Formaldehyde is a colourless gas that is emitted mainly from household products and building materials. Low levels of formaldehyde in indoor air are very common and not of concern. When found at high levels in air, it can be detected by a sharp smell. Formaldehyde can off-gas from certain products, such as building materials and some furniture. Testing has shown that formaldehyde is released from more than 90% of selected composite wood products tested, and releases increase with higher temperatures and humidity. It can also be released from sources like cigarette smoke, use of fireplaces and cooking. High concentrations of formaldehyde can cause irritation of the eyes, nose and throat and can worsen asthma symptoms, especially in children.

Consultation document

On July 31, 2017, Health Canada, in collaboration with Environment and Climate Change Canada, has published a consultation document on the proposed regulatory approach to reduce emissions of formaldehyde from composite wood products.

The objective of this consultation document is to inform and solicit comments from stakeholders on the proposed regulatory approach. Stakeholders have the opportunity to provide feedback on the proposal and submit additional information that is requested. Submissions must be provided during the public comment period, which ends on September 1, 2017 (see How to participate).

Comments and information received related to the consultation document will be considered in the development of the proposed regulations, which are expected to be published in Canada Gazette, Part I, in 2018.

Notice of intent to develop regulations

In March 2017, a notice of intent was published in the Canada Gazette, Part I: Vol. 151, No. 11 – March 18, 2017 (PDF version 1,240 K) that the Department of the Environment and the Department of Health are initiating the development of proposed regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999) respecting formaldehyde emission standards for composite wood products to help reduce exposure to formaldehyde emissions from certain wood products produced domestically or imported into Canada. Publication of the notice of intent marked the beginning of a 60-day public comment period, which ended on May 17, 2017.

The notice of intent to develop proposed regulations recognizes current North American activities, specifically those of the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency which published the Formaldehyde Emission Standards for Composite Wood Products in December 2016. The U.S. national emission standards requires composite wood products sold or imported in the U.S. to comply with the requirements of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) on formaldehyde emissions and with other requirements such as product traceability and certification.

As part of an open and transparent process, the development of these proposed regulations will include consultations with representatives of provincial and territorial governments, industry, non-governmental organizations, Indigenous peoples, labour organizations, the public and other stakeholders. Initial consultative activities included launch webinars and a voluntary data gathering questionnaire. Next, the Government of Canada will be hosting a multi-stakeholder workshop (see Timelines). Any comments received by September 1, 2017 will be considered during the development of the proposed regulations.

How to participate

Stakeholders may submit comments related to the consultation document, participate in an online pre-consultation engagement, as well as present their interest in attending a multi-stakeholder workshop by emailing the Substances Management Information Line at

Stakeholders must submit their interest in participating in the multi-stakeholder workshop by August 16, 2017.

Date Activity
2018 Publication of the proposed regulations in the Canada Gazette, Part I.
September 6, 2017 A multi-stakeholder workshop in Ottawa, Ontario to discuss development of proposed regulations.
Summer 2017 The Government of Canada to begin drafting on the proposed regulations.
August 1, 2017 Online pre-consultation engagement launch to collect preliminary stakeholder input on the regulations to inform the agenda for the multi-stakeholder workshop.
July 31, 2017 Publication of the consultation document on the proposed regulatory approach to reduce emissions of formaldehyde from composite wood products and start of the public comment period.
April 5 and 19, 2017 Initial launch webinars introducing the Government of Canada's intention to regulate formaldehyde emissions from composite wood products and outline areas where stakeholder input is requested. Launch of the voluntary data gathering questionnaire.
March 18, 2017 Release of the notice of intent to develop proposed regulations respecting formaldehyde emission standards for composite wood products and an invitation to interested parties to participate in consultations.

If needed, other information gathering tools could be used to inform potential risk management actions.


In 2001, Environment Canada and Health Canada completed a risk assessment for formaldehyde and concluded that it was harmful to human health and the environment under CEPA 1999. Formaldehyde was added to the List of Toxic Substances in Schedule 1 of CEPA 1999. Current controls focus on reducing formaldehyde emissions to outdoor air. These include:

Formaldehyde is also a concern for indoor air, requiring a different risk management approach. In 2006, Health Canada developed residential indoor air quality guideline for formaldehyde. Furthermore, the manufacture, importation, advertisement or sale of urea formaldehyde-based thermal insulation, which is foamed in place and used to insulate buildings, is prohibited under the Canada Consumer Product Safety Act (CCPSA). In addition, a voluntary standard was established by the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) in 2016 to harmonize with the limits that were established by the state of California.

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