispheres. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39, 8664-8670, 2005. (*Contact D.S. Jeffries for correspondence).

Summary: A study to examine the global distribution of haloacetic acids (HAA) included precipitation samples from the TLW (Algoma) along with some from Malawi, Chile and the U.K. The Canadian samples were highest in HAA and Malawi samples were the lowest. Overall results of the study indicated that concentrations of HAA’s while greatest in the northern hemisphere are also significant in the less industrialized southern hemisphere.

05-09 Zhang*, L., J.R. Brook, R. Vet, A. Wiebe, C. Mihele, M. Shaw, J.M. O’Brien and S. Iqbal. Estimation of contributions of NO2 and PAN to total atmospheric deposition of oxidized nitrogen across eastern Canada. Atmospheric Environment 39, 7030-7043, 2005. (*Contact D.S. Jeffries for correspondence).

Summary: The TLW (Algoma) was one of 7 rural Canadian sites where total N dry deposition flux has been estimated for 1 year using measured and modelled parameters, including NO2 and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). HNO3 contributes 47-68% of the total, while NO2 is estimated to contribute 12-36% of the total. When the NO2 modelled concentration is adjusted to account for a bias that makes the value too low, the NO2 contribution can be higher than 50%, i.e., it may be more significant than HNO3 in some areas. The omission of NO2 and PAN in dry deposition and total N deposition calculations will have led to substantially underestimated values in the past.

05-10 Foster, N.W., F.D. Beall* and D.P. Kreutzweiser. The role of forests in regulating water: The Turkey Lakes Watershed case study. The Forestry Chronicle 81,142-148, 2005. (*Author of correspondence).

Summary: The TLW is cited as an example of a long-term integrated study of an undisturbed ecosystem, invaluable in aiding decisions regarding future management of forested catchments. The chemistry and biology of atmosphere, forests, soils, streams and lakes have been monitored for more than 20 years, and results include such findings as continued acidification of surface waters following the reduction of S emissions, and an improvement of water quality when partial forest cutting is used instead of clearcutting. Information from this study can contribute to an international dialogue on watershed and forest management decisions.

05-11 Kreutzweiser, D.P., S.S Capell and K.P. Good. Macroinvertebrate community responses to selection logging in riparian and upland areas of headwater catchments in a northern hardwood forest. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24, 208-222, 2005.

Summary: Two streams in 3 headwater catchments in the TLW were sampled over a 5-yr period (1995-1999) to determine the effect of low intensity versus moderate intensity logging on aquatic insect communities. It was found that up to 42% basal area removal caused little change to these communities, i.e. observed changes not larger than natural variation.

05-12 Kreutzweiser, D.P., S.S Capell and K.P. Good. Effects of fine sediment inputs from a logging road on stream insect communities: a large-scale experimental approach in a Canadian headwater stream. Aquatic Ecology 39, 55-66, 2005.

Summary: A headwater stream in the TLW was manipulated to induce a 7-fold increase in sediment input over 3 yrs to examine the effect on aquatic insect communities. Apart from small reductions in diversity and richness of spring communities, there was little evidence of stress on benthic communities (total insect abundance or biomass). A larger-scale study would help to evaluate tolerance limits.

05-13 Pratt, T.C., K.E. Smokorowski* and J.R. Muirhead. Development and experimental assessment of an underwater video technique for assessing fish-habitat relationships. Arch. Hydrobiol. 164, 547-571, 2005. (*Author of correspondence).

Summary: Little Turkey Lake in the TLW was one of 2 lakes used in a study to assess the usefulness of an underwater video camera in assessing fish-habitat relationships. An improvement on site-level inferences of fish-habitat use could be achieved with longer filming duration, more sites, or a transect method of filming.

05-14 Environment Canada, Meteorological Service of Canada*. 2004 Canadian Acid Deposition Science Assessment, H.A. Morrison (ed.) 12 Chapt., 437 pp, 2005. (*Contact D.S. Jeffries for correspondence).

Summary: The TLW is one of the major sources of scientific data contributing to the assessment of acid deposition in Canada - the effect of emissions reductions in Canada and the U.S., status of soils, lakes and rivers, and estimation of critical loads. This 12-chapter Canada-wide study undertaken in 2004 offers a summary of key results as well as a review of the effects of acid deposition across Canada.

05-15 Aherne, J., T.A. Clair, I.F. Dennis, M. Gilliss, S. Couture, D. McNicol, R. Weeber, P.J. Dillon, W. Keller, D.S. , Jeffries, S. Page, K. Timoffee, B.J. Cosby. -P. Hettelingh (eds.) European Critical Loads and Dynamic Modelling, CCE Status Report 2005, 77-84, 2005.

Summary: This chapter details the application of the soil-chemical model MAGIC to 502 lakes across eastern Canada, including the TLW watershed, to examine past and future acidification status of these acid-sensitive lakes. The model shows that current proposed emission agreements will not be sufficient to achieve ANC and pH targets in 20 years.

05-16 Sanford, S.E. Scale-dependence of natural variability of stream flow parameters in a forested drainage basin on the boreal shield.  MSc. Thesis, Department of Geography (Environmental Sciences), University of Western Ontario, London.  101pp, 4 appendices, 2005.

Summary: A distributed hydrologic model was used to characterize the natural flow regime of nested basins including the TLW within tributaries of the Batchawana River. The median and interannual variability, defined as the S80 ((90thpercentile - 10th percentile) / median), of the magnitude, timing, frequency, duration, and rate of change of flows characterized the natural flow regime. Below the representative elementary area, the relief ratio, the proportion of the basin above a threshold in Wetness Index, and the drainage density, were significantly related to the S80 of many flow parameters. This research demonstrates the scale-dependence of natural variability of flows, against which impacts of disturbance on flows throughout a drainage basin may be measured.

05-17 Lindsay, J.B. and I.F. Creed. Sensitivity of digital landscapes to artifact depressions in remotely-sensed DEMs. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 71 (9), 1029-1036, 2005.

Summary: Light detection and ranging (lidar) and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) DEMs of 3 study areas including the TLW were used to evaluate the occurrence of artifact depressions caused by the representation of surfaces using grids and random elevation error. Flat landscapes containing extensive lakes experienced more depressions related to grid spacing and placement than high-relief areas. Stochastic modelling showed that error magnitude controlled the extent of vulnerability within a landscape to depressions caused by random error.

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