Formaldehyde is a colourless gas that is emitted mainly from household products and building materials. Low levels of formaldehyde in indoor air are very common and not of concern. When found at high levels in air, it can be detected by a sharp smell. Formaldehyde can off-gas from certain products, such as building materials and some furniture. Testing has shown that formaldehyde is released from more than 90% of selected composite wood products tested, and releases increase with higher temperatures and humidity. It can also be released from sources like cigarette smoke, use of fireplaces and cooking. High concentrations of formaldehyde can cause irritation of the eyes, nose and throat and can worsen asthma symptoms, especially in children.
On July 31, 2017, Health Canada, in collaboration with Environment and Climate Change Canada, published a consultation document on the proposed regulatory approach to reduce emissions of formaldehyde from composite wood products.
The objective of this consultation document was to inform and solicit comments from stakeholders on the proposed regulatory approach. Stakeholders had the opportunity to provide feedback on the proposal and submit additional information during the public comment period, which ended on September 1, 2017.
Comments and information received related to the consultation document have been considered in the development of the proposed regulations, which are expected to be published in Canada Gazette , Part I, in 2019.
Notice of intent to develop regulations
In March 2017, a notice of intent was published in the Canada Gazette, Part I: Vol. 151, No. 11 – March 18, 2017 that the Department of the Environment and the Department of Health were initiating the development of proposed regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999) respecting formaldehyde emission standards for composite wood products to help reduce exposure to formaldehyde emissions from certain wood products produced domestically or imported into Canada. Publication of the notice of intent marked the beginning of a 60-day public comment period, which ended on May 17, 2017.
The notice of intent to develop proposed regulations recognizes current North American activities, specifically those of the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency which published the Formaldehyde Emission Standards for Composite Wood Products in December 2016. The U.S. national emission standards require composite wood products sold or imported in the U.S. to comply with requirements based on the California Air Resources Board (CARB) measures for reducing formaldehyde emissions, and with other requirements such as product traceability and certification.
As part of an open and transparent process, the development of these proposed regulations has included consultations with representatives of industry, non-governmental organizations, Indigenous peoples, the public and other stakeholders. Initial consultative activities included launch webinars and a voluntary data gathering questionnaire. Any comments received by September 1, 2017 were considered during the development of the proposed regulations.
|2019||Publication of the proposed regulations in the Canada Gazette, Part I.|
|Summer 2017 – Fall 2018||Continued stakeholder consultations during drafting of the proposed regulations.|
|September 6, 2017||Multi-stakeholder workshop in Ottawa, Ontario to discuss development of proposed regulations.|
|Summer 2017||The Government of Canada to begin drafting of the proposed regulations.|
|August 1, 2017||Online pre-consultation engagement launch to collect preliminary stakeholder input on the regulations to inform the agenda for the multi-stakeholder workshop.|
|July 31, 2017||Publication of the consultation document on the proposed regulatory approach to reduce emissions of formaldehyde from composite wood products and start of the public comment period.|
|April 5 and 19, 2017||Initial launch webinars introducing the Government of Canada's intention to regulate formaldehyde emissions from composite wood products and outline areas where stakeholder input is requested. Launch of the voluntary data gathering questionnaire.|
|March 18, 2017||Release of the notice of intent to develop proposed regulations respecting formaldehyde emission standards for composite wood products and an invitation to interested parties to participate in consultations.|
If needed, other information gathering tools could be used to inform potential risk management actions.
In 2001, Environment Canada and Health Canada completed a risk assessment for formaldehyde and concluded that it was harmful to human health and the environment under CEPA 1999. Formaldehyde was added to the List of Toxic Substances in Schedule 1 of CEPA 1999. Current controls focus on reducing formaldehyde emissions to outdoor air. These include:
- Off-Road Compression-Ignition Engine Emission Regulations
- Canadian Chemical Producers' Association (CCPA) And Governments Of Canada, Ontario And Alberta Memorandum Of Understanding For Environmental Protection Through Action Under CCPA Responsible Care ® [CCPA is now known as the Chemistry Industry Association of Canada (CIAC)]
- Environmental Emergency Regulations and
- Off-Road Small Spark-Ignition Engine Emission Regulations
Formaldehyde is also a concern for indoor air, requiring a different risk management approach. In 2006, Health Canada developed residential indoor air quality guidelines for formaldehyde. Furthermore, the manufacture, importation, advertisement or sale of urea formaldehyde-based thermal insulation, which is foamed in place and used to insulate buildings, is prohibited under the Canada Consumer Product Safety Act (CCPSA). In addition, a voluntary standard was established by the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) in 2016 to harmonize with the limits that were established by the state of California.
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