Industry-restricted Low Boiling Point Naphthas (Industry-restricted LBPNs)
CAS Registry Numbers 64741-42-0, 64741-69-1 & 64741-78-2
What are they?
- Low boiling point naphthas, also known as LBPNs, are a category of complex combinations of petroleum hydrocarbons. Their composition varies with the source of crude oil or bitumen and the processing steps involved.
- They are composed of varying lengths of carbon atom chains and rings, generally ranging between 4 and 12 carbon atoms.
- Industry-restricted LBPNs may leave a petroleum-sector facility and may be transported to other industrial facilities (for example, for use as a feedstock, fuel or blending component), but are not expected to be available to the public.
How are they used?
- LBPNs are used as blending constituents in the production of gasoline.
- The final fuel product usually consists of a mixture of LBPNs as well as higher-quality hydrocarbons that have been removed from the refinery or upgrader facilities.
Why did the Government of Canada assess them?
- These three industry-restricted LBPNs were included in the Petroleum Sector Stream Approach under the Chemicals Management Plan for the screening assessment of potential risks to the environment and to human health.
- Prior to their assessment by the Government of Canada, these industry-restricted LBPNs were identified as a potential concern for human health based on their classification by international organizations as substances that may cause cancer, and based on a moderate or high potential for exposure (not including workplace exposures) to the general population of Canada.
- They were also identified as a potential concern to the environment based on available information regarding possible persistence, accumulation in organisms and potential to cause harm to non-human organisms.
How are Canadians exposed to them?
- Exposure of the general population of Canada to industry-restricted LBPNs is expected to be limited to inhalation due to evaporative emissions during transportation.
How are they released into the environment?
- Potential releases of industry-restricted LBPNs to the environment consist mostly of releases within facilities during processing of these substances, as well as releases related to transportation of these substances between petroleum facilities.
- Releases within facilities are captured into a closed system and then returned to the processing facility for re-use or they are sent to the facility wastewater treatment plant where they are removed from the wastewater.
- Releases related to transportation of these substances between industrial facilities are considered to be low.
What are the results of the assessment?
- The Government of Canada has conducted a science-based evaluation of industry-restricted LBPNs, called a screening assessment.
- Screening assessments address the potential for harm to the general population of Canada (not including workplace exposures) and the environment.
- Results of the final screening assessment indicate that these three LBPNs may contain some components that have the potential to remain in the environment for a long time, accumulate in organisms or cause harm to organisms. However, the estimated frequency of exposure to the environment from unintentional spills of these LBPNs is low.
- The Government of Canada has therefore concluded that these industry-restricted LBPNs are not entering the environment in a quantity or under conditions that constitute a danger to the environment.
- When present in air, LBPNs are only expected to be found at low levels, therefore, exposure to the general population in Canada is expected to be low.
- The Government of Canada has therefore also concluded that these industry-restricted LBPNs are not harmful to the health of the general population at current levels of exposure.
- LBPNs that are not considered industry-restricted and substances into which industry-restricted LBPNs may be blended will be addressed at a later stage under the Chemicals Management Plan. Twenty site-restricted LBPNs were previously assessed by the Government of Canada - the final screening assessment was released on September 3, 2011.
What is the Government of Canada doing?
- Based on the conclusion of the final screening assessment, the Government of Canada will take no further action on these three industry-restricted LBPNs.
- The final screening assessment report document was published on July 27, 2013.
What can Canadians do?
- The health risks associated with a chemical depend on the hazard (its potential to cause health effects) and the dose (the amount of chemical to which you are exposed).
- No concerns for the environment or human health have been identified for these three industry-restricted LBPNs at current levels of exposure.
- Canadians who may be exposed to LBPNs in the workplace should consult with their occupational health and safety representative about safe handling practices, applicable laws and requirements under the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS).
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