Report on Human Biomonitoring of Environmental Chemicals in Canada

Appendix A - Acronyms and Abbreviations

2,4-D
2,4-DCP
ACGIH
ADI
AI
AM
As
ATSDR
BDE
BHC
BPA
BSEF
CASRN
CCME
Cd
CDC
CEC
CEPA 1999
CHMS
CI
CIR
CTQ
Cu
DDE
DDT
DDVP
DEDTP
DEP
DETP
DHHS
DMDTP
DMP
DMTP
EAR
ECB
EFSA
EI
EPA
ESIS
FIMS
GM
GC-MS
GC-MS-MS
HCB
HCH
Hg
HPV
IARC
ICP-MS
INAC
INSPQ
IOM
IPCS
IUPAC
LFS
LOD
LRTAP
MAC
MEC
MMT
Mn
Mo
MRL
MRM
MS
NCI
ND
NHANES
Ni 
NIOSH
NLM
NOAEL
NRCan
NTP
NTP-CERHR 
OECD
Pb
PBB
PBDE
PCB
PFHxS
PFOA
PFOS
PMRA
POP
PSL
pTDI
PVC
RDA
SAS
Sb
Se
SIM
TDI
TDS
UL
UNECE 
UNEP
UPLC
US EPA
US FDA

WHO
Zn
γ-HCH

2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
2,4-dichlorophenol
American Conference on Governmental Industrial Hygienists 
acceptable daily intake
adequate intake
arithmetic mean
arsenic
Agency of Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
brominated diphenyl ethers
benzenehexachloride
bisphenol A
Bromine Science and Environmental Forum
Chemical Abstract Services Registry Number
Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment
cadmium
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Commission for Environmental Cooperation
Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999
Canadian Health Measures Survey
confidence interval
Cosmetic Ingredient Review
Centre de Toxicologie du Québec
copper
dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene
dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane 
dichlorvos
diethyldithiophosphate 
diethyl phosphate 
diethylthiophosphate 
Department of Health and Human Services (United States)
dimethyldithiophosphate
dimethylphosphate 
dimethylthiophosphate 
estimated average requirement
European Chemicals Bureau
European Food Safety Authority
electronic impact
Environmental Protection Agency
European Chemical Substances Information System 
Flow Injection Mercury System
geometric mean
gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer
gas chromatograph coupled to tandem mass spectrometer
hexachlorobenzene
hexachlorocyclohexane
mercury
High Production Volume
International Agency for Research on Cancer
inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry 
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
Institut national de santé publique du Québec
Institute of Medicine
International Programme on Chemical Safety
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Labour Force Survey
limit of detection
Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution 
maximum acceptable concentration
mobile examination centre
methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl 
manganese
molybdenum
maximum residue limit
multiple reaction monitoring
mass spectrometer
National Cancer Institute
not detected
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (United States)
nickel
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
National Library of Medicine
No Observed Adverse Effects Level
Natural Resources Canada
National Toxicology Program
National Toxicology Program - Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
lead
polybrominated biphenyl 
polybrominated diphenyl ether
polychlorinated biphenyl
perfluorohexane sulfonate
perfluorooctanoic acid
perfluorooctane sulfonate
Pest Management Regulatory Agency
persistent organic pollutant
Priority Substances List
provisional tolerable daily intake
polyvinyl chloride
recommended dietary allowance
Statistical Analysis System
antimony
selenium
single ion monitoring
tolerable daily intake
Total Diet Study
Upper Intake Levels
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
United Nations Environment Programme
Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography
United States Environmental Protection Agency
United States Food and Drug Administration
vanadium
World Health Organization
zinc
lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane)

Appendix B - Limits of Detection for the Environmental Chemicals Measured in the CHMS

Laboratory analyses of environmental chemicals and creatinine were performed at the human toxicology laboratory of the Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ), Québec City. The INSPQ followed standardized operating procedures that were developed for every assay and technique performed in its laboratory. The laboratory is accredited under ISO 17025. For this report, the limit of detection (LOD) is defined as the lowest level that can be reasonably achieved within specified limits of precision and accuracy within routine laboratory operating conditions. Laboratory analysis of serum lipids was performed at the Health Canada laboratories, Bureau of Nutritional Sciences, Nutrition Research Division, Ottawa. Limits of detection for triglycerides and total cholesterol are defined as the low end of the manufacturer's stated dynamic range for the method.

Metals and Trace Elements in Blood
Arsenic 0.23 µg/L
Cadmium 0.04 µg/L
Copper 0.64 µg/L
Lead 0.02 µg/dL
Manganese 0.05 µg/L
Mercury, total 0.10 µg/L
Mercury, inorganic 0.40 µg/L
Molybdenum 0.09 µg/L
Nickel 0.35 µg/L
Selenium 7.89 µg/L
Uranium 0.005 µg/L
Zinc 0.65 µg/L
Metals and Trace Elements in Urine
Antimony 0.02 µg/L
Arsenic 0.52 µg/L
Cadmium 0.09 µg/L
Copper 0.32 µg/L
Lead 0.10 µg/L
Manganese 0.05 µg/L
Mercury, inorganic 0.10 µg/L
Molybdenum 0.09 µg/L
Nickel 0.17 µg/L
Selenium 6.32 µg/L
Uranium 0.009 µg/L
Vanadium 0.10 µg/L
Zinc 13.10 µg/L
Organochlorines
Aldrin 0.01 µg/L
α-Chlordane 0.01 µg/L
γ-Chlordane 0.005 µg/L
cis-Nonachlor 0.005 µg/L
trans-Nonachlor 0.01 µg/L
Oxychlordane 0.005 µg/L
p,p'-DDT 0.05 µg/L
p,p'-DDE 0.09 µg/L
HCB 0.04 µg/L
β-HCH 0.01 µg/L
γ- HCH 0.01 µg/L
Mirex 0.01 µg/L
Toxaphene parlar 26 0.005 µg/L
Toxaphene parlar 50 0.005 µg/L
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
PCB 28 0.05 µg/L
PCB 52 0.30 µg/L
PCB 66 0.03 µg/L
PCB 74 0.03 µg/L
PCB 99 0.03 µg/L
PCB 101 0.03 µg/L
PCB 105 0.01 µg/L
PCB 118 0.01 µg/L
PCB 128 0.01 µg/L
PCB 138 0.01 µg/L
PCB 146 0.01 µg/L
PCB 153 0.01 µg/L
PCB 156 0.01 µg/L
PCB 163 0.01 µg/L
PCB 167 0.01 µg/L
PCB 170 0.01 µg/L
PCB 178 0.01 µg/L
PCB 180 0.01 µg/L
PCB 183 0.01 µg/L
PCB 187 0.01 µg/L
PCB 194 0.01 µg/L
PCB 201 0.01 µg/L
PCB 203 0.01 µg/L
PCB 206 0.01 µg/L
Aroclor 1260* 0.01 µg/L
* Calculated value based on PCB 153 and PCB 138
Polybrominated Flame Retardants
PBB 153 0.02 µg/L
PBDE 15 0.03 µg/L
PBDE 17 0.03 µg/L
PBDE 25 0.03 µg/L
PBDE 28 0.03 µg/L
PBDE 33 0.03 µg/L
PBDE 47 0.03 µg/L
PBDE 99 0.02 µg/L
PBDE 100 0.02 µg/L
PBDE 153 0.02 µg/L
Perfluorinated Compounds
PFOS 0.3 µg/L
PFOA 0.3 µg/L
PFHxS 0.3 µg/L
Environmental Phenol
Bisphenol A 0.2 µg/L
Organophosphate Insecticides (metabolites)
DMP 1.0 µg/L
DMTP 0.6 µg/L
DMDTP 0.3 µg/L
DEP 1.0 µg/L
DETP 0.6 µg/L
DEDTP 0.3 µg/L
Pyrethroid Insecticides (metabolites)
4-F-3-PBA 0.008 µg/L
cis-DBCA 0.006 µg/L
cis-DCCA 0.007 µg/L
trans-DCCA 0.01 µg/L
3-PBA 0.01 µg/L
Phenoxy Herbicide
2,4-D 1.0 µg/L
Chlorophenol
2,4-DCP 0.3 µg/L
Tobacco
Cotinine 1.1 µg/L
Adjustment Factors
Creatinine 0.31 mmol/L (0.035 µg/L)
Triglycerides 0.11 mmol/L (0.0974 g/L)
Total Cholesterol 1.29 mmol/L (0.4987 g/L)

Appendix C - Conversion Factors

Units of measurement are important. Results are reported here using standard units, however, units can be converted using the conversion factors presented below for comparison of data with other datasets.
Unit Abbreviation Value
litre L --
decilitre dL 10-1 L
millilitre mL 10-3 L
microlitre µL 10-6 L
gram g --
milligram mg 10-3 g
microgram µg 10-6 g
nanogram ng 10-9 g
picogram pg 10-12 g

Data can be converted from µg/L to µmol/L using the molecular weight (MW) of the chemical using the formula:

formula
  MW
(g/mol)
CF
(µg/L → µmol/L)
Metals and Trace Elements
Antimony 121.76 0.00821
Arsenic 74.92 0.01335
Cadmium 112.41 0.00890
Copper 63.55 0.01574
Lead 207.20 0.00483
Manganese 54.94 0.01820
Mercury 200.59 0.00499
Molybdenum 95.94 0.01042
Nickel 58.69 0.01704
Selenium 78.96 0.01266
Uranium 238.03 0.00420
Vanadium 50.94 0.01963
Zinc 65.39 0.01529
Organochlorine
Aldrin 364.91 0.00274
α-Chlordane 409.78 0.00244
γ-Chlordane 409.78 0.00244
cis-Nonachlor 444.22 0.00225
trans-Nonachlor 444.22 0.00225
Oxychlordane 423.76 0.00236
β-HCH 290.83 0.00344
γ-HCH 290.83 0.00344
p,p'-DDT 354.49 0.00282
p,p'-DDE 318.03 0.00314
HCB 284.78 0.00351
Mirex 545.54 0.00183
Parlar 26 170.68 0.00586
Parlar 50 170.68 0.00586
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
PCB 28 257.54 0.00388
PCB 52 291.99 0.00342
PCB 66 291.99 0.00342
PCB 74 291.99 0.00342
PCB 99 326.44 0.00306
PCB 101 326.44 0.00306
PCB 105 326.44 0.00306
PCB 118 326.44 0.00306
PCB 128 360.88 0.00277
PCB 138 360.88 0.00277
PCB 146 360.88 0.00277
PCB 153 360.88 0.00277
PCB 156 360.88 0.00277
PCB 163 360.88 0.00277
PCB 167 360.88 0.00277
PCB 170 395.33 0.00253
PCB 178 395.33 0.00253
PCB 180 395.33 0.00253
PCB 183 395.33 0.00253
PCB 187 395.33 0.00253
PCB 194 429.77 0.00233
PCB 201 429.77 0.00233
PCB 203 429.77 0.00233
PCB 206 464.21 0.00215
Aroclor 1260 n/a --
Polybrominated Flame Retardants
PBB 153 627.59 0.00159
PBDE 15 328.00 0.00305
PBDE 17 406.90 0.00246
PBDE 25 406.90 0.00246
PBDE 28 406.90 0.00246
PBDE 33 406.90 0.00246
PBDE 47 485.79 0.00206
PBDE 99 564.69 0.00206
PBDE 100 564.69 0.00177
PBDE 153 643.59 0.00155
Perfluorinated Compounds
PFOS 500.13 0.00200
PFOA 414.07 0.00242
PFHxS 400.11 0.00250
Environmental Phenol
Bisphenol A 228.29 0.00438
Organophosphate Insecticides (metabolites)
DMP 126.05 0.00793
DMTP 142.11 0.00704
DMDTP 158.18 0.00632
DEP 154.10 0.00649
DETP 170.17 0.00588
DEDTP 186.24 0.00537
Pyrethroid Insecticides (metabolites)
4-F-3-PBA 232.21 0.00431
cis-DBCA 297.97 0.00336
cis-DCCA 209.07 0.00478
trans-DCCA 209.07 0.00478
3-PBA 214.22 0.00467
Phenoxy Herbicide
2,4-D 221.04 0.00452
Chlorophenol
2,4-DCP 163.00 0.00613
Tobacco
Cotinine 176.22 0.00567
Adjustment Factor
Creatinine 113.118 0.008840

Appendix D - Creatinine

Creatinine

Creatinine - Arithmetic and geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (mg/dL) for the Canadian population aged 6-79 years, Canadian Health Mesures Survey Cycle 1, 2007-2009.
  n %<LODa A.M.
95%CI
G.M.
95%CI
10th
95%CI
25th
95%CI
50th
95%CI
75th
95%CI
90th
95%CI
95th
95%CI
Total,
age 6-79
5515 0.22 108.34 82.97 27.33 50.63 93.10 148.53 214.03 251.21
104.11 - 112.57 77.71 - 88.60 23.80 - 30.86 44.88 - 56.37 86.06 - 100.14 142.93 - 154.12 204.36 - 223.70 242.66 - 259.76
6-11 1042 0.29 82.12 65.63 24.14 44.01 74.64 109.80 148.54 174.80
77.05 - 87.18 60.04 - 71.74 18.88 - 29.39 36.46 - 51.55 67.53 - 81.74 102.55 - 117.04 137.32 - 159.76 164.43 - 185.17
12-19 992 0.10 143.12 115.29 38.82 79.38 132.88 189.44 260.41 298.65
132.29 - 153.96 105.04 - 126.54 30.15 - 47.49 65.02 - 93.73 121.50 - 144.26 176.22 - 202.65 229.96 - 290.86 260.88 - 336.43
20-39 1172 0.34 117.69 90.01 29.50 56.21 101.06 161.77 230.05 279.35
109.65 - 125.73 80.85 - 100.20 22.43 - 36.56 46.71 - 65.72 89.47 - 112.65 153.38 - 170.16 216.96 - 243.15 254.11 - 304.59
40-59 1221 0.25 103.36 78.23 23.79 45.62 86.76 146.48 209.06 243.92
99.02 - 107.70 73.30 - 83.49 18.84 - 28.73 38.66 - 52.58 76.74 - 96.78 138.92 - 154.04 188.48 - 229.65 230.90 - 256.95
60-79 1088 0.09 89.44 71.54 26.42 44.37 81.15 120.57 159.51 197.86
85.18 - 93.70 67.88 - 75.39 21.84 - 31.00 39.36 - 49.37 77.15 - 85.14 111.72 - 129.41 148.84 - 170.19 171.84 - 223.88
Males 
Total,
age 6-79
2663 0.26 126.15 101.40 36.22 66.85 113.52 167.93 235.03 269.93
122.21 - 130.09 96.55 - 106.51 28.57 - 43.86 60.22 - 73.48 107.32 - 119.73 157.45 - 178.40 222.69 - 247.36 256.90 - 282.95
6-11 526 0.38 82.00 66.41 24.69 46.87 73.41 109.87 143.40 172.15
74.22 - 89.78 56.83 - 77.60 15.03 - 34.34 36.33 - 57.42 64.73 - 82.08 99.05 - 120.68 132.45 - 154.34 162.30 - 182.01
12-19 505 0.20 142.56 118.31 44.94 87.54 132.04 187.92 241.16 285.28
131.50 - 153.61 107.49 - 130.22 31.36 - 58.52 73.46 - 101.62 118.48 - 145.60 170.60 - 205.24 216.11 - 266.20 255.60 - 314.96
20-39 515 0.39 139.03 109.01 33.86 73.83 125.18 194.84 269.25 295.30
127.04 - 151.03 95.14 - 124.89 17.28 - 50.44 60.51 - 87.15 108.90 - 141.46 168.23 - 221.46 238.27 - 300.24 278.48 - 312.11
40-59 575 0.35 126.43 102.06 36.05 64.57 115.01 172.33 241.84 253.22
117.70 - 135.17 95.68 - 108.86 27.34 - 44.75 57.80 - 71.34 101.60 - 128.41 142.48 - 202.18 219.09 - 264.60 244.08 - 262.36
60-79 542 0.00 109.48 94.86 43.04 69.84 102.64 141.58 178.55 213.98
100.68 - 118.27 87.46 - 102.88 37.65 - 48.43 61.05 - 78.62 89.07 - 116.22 127.48 - 155.69 147.59 - 209.50 196.84 - 231.12
Females
Total,
age 6-79
2852 0.18 90.68 68.01 22.17 39.35 75.23 124.23 180.93 217.01
84.48 - 96.89 62.19 - 74.37 18.83 - 25.52 33.80 - 44.89 66.22 - 84.25 114.62 - 133.84 167.37 - 194.49 202.07 - 231.95
6-11 516 0.19 82.25 64.82 22.53 40.71 76.43 109.60 154.46 179.52
75.75 - 88.75 58.97 - 71.26 17.23 - 27.83 32.60 - 48.82 65.52 - 87.35 99.91 - 119.29 136.14 - 172.78 158.32 - 200.72
12-19 487 0.00 143.73 112.11 36.32 73.07 133.79 192.41 262.21 316.25
128.87 - 158.60 97.50 - 128.91 23.33 - 49.31 51.06 - 95.08 120.42 - 147.16 169.62 - 215.21 220.23 - 304.19 264.72 - 367.77
20-39 657 0.30 96.37 74.33 25.15 47.47 80.17 130.95 186.87 222.17
89.26 - 103.48 66.85 - 82.65 19.27 - 31.03 40.20 - 54.74 67.76 - 92.57 118.04 - 143.85 174.77 - 198.98 203.29 - 241.06
40-59 646 0.15 80.60 60.18 19.75 32.09 66.00 117.06 160.73 193.86
73.23 - 87.98 53.73 - 67.40 15.89 - 23.60 23.60 - 40.59 54.17 - 77.83 106.72 - 127.41 141.31 - 180.15 172.23 - 215.50
60-79 546 0.18 71.16 55.30 20.23 34.97 55.87 93.61 135.73 161.60
64.36 - 77.96 49.20 - 62.17 15.25 - 25.21 28.13 - 41.81 47.21 - 64.52 85.78 - 101.44 122.84 - 148.63 147.03 - 176.18
  • a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.
Report a problem or mistake on this page
Please select all that apply:

Thank you for your help!

You will not receive a reply. For enquiries, contact us.

Date modified: