Page 6 - Fourth Report on Human Biomonitoring of Environmental Chemicals in Canada

14 Summaries and results for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites

14.1 Overview

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of organic compounds characterized by the presence of two or more fused aromatic rings. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has prioritized 16 PAHs because of their potential human health and/or ecological toxicity (EPA, 2013). Table 14.1.1 lists seven of these priority PAHs and their metabolites measured in cycle 4 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS).

Table 14.1.1 - Hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites measured in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013), cycle 4 (2014-2015), and their parent PAH compounds
PAH CASRN Hydroxylated PAH metabolite CASRN
Benzo[a]pyrene 50-32-8 3-Hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene 13345-21-6
Chrysene 218-01-9 2-Hydroxychrysene 65945-06-4
3-Hydroxychrysene 63019-39-6
4-Hydroxychrysene 63019-40-9
6-Hydroxychrysene 37515-51-8
Fluoranthene 206-44-0 3-Hydroxyfluoranthene 17798-09-3
Fluorene 86-73-7 2-Hydroxyfluorene 2443-58-5
3-Hydroxyfluorene 6344-67-8
9-Hydroxyfluorene 1689-64-1
Naphthalene 91-20-3 1-Hydroxynaphthalene 90-15-3
2-Hydroxynaphthalene 135-19-3
Phenanthrene 85-01-8 1-Hydroxyphenanthrene 2433-56-9
2-Hydroxyphenanthrene 605-55-0
3-Hydroxyphenanthrene 605-87-8
4-Hydroxyphenanthrene 7651-86-7
9-Hydroxyphenanthrene 484-17-3
Pyrene 129-00-0 1-Hydroxypyrene 5315-79-7

PAHs are released to the environment from both natural and anthropogenic sources; the contribution from anthropogenic sources is substantially higher than from natural sources (ATSDR, 1995). In Canada, forest fires are the largest natural source of PAHs in the environment (Environment Canada, 2010). PAHs also have been measured in emissions from crude oil, coal, and volcanoes. Anthropogenic PAH emissions are predominantly due to the incomplete combustion of organic substances from residential wood combustion, industrial emissions, as well as from waste incineration, tobacco smoke, cooking, vehicle exhaust, oil spills, and the use of creosote-treated products (ATSDR, 1995a; ATSDR, 2005; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 1994b; Environment and Climate Change Canada, 2016).

For the general population, the major routes of exposure to PAHs are ingestion and inhalation from sources including diet, smoking, and ambient and indoor air (IARC, 2010; WHO, 2011b). Levels in food depend on the source of the food and the method of cooking (ATSDR, 1995). PAHs can be formed when food is charbroiled, grilled, roasted, fried, or baked. Drinking water is considered to be a negligible source of exposure in Canada (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 1994b). Vehicle exhaust, tobacco smoke, emissions from wood and charcoal-fired stoves, house dust, and ambient air all contribute to inhalation exposure. Human exposure to PAHs may also occur through skin contact with soot and tars (ATSDR, 1995).

PAHs can be absorbed following inhalation, oral, and dermal exposure. They undergo multi-step metabolism leading to several types of metabolites, including hydroxylated PAHs (Strickland et al., 1996). Elimination occurs through urine and feces, with urinary hydroxylated PAH metabolites observed within a few days of exposure (Viau et al., 1995). These metabolites are excreted both in the free form and as glucuronic acid and sulphate conjugates (Castaño-Vinyals et al., 2004).

Several approaches exist to assess human exposure to PAHs. The analysis of urinary hydroxylated PAH metabolites is the most common approach, and has been used in several biomonitoring studies (Becker et al., 2003; CDC, 2009).

Evaluating health effects of exposure to individual PAH species in humans is difficult because exposure is generally to PAH mixtures. Studies in laboratory animals have shown that several PAHs are carcinogenic, mutagenic, and/or teratogenic (IARC, 2010; IARC, 2012b). The carcinogenic potency of PAHs differs among PAH species, and can differ across routes of exposure (ATSDR, 1995). For some PAHs, formation of epoxides through metabolic activation is considered a key step in eliciting carcinogenic effects (Guillén and Sopelana, 2003).

Benzo[a]pyrene, PAH-containing mixtures such as soot and coal tar, as well as occupational PAH exposures during selected industrial activities (i.e. coal-tar distillation, coal gasification, coke production, aluminium production) have recently been classified as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (IARC, 2012b). However, IARC has also classified some PAHs, such as chrysene and naphthalene, as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) and others, such as fluoranthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, as not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3) (IARC, 2010). PAHs also elicit adverse immunologic effects, developmental and reproductive effects, as well as hepatic and renal effects in laboratory animals, but generally at doses higher than those that elicit a carcinogenic response (ATSDR, 1995).

In Canada, PAHs are listed as toxic substances on Schedule 1 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999), based on an evaluation of the environmental and health effects of several PAHs, including benzo[a]pyrene (Canada, 1999; Canada, 2000; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 1994b). Several environmental performance agreements, codes of practice, and recommendations have been established to reduce releases of PAHs to the environment from the aluminum production, metal refining and founding, and wood preservation sectors (Environment Canada, 2010). Health Canada has established a maximum level for PAHs in a specific food product called olive-pomace oil (Health Canada, 2012d).

In the following sections, some priority PAHs are discussed, and data on the levels of urinary hydroxylated PAH metabolites in the Canadian population are presented.

14.2 Benzo[a]pyrene

Benzo[a]pyrene (CASRN 50-32-8) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composed of five fused benzene rings. It is not manufactured in Canada and no industrial uses are known (Health Canada, 2016i). In laboratory rats, 40% to 60% of benzo[a]pyrene was shown to be absorbed following exposure through gavage or diet (Faust, 1994). Based on laboratory studies, approximately 3% of benzo[a]pyrene is expected to be absorbed through skin after 24 hours (Kao et al., 1985), although an optimized absorption study using rats showed 46% absorption over 5 days (Yang et al., 1986). Benzo[a]pyrene absorption through skin may be facilitated by metabolism in the cellular epidermis and the formation of stable adducts of benzo[a]pyrene metabolites and cellular structures. Evidence for absorption of benzo[a]pyrene following inhalation comes from the presence of urinary metabolites in workers exposed to PAHs in air (ATSDR, 1995). Inhalation absorption of benzo[a]pyrene is highly dependent on the type of particles onto which it is adsorbed. After absorption, benzo[a]pyrene distributes to several organs, including lungs, liver, and intestines (Faust, 1994). Like other PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene can be metabolized by many tissues forming various reactive metabolites such as diol epoxides, radical cations, and o-quinones. Quinones also induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (EPA, 2017). In recent years, the metabolite 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene has been used as a human urine biomarker for exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (Chien and Yeh, 2012).

Adverse health effects have been observed in laboratory animals following benzo[a]pyrene exposure via inhalation, oral, and dermal routes. Non-carcinogenic effects have been observed, in rodents, including neurological and neurodevelopmental effects (ATSDR, 1995; Health Canada, 2016i; Jules et al., 2012). The diolepoxides formed during metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene are considered to be the primary carcinogenic agents (IARC, 2012b). Occupational exposures to benzo[a]pyrene-containing mixtures have been associated with a series of cancers (IARC, 2012b). Based on the strong evidence for the carcinogenicity of benzo[a]pyrene in many animal species, and supported by evidence from laboratory and human studies, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified benzo[a]pyrene as Group 1, a known human carcinogen (IARC, 2012b). Prior to this, Environment Canada and Health Canada had classified benzo[a]pyrene as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group II) based primarily on results from studies with laboratory animals (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 1994b).

Health Canada, in collaboration with the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water, has developed a guideline for Canadian drinking water quality that establishes a maximum acceptable concentration for benzo[a]pyrene in drinking water (Health Canada, 2016i). This guideline was developed based on carcinogenic effects in experimental animals and is considered protective of both cancer and non-cancer effects.

The benzo[a]pyrene metabolite, 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene, was analyzed in the urine of Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013), and cycle 4 (2014-2015) participants aged 3-79 years, and is presented as both µg/L and µg/g creatinine. Finding a measurable amount of 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene in urine is an indicator of exposure to benzo[a]pyrene and does not necessarily mean that an adverse health effect will occur.

Table 14.2.1 - 3-Hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2294 99.91 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 2378 99.96 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 2431 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1163 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1188 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1220 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1131 99.82 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1190 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1211 99.83 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 420 99.76 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 453 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 450 99.78 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 466 99.79 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 468 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 494 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 473 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 486 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 488 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 328 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 340 99.71 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 352 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 340 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 300 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 303 99.67 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 267 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 331 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 344 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

Table 14.2.2 - 3-Hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (creatinine adjusted) - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2284 99.91 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 2377 99.96 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 2431 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1159 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1188 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1220 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1125 99.82 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1189 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1211 99.83 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 419 99.76 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 452 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 450 99.78 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 464 99.79 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 468 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 494 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 471 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 486 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 488 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 326 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 340 99.71 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 352 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 338 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 300 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 303 99.67 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 266 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 331 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 344 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

14.3 Chrysene

Chrysene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composed of four fused benzene rings. There are no known uses of chrysene other than its use as a research chemical (ATSDR, 1995).

Chrysene is highly lipophilic. In animal pharmacokinetic studies, approximately 75% of chrysene was absorbed when administered through oral, inhalation, and dermal routes of exposure; after absorption, it preferentially distributed to adipose tissues (Borges, 1994). Chrysene is metabolized into several mono- and di-hydroxychrysene metabolites (CDC, 2009). Chrysene metabolites are excreted predominantly in the feces. However, PAH biomonitoring studies in humans have attempted to measure urinary levels of 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-hydroxychrysene, and have been able to detect urinary 3- and 6-hydroxychrysene in a small proportion of samples (Nethery et al., 2012).

Data on the systemic toxicity of chrysene in animals and humans are limited (Borges, 1994). In mice, chrysene exposure resulted in an increased incidence of skin papillomas, and hepatic and lung tumours (Chang et al., 1983; Wislocki et al., 1986). Based on a limited amount of available carcinogenicity data, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified chrysene as Group 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans (IARC, 2010).

The urinary chrysene metabolites 3- and 6-hydroxychrysene were measured for 73 non-smoking, non-occupationally exposed individuals (aged 16-64 years) living approximately 1 km from an aluminum plant in Baie-Comeau, Quebec. These chrysene metabolites were measured as part of a spectrum of PAH metabolites. Although the levels of some other urinary PAH metabolites were higher compared with a control group of 71 individuals living at least 11 km from the plant, the urinary concentrations of these chrysene metabolites were below the limit of detection (0.032 µg/L for 3-hydroxychrysene and 0.019 µg/L for 6-hydroxychrysene) for most samples (Bouchard et al., 2009). Similarly, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-hydroxychrysene concentrations were below the limit of detection when measured in urine of pregnant women living in Hamilton, Ontario (Nethery et al., 2012).

The chrysene metabolites, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-hydroxychrysene, were analyzed in the urine of Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013), and cycle 4 (2014-2015) participants aged 3-79 years, and are presented as both µg/L and µg/g creatinine. Given that chrysene metabolites are predominantly excreted in the feces, their urinary absence alone does not indicate that exposure to chrysene did not occur. Finding a measurable amount of chrysene metabolites in urine is an indicator of exposure to chrysene and does not necessarily mean that an adverse health effect will occur.

Table 14.3.1 - 2-Hydroxychrysene - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2497 99.84 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 2496 99.96 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 2500 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1254 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1237 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1246 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1243 99.76 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1259 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1254 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 499 99.60 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 492 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 473 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 508 99.80 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 496 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 509 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 498 99.80 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 504 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 498 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 352 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 345 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 356 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 357 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 311 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 312 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 283 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 348 99.71 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 352 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

Table 14.3.2 - 2-Hydroxychrysene (creatinine adjusted) - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2487 99.84 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 2495 99.96 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 2500 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1250 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1237 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1246 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1237 99.76 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1258 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1254 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 498 99.60 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 491 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 473 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 506 99.80 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 496 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 509 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 496 99.80 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 504 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 498 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 350 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 345 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 356 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 355 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 311 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 312 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 282 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 348 99.71 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 352 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

Table 14.3.3 - 3-Hydroxychrysene - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2495 99.76 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 2498 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 2500 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1255 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1237 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1246 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1240 99.60 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1261 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1254 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 499 99.60 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 492 99.80 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 473 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 506 99.41 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 496 99.80 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 509 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 498 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 505 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 498 99.80 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 351 99.72 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 346 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 356 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 358 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 311 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 312 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 283 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 348 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 352 99.72 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

Table 14.3.4 - 3-Hydroxychrysene (creatinine adjusted) - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2485 99.76 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 2497 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 2500 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1251 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1237 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1246 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1234 99.60 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1260 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1254 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 498 99.60 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 491 99.80 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 473 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 504 99.41 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 496 99.80 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 509 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 496 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 505 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 498 99.80 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 349 99.72 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 346 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 356 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 356 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 311 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 312 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 282 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 348 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 352 99.72 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

Table 14.3.5 - 4-Hydroxychrysene - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2498 99.76 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 2498 99.84 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 2500 99.88 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1257 99.76 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1237 99.84 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1246 99.84 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1241 99.76 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1261 99.84 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1254 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 498 99.80 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 492 99.39 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 473 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 508 99.61 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 496 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 509 99.80 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 499 99.80 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 505 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 498 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 352 99.72 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 346 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 356 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 358 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 311 99.68 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 312 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 283 99.65 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 348 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 352 99.43 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

Table 14.3.6 - 4-Hydroxychrysene (creatinine adjusted) - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2488 99.76 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 2497 99.84 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 2500 99.88 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1253 99.76 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1237 99.84 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1246 99.84 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1235 99.76 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1260 99.84 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1254 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 497 99.80 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 491 99.39 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 473 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 506 99.61 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 496 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 509 99.80 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 497 99.80 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 505 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 498 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 350 99.72 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 346 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 356 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 356 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 311 99.68 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 312 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 282 99.65 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 348 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 352 99.43 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

Table 14.3.7 - 6-Hydroxychrysene - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2459 96.87 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 2494 99.84 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 2492 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1239 96.37 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1234 99.84 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1245 99.84 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1220 97.38 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1260 99.84 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1247 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 494 97.37 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 492 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 473 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 499 95.79 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 494 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 508 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 489 97.55 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 504 99.80 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 495 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 344 96.80 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 346 99.42 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 354 99.44 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 354 96.33 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 310 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 310 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 279 97.49 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 348 99.71 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 352 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

Table 14.3.8 - 6-Hydroxychrysene (creatinine adjusted) - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2449 96.87 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 2493 99.84 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 2492 99.92 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1235 96.37 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1234 99.84 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1245 99.84 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1214 97.38 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1259 99.84 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1247 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 493 97.37 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 491 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 473 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 497 95.79 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 494 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 508 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 487 97.55 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 504 99.80 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 495 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 342 96.80 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 346 99.42 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 354 99.44 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 352 96.33 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 310 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 310 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 278 97.49 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 348 99.71 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 352 100 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

14.4 Fluoranthene

Fluoranthene, also known as benzo[j,k]fluorene, is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with five fused aromatic rings. It is found naturally in the environment in some bacteria, algae, and plants, and as a result of anthropogenic releases from incomplete combustion of organic substances (EPA, 1980). Fluoranthene is used in the synthesis of dyes and in biomedical research (Wu et al., 2010).

Limited pharmacokinetic data for fluoranthene are available. Similar to other structurally related PAHs, fluoranthene may be absorbed following oral, inhalation, or dermal exposure (Faust, 1993a; Storer et al., 1984). Because of its high lipophilicity, fluoranthene distributes to adipose tissue (EPA, 1980). Metabolism of fluoranthene produces hydroxylated metabolites, and urinary 3-hydroxyfluoranthene is considered an indicator of recent exposures.

Kidney and liver effects were observed in rats orally administered fluoranthene (Faust, 1993a). Fluoranthene exposure in mice has resulted in lung tumours (Busby Jr. et al., 1989; IARC, 2010). Dermal exposure in mice to a combination of benzo[a]pyrene and fluoranthene significantly increased the incidence of skin tumours (IARC, 2010). Based on the limited data on fluoranthene carcinogenicity, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified fluoranthene as Group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (IARC, 2010).

The urinary fluoranthene metabolite, 3-hydroxyfluoranthene, was measured for 73 non-smoking, non-occupationally exposed individuals (aged 16-64 years) living approximately 1 km from an aluminum plant in Baie-Comeau, Quebec. The fluoranthene metabolite was measured as part of a spectrum of PAH metabolites. Although the levels of some other urinary PAH metabolites were higher compared with a control group of 71 individuals living at least 11 km from the plant, the concentration of 3-hydroxyfluoranthene was below the limit of detection (0.030 µg/L) for most samples (Bouchard et al., 2009).

The fluoranthene metabolite, 3-hydroxyfluoranthene, was analyzed in the urine of Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013), and cycle 4 (2014-2015) participants aged 3-79 years, and is presented as both µg/L and µg/g creatinine. Finding a measurable amount of 3-hydroxyfluoranthene in urine is an indicator of exposure to fluoranthene and does not necessarily mean that an adverse health effect will occur.

Table 14.4.1 - 3-Hydroxyfluoranthene - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2265 98.23 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 2263 98.37 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 2313 98.53 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1145 98.25 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1133 98.41 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1158 98.96 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1120 98.21 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1130 98.32 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1155 98.10 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 428 97.20 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 435 97.93 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 438 98.17 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 463 97.41 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 450 98.67 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 459 98.69 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 460 99.57 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 469 98.08 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 468 98.93 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 319 99.69 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 312 98.72 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 331 98.79 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 329 97.87 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 288 98.26 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 293 97.95 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 266 97.74 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 309 98.71 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 324 98.46 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

Table 14.4.2 - 3-Hydroxyfluoranthene (creatinine adjusted) - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2257 98.23 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 2262 98.37 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 2313 98.53 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1142 98.25 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1133 98.41 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1158 98.96 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1115 98.21 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 1129 98.32 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 1155 98.10 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 428 97.20 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 434 97.93 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 438 98.17 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 462 97.41 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 450 98.67 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 459 98.69 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 458 99.57 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 469 98.08 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 468 98.93 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 317 99.69 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 312 98.72 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 331 98.79 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 327 97.87 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 288 98.26 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 293 97.95 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 265 97.74 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3 (2012-2013) 309 98.71 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
4 (2014-2015) 324 98.46 - <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

14.5 Fluorene

Fluorene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with three fused aromatic rings. Fluorene and its derivatives are used in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, polymer materials, photonics, and basic research (Belfield et al., 1999; Bernius et al., 2000; Mondal et al., 2009).

Animal studies indicate that fluorene is absorbed following oral, inhalation, and dermal exposure (ATSDR, 1995). Metabolism of fluorene produces several hydroxylated metabolites that are further conjugated with glucuronic or sulphonic acids and rapidly eliminated in the urine (ATSDR, 1995). Several urinary monohydroxy fluorene metabolites, including 2-, 3-, and 9-hydroxyfluorene, have been identified in humans and are considered indicators of recent PAH exposure (Becker et al., 2003; CDC, 2009; Nethery et al., 2012). Urinary 3-hydroxyfluorene may be a good predictive biomarker for specifically assessing inhalation exposure to fluorene (Nethery et al., 2012).

Hematological and liver effects were observed in laboratory animals exposed orally to fluorene (ATSDR, 1995). Data on the carcinogenicity of fluorene in humans have not been identified and the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified fluorene as Group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity in humans (IARC, 2010).

In a pilot biomonitoring study carried out in Hamilton, Ontario, with 19 pregnant women aged 19-42 years, the geometric means for 2-, 3-, and 9-hydroxyfluorene in urine were 0.2157 µg/g creatinine, 0.04827 µg/g creatinine, and 0.3908 µg/g creatinine, respectively (Nethery et al., 2012).

The fluorene metabolites, 2-, 3-, and 9-hydroxyfluorene, were analyzed in the urine of Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013), and cycle 4 (2014-2015) participants aged 3-79 years, and are presented as both µg/L and µg/g creatinine. Finding a measurable amount of fluorene metabolites in urine is an indicator of exposure to fluorene and does not necessarily mean that an adverse health effect will occur.

Table 14.5.1 - 2-Hydroxyfluorene - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2524 0 0.27 (0.24-0.29) 0.069 (0.058-0.080) 0.24 (0.21-0.27) 1.2 (0.95-1.5) 2.3 (1.7-2.8)
3 (2012-2013) 2514 0 0.26 (0.24-0.29) 0.063 (0.051-0.075) 0.22 (0.20-0.24) 1.6 (1.4-1.8) 2.2 (1.6-2.7)
4 (2014-2015) 2510 0 0.28 (0.25-0.31) 0.074 (0.060-0.088) 0.24 (0.20-0.28) 1.2Footnote E (0.51-1.9) 2.3Footnote E (1.3-3.3)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1268 0 0.32 (0.27-0.38) 0.087 (0.071-0.10) 0.27 (0.23-0.32) 1.6Footnote E (0.95-2.3) 3.0 (2.1-4.0)
3 (2012-2013) 1243 0 0.32 (0.29-0.35) 0.079 (0.058-0.10) 0.26 (0.23-0.29) 1.8 (1.5-2.0) 2.5 (1.7-3.2)
4 (2014-2015) 1251 0 0.31 (0.25-0.37) 0.085 (0.064-0.11) 0.30 (0.24-0.36) Footnote F 2.4Footnote E (0.92-4.0)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1256 0 0.22 (0.21-0.25) 0.064 (0.051-0.076) 0.21 (0.17-0.26) 0.88Footnote E (0.54-1.2) 1.8 (1.3-2.3)
3 (2012-2013) 1271 0 0.21 (0.17-0.27) 0.050 (0.035-0.065) 0.18 (0.14-0.21) 1.4Footnote E (0.84-2.0) 2.0 (1.4-2.6)
4 (2014-2015) 1259 0 0.25 (0.22-0.29) 0.058 (0.041-0.074) 0.21 (0.18-0.25) 1.6Footnote E (0.62-2.5) 2.2Footnote E (1.3-3.1)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 506 0 0.17 (0.16-0.19) 0.069 (0.061-0.077) 0.18 (0.16-0.20) 0.37 (0.29-0.45) 0.47 (0.32-0.62)
3 (2012-2013) 496 0 0.16 (0.13-0.18) 0.045 (0.029-0.060) 0.17 (0.13-0.21) 0.41 (0.32-0.51) 0.61 (0.41-0.81)
4 (2014-2015) 478 0 0.16 (0.14-0.19) 0.057Footnote E (0.034-0.081) 0.16 (0.13-0.19) 0.43 (0.32-0.55) 0.55 (0.46-0.64)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 511 0 0.22 (0.18-0.25) 0.088 (0.077-0.10) 0.24 (0.19-0.29) 0.48 (0.40-0.56) 0.57 (0.38-0.76)
3 (2012-2013) 502 0 0.19 (0.17-0.21) 0.062 (0.045-0.078) 0.18 (0.16-0.21) 0.49 (0.38-0.60) 0.66 (0.53-0.78)
4 (2014-2015) 510 0 0.21 (0.18-0.23) 0.081 (0.068-0.094) 0.20 (0.17-0.24) 0.54 (0.44-0.64) 0.65 (0.57-0.72)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 506 0 0.26 (0.24-0.29) 0.098 (0.073-0.12) 0.26 (0.22-0.30) 0.73 (0.55-0.90) 1.1 (0.87-1.3)
3 (2012-2013) 506 0 0.28 (0.23-0.33) 0.079 (0.063-0.095) 0.25 (0.19-0.31) 1.0Footnote E (0.52-1.5) Footnote F
4 (2014-2015) 498 0 0.24 (0.21-0.28) 0.070 (0.056-0.084) 0.26 (0.21-0.32) 0.73 (0.60-0.86) 0.93 (0.67-1.2)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 355 0 0.30 (0.25-0.35) 0.085 (0.061-0.11) 0.28 (0.22-0.33) 1.3 (0.88-1.7) 2.2 (1.5-3.0)
3 (2012-2013) 351 0 0.36 (0.29-0.46) 0.087 (0.066-0.11) 0.33 (0.27-0.39) 1.8 (1.3-2.4) Footnote F
4 (2014-2015) 359 0 0.34 (0.28-0.40) 0.084Footnote E (0.044-0.12) 0.32 (0.27-0.37) 1.8Footnote E (0.93-2.7) 2.3Footnote E (1.3-3.4)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 359 0 0.30 (0.25-0.37) 0.066Footnote E (0.037-0.095) 0.25 (0.18-0.31) 1.9 (1.2-2.6) 3.3 (2.4-4.2)
3 (2012-2013) 312 0 0.27 (0.21-0.34) 0.062 (0.044-0.081) 0.21 (0.16-0.27) 1.6 (1.2-2.0) 2.0Footnote E (1.3-2.8)
4 (2014-2015) 312 0 0.31 (0.26-0.36) 0.066Footnote E (0.038-0.095) 0.26 (0.19-0.33) 1.7Footnote E (0.67-2.8) Footnote F
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 287 0 0.21 (0.18-0.25) 0.054 (0.043-0.064) 0.18 (0.15-0.20) 1.1Footnote E (0.63-1.5) 2.3Footnote E (1.2-3.3)
3 (2012-2013) 347 0 0.21 (0.16-0.27) 0.041Footnote E (0.020-0.062) 0.17 (0.14-0.20) 1.7Footnote E (0.82-2.7) 3.0Footnote E (1.3-4.8)
4 (2014-2015) 353 0 0.23 (0.20-0.26) 0.065 (0.052-0.078) 0.19 (0.16-0.22) 1.2Footnote E (0.72-1.7) 2.6Footnote E (1.4-3.7)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

F Data is too unreliable to be published.

Table 14.5.2 - 2-Hydroxyfluorene (creatinine adjusted) - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2514 0 0.27 (0.24-0.29) 0.10 (0.091-0.11) 0.21 (0.19-0.22) 1.1 (0.82-1.4) 1.9 (1.4-2.4)
3 (2012-2013) 2513 0 0.27 (0.25-0.29) 0.095 (0.089-0.10) 0.20 (0.18-0.23) 1.4 (1.1-1.7) 2.0 (1.6-2.3)
4 (2014-2015) 2510 0 0.25 (0.22-0.28) 0.094 (0.086-0.10) 0.20 (0.17-0.22) 1.3 (0.91-1.6) 1.9 (1.6-2.2)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1264 0 0.27 (0.23-0.32) 0.096 (0.089-0.10) 0.21 (0.18-0.23) 1.4Footnote E (0.81-1.9) 2.4Footnote E (1.3-3.5)
3 (2012-2013) 1243 0 0.27 (0.23-0.31) 0.083 (0.071-0.096) 0.20 (0.16-0.23) 1.5 (1.0-2.0) 1.9 (1.4-2.3)
4 (2014-2015) 1251 0 0.24 (0.20-0.30) 0.084 (0.067-0.10) 0.19 (0.14-0.24) 1.3Footnote E (0.51-2.0) 1.9 (1.3-2.5)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1250 0 0.26 (0.24-0.28) 0.12 (0.10-0.13) 0.21 (0.19-0.22) 0.87Footnote E (0.46-1.3) 1.7 (1.3-2.1)
3 (2012-2013) 1270 0 0.27 (0.23-0.32) 0.10 (0.097-0.11) 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 1.4 (0.87-1.9) 2.0 (1.5-2.5)
4 (2014-2015) 1259 0 0.26 (0.23-0.30) 0.099 (0.089-0.11) 0.20 (0.17-0.22) 1.3Footnote E (0.61-2.0) 2.0Footnote E (1.1-2.9)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 505 0 0.31 (0.28-0.34) 0.16 (0.14-0.18) 0.30 (0.26-0.33) 0.62 (0.46-0.78) 0.75 (0.63-0.88)
3 (2012-2013) 495 0 0.30 (0.28-0.33) 0.16 (0.15-0.18) 0.28 (0.26-0.31) 0.57 (0.50-0.65) 0.77 (0.58-0.95)
4 (2014-2015) 478 0 0.29 (0.26-0.32) 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 0.27 (0.24-0.29) 0.57 (0.49-0.66) 0.66 (0.51-0.82)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 509 0 0.25 (0.22-0.28) 0.14 (0.12-0.16) 0.23 (0.19-0.26) 0.46 (0.37-0.55) 0.59 (0.41-0.78)
3 (2012-2013) 502 0 0.24 (0.21-0.27) 0.12 (0.11-0.13) 0.22 (0.18-0.26) 0.55 (0.44-0.66) 0.67 (0.58-0.75)
4 (2014-2015) 510 0 0.23 (0.21-0.25) 0.11 (0.10-0.13) 0.22 (0.20-0.24) 0.43 (0.36-0.50) 0.53 (0.46-0.61)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 504 0 0.20 (0.18-0.22) 0.099 (0.092-0.11) 0.17 (0.16-0.18) 0.44 (0.33-0.55) Footnote F
3 (2012-2013) 506 0 0.21 (0.18-0.24) 0.099 (0.091-0.11) 0.17 (0.15-0.20) 0.58Footnote E (0.33-0.83) 1.1Footnote E (0.37-1.8)
4 (2014-2015) 498 0 0.18 (0.16-0.20) 0.083 (0.071-0.096) 0.16 (0.14-0.18) 0.40 (0.30-0.50) 0.60Footnote E (0.28-0.93)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 353 0 0.27 (0.22-0.33) 0.10 (0.080-0.12) 0.20 (0.17-0.24) 1.1Footnote E (0.56-1.6) 2.2Footnote E (1.0-3.3)
3 (2012-2013) 351 0 0.28 (0.23-0.35) 0.096 (0.080-0.11) 0.22 (0.16-0.29) 1.3Footnote E (0.50-2.1) 1.7 (1.1-2.2)
4 (2014-2015) 359 0 0.27 (0.22-0.33) 0.095 (0.083-0.11) 0.22 (0.16-0.28) 1.4 (0.88-1.8) 1.5 (1.0-2.0)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 357 0 0.30 (0.26-0.36) 0.10 (0.081-0.12) 0.22 (0.18-0.25) 1.6 (1.1-2.1) 2.5 (1.6-3.3)
3 (2012-2013) 312 0 0.31 (0.25-0.38) 0.090 (0.074-0.11) 0.23 (0.17-0.29) 1.7 (1.1-2.2) 2.2 (1.6-2.9)
4 (2014-2015) 312 0 0.28 (0.24-0.33) 0.095 (0.079-0.11) 0.19 (0.15-0.24) 1.9Footnote E (1.2-2.6) 2.2Footnote E (1.3-3.1)
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 286 0 0.25 (0.22-0.28) 0.098 (0.092-0.10) 0.18 (0.16-0.20) 1.3Footnote E (0.78-1.8) 1.8 (1.3-2.2)
3 (2012-2013) 347 0 0.24 (0.19-0.30) 0.084 (0.069-0.099) 0.16 (0.12-0.20) 1.6Footnote E (0.92-2.2) 2.2Footnote E (1.2-3.1)
4 (2014-2015) 353 0 0.22 (0.19-0.26) 0.086 (0.072-0.099) 0.16 (0.14-0.19) 1.2Footnote E (0.64-1.9) 2.0Footnote E (1.2-2.8)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

F Data is too unreliable to be published.

Table 14.5.3 - 3-Hydroxyfluorene - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2523 0.04 0.096 (0.087-0.11) 0.022 (0.020-0.025) 0.081 (0.072-0.089) 0.64 (0.46-0.81) 1.3 (0.96-1.7)
3 (2012-2013) 2513 0 0.10 (0.090-0.11) 0.019 (0.016-0.022) 0.082 (0.072-0.091) 0.95 (0.70-1.2) 1.3 (1.0-1.7)
4 (2014-2015) 2508 0 0.10 (0.092-0.12) 0.024 (0.021-0.027) 0.082 (0.068-0.096) 0.72Footnote E (0.35-1.1) 1.3Footnote E (0.79-1.9)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1266 0 0.12 (0.099-0.14) 0.028 (0.024-0.032) 0.096 (0.080-0.11) 0.79Footnote E (0.34-1.2) 1.7Footnote E (1.1-2.3)
3 (2012-2013) 1242 0 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 0.024 (0.016-0.031) 0.099 (0.093-0.11) 1.1 (0.75-1.4) 1.5 (1.1-1.9)
4 (2014-2015) 1251 0 0.12 (0.091-0.15) 0.030 (0.026-0.034) 0.10 (0.082-0.12) Footnote F Footnote F
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1257 0.08 0.078 (0.070-0.086) 0.019 (0.015-0.023) 0.071 (0.058-0.083) 0.38Footnote E (0.15-0.60) 0.99Footnote E (0.59-1.4)
3 (2012-2013) 1271 0 0.078 (0.061-0.10) 0.016 (0.012-0.020) 0.063 (0.043-0.083) 0.68Footnote E (0.39-0.98) 1.2 (0.84-1.6)
4 (2014-2015) 1257 0 0.092 (0.077-0.11) 0.020 (0.015-0.026) 0.069 (0.059-0.078) 0.85Footnote E (0.28-1.4) 1.3Footnote E (0.71-1.9)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 507 0 0.069 (0.063-0.077) 0.025 (0.020-0.030) 0.071 (0.061-0.080) 0.16 (0.10-0.22) 0.23Footnote E (0.099-0.37)
3 (2012-2013) 496 0 0.064 (0.054-0.075) 0.016Footnote E (0.0076-0.024) 0.068 (0.052-0.083) 0.18 (0.13-0.23) 0.26 (0.18-0.34)
4 (2014-2015) 478 0 0.065 (0.055-0.075) 0.022 (0.015-0.028) 0.068 (0.056-0.081) 0.15 (0.12-0.18) 0.22 (0.15-0.29)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 511 0 0.084 (0.069-0.10) 0.033 (0.028-0.038) 0.087 (0.066-0.11) 0.22 (0.17-0.27) 0.26 (0.19-0.32)
3 (2012-2013) 501 0 0.077 (0.067-0.089) 0.023 (0.016-0.031) 0.080 (0.073-0.087) 0.25Footnote E (0.16-0.35) 0.36Footnote E (0.21-0.52)
4 (2014-2015) 510 0 0.082 (0.074-0.092) 0.032 (0.028-0.037) 0.082 (0.069-0.094) 0.22 (0.17-0.27) 0.30 (0.25-0.34)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 506 0.20 0.093 (0.082-0.11) 0.029 (0.022-0.036) 0.093 (0.081-0.11) 0.31Footnote E (0.19-0.42) 0.53Footnote E (0.33-0.73)
3 (2012-2013) 506 0 0.10 (0.088-0.12) 0.028 (0.019-0.037) 0.088 (0.074-0.10) 0.59Footnote E (0.24-0.93) 0.94Footnote E (0.31-1.6)
4 (2014-2015) 498 0 0.091 (0.077-0.11) 0.024 (0.018-0.030) 0.089 (0.073-0.11) 0.31 (0.23-0.40) 0.44 (0.31-0.56)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 354 0 0.11 (0.092-0.13) 0.025 (0.018-0.032) 0.10 (0.079-0.12) 0.75Footnote E (0.39-1.1) 1.1Footnote E (0.70-1.5)
3 (2012-2013) 351 0 0.14 (0.11-0.18) 0.026Footnote E (0.014-0.038) 0.10 (0.089-0.11) 1.1 (0.77-1.4) 1.4Footnote E (0.72-2.0)
4 (2014-2015) 358 0 0.12 (0.099-0.15) 0.033 (0.025-0.040) 0.10 (0.082-0.12) 1.0Footnote E (0.48-1.6) 1.4Footnote E (0.74-2.0)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 358 0 0.11 (0.090-0.14) 0.020Footnote E (0.011-0.030) 0.080 (0.062-0.099) 1.2Footnote E (0.66-1.8) 2.2 (1.5-3.0)
3 (2012-2013) 311 0 0.11 (0.079-0.14) 0.018Footnote E (0.011-0.025) 0.078 (0.052-0.10) 0.99Footnote E (0.54-1.4) 1.3Footnote E (0.76-1.8)
4 (2014-2015) 311 0 0.12 (0.10-0.15) 0.024 (0.017-0.031) 0.092 (0.061-0.12) 1.1Footnote E (0.33-1.8) Footnote F
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 287 0 0.067 (0.056-0.079) 0.018 (0.014-0.022) 0.050 (0.043-0.057) 0.44Footnote E (0.24-0.64) 1.1Footnote E (0.58-1.7)
3 (2012-2013) 348 0 0.074 (0.057-0.095) 0.012Footnote E (0.0050-0.018) 0.052 (0.037-0.068) 0.95Footnote E (0.28-1.6) 1.8Footnote E (0.83-2.8)
4 (2014-2015) 353 0 0.075 (0.065-0.087) 0.017 (0.013-0.022) 0.057 (0.046-0.068) 0.69Footnote E (0.29-1.1) 1.2Footnote E (0.66-1.8)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

F Data is too unreliable to be published.

Table 14.5.4 - 3-Hydroxyfluorene (creatinine adjusted) - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2513 0.04 0.096 (0.087-0.11) 0.032 (0.031-0.034) 0.070 (0.063-0.077) 0.68Footnote E (0.41-0.95) 1.1 (0.84-1.3)
3 (2012-2013) 2512 0 0.10 (0.095-0.11) 0.029 (0.025-0.032) 0.072 (0.063-0.081) 0.83 (0.64-1.0) 1.2 (0.94-1.4)
4 (2014-2015) 2508 0 0.093 (0.082-0.10) 0.027 (0.023-0.031) 0.069 (0.060-0.078) 0.67 (0.51-0.84) 1.0 (0.76-1.3)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1262 0 0.10 (0.086-0.12) 0.031 (0.029-0.033) 0.074 (0.060-0.088) 0.81Footnote E (0.47-1.1) 1.4Footnote E (0.88-1.9)
3 (2012-2013) 1242 0 0.11 (0.090-0.13) 0.026 (0.021-0.030) 0.077 (0.062-0.091) 0.84 (0.64-1.0) 1.0 (0.82-1.3)
4 (2014-2015) 1251 0 0.091 (0.070-0.12) 0.024 (0.020-0.028) 0.067 (0.055-0.080) 0.60Footnote E (0.19-1.0) 1.1Footnote E (0.63-1.6)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1251 0.08 0.089 (0.081-0.098) 0.035 (0.031-0.038) 0.069 (0.063-0.074) Footnote F 0.99 (0.73-1.3)
3 (2012-2013) 1270 0 0.10 (0.084-0.12) 0.032 (0.028-0.036) 0.071 (0.061-0.082) 0.79Footnote E (0.38-1.2) 1.2 (0.92-1.6)
4 (2014-2015) 1257 0 0.095 (0.080-0.11) 0.030 (0.025-0.035) 0.071 (0.061-0.080) 0.75Footnote E (0.34-1.2) 1.0Footnote E (0.49-1.5)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 506 0 0.12 (0.11-0.14) 0.061 (0.057-0.066) 0.11 (0.089-0.13) 0.25 (0.19-0.30) 0.32Footnote E (0.16-0.49)
3 (2012-2013) 495 0 0.12 (0.11-0.14) 0.062 (0.053-0.072) 0.11 (0.10-0.13) 0.27 (0.23-0.30) 0.40 (0.27-0.53)
4 (2014-2015) 478 0 0.12 (0.10-0.13) 0.060 (0.054-0.066) 0.11 (0.092-0.12) 0.24 (0.19-0.29) 0.34 (0.24-0.44)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 509 0 0.098 (0.085-0.11) 0.050 (0.042-0.057) 0.094 (0.080-0.11) 0.20 (0.15-0.25) 0.26 (0.20-0.33)
3 (2012-2013) 501 0 0.099 (0.083-0.12) 0.044 (0.038-0.050) 0.085 (0.070-0.10) 0.25Footnote E (0.11-0.38) 0.43Footnote E (0.23-0.62)
4 (2014-2015) 510 0 0.090 (0.084-0.097) 0.041 (0.033-0.049) 0.087 (0.078-0.097) 0.19 (0.17-0.22) 0.27 (0.22-0.31)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 504 0.20 0.071 (0.062-0.082) 0.031 (0.027-0.035) 0.063 (0.055-0.070) 0.22Footnote E (0.11-0.33) Footnote F
3 (2012-2013) 506 0 0.079 (0.069-0.090) 0.033 (0.028-0.038) 0.065 (0.056-0.074) Footnote F 0.61Footnote E (0.25-0.96)
4 (2014-2015) 498 0 0.066 (0.057-0.076) 0.029 (0.026-0.032) 0.056 (0.047-0.065) 0.17 (0.12-0.23) 0.28Footnote E (0.10-0.47)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 352 0 0.099 (0.081-0.12) 0.033 (0.027-0.038) 0.070 (0.056-0.083) 0.66Footnote E (0.28-1.0) 1.1Footnote E (0.47-1.7)
3 (2012-2013) 351 0 0.11 (0.083-0.14) 0.032 (0.026-0.037) 0.079 (0.060-0.098) 0.78Footnote E (0.36-1.2) 0.99 (0.69-1.3)
4 (2014-2015) 358 0 0.097 (0.075-0.13) 0.025Footnote E (0.015-0.034) 0.072 (0.055-0.090) 0.66 (0.44-0.88) 0.88 (0.67-1.1)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 356 0 0.11 (0.092-0.14) 0.033 (0.028-0.038) 0.072 (0.052-0.093) 1.0 (0.72-1.4) 1.6 (1.2-2.0)
3 (2012-2013) 311 0 0.12 (0.095-0.16) 0.027 (0.019-0.035) 0.078 (0.058-0.099) 1.1 (0.80-1.4) 1.5 (1.0-1.9)
4 (2014-2015) 311 0 0.11 (0.090-0.14) 0.027 (0.019-0.034) 0.073 (0.058-0.088) 1.1Footnote E (0.63-1.7) 1.6 (1.1-2.1)
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 286 0 0.078 (0.067-0.090) 0.028 (0.025-0.031) 0.055 (0.047-0.063) 0.58Footnote E (0.23-0.92) 0.96 (0.81-1.1)
3 (2012-2013) 348 0 0.085 (0.067-0.11) 0.025 (0.022-0.028) 0.053 (0.041-0.064) 0.82Footnote E (0.48-1.2) 1.4 (1.0-1.8)
4 (2014-2015) 353 0 0.073 (0.061-0.086) 0.024 (0.019-0.029) 0.053 (0.048-0.059) 0.72Footnote E (0.34-1.1) 0.93 (0.75-1.1)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

F Data is too unreliable to be published.

Table 14.5.5 - 9-Hydroxyfluorene - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2514 0 0.16 (0.15-0.17) 0.051 (0.045-0.058) 0.16 (0.14-0.17) 0.46 (0.37-0.55) 0.66 (0.57-0.76)
3 (2012-2013) 2499 0 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 0.045 (0.037-0.053) 0.14 (0.13-0.16) 0.53 (0.44-0.61) 0.71 (0.60-0.82)
4 (2014-2015) 2501 0 0.15 (0.14-0.17) 0.050 (0.043-0.057) 0.14 (0.12-0.16) 0.48 (0.39-0.57) 0.72 (0.49-0.95)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1260 0 0.17 (0.15-0.20) 0.057 (0.048-0.066) 0.17 (0.13-0.20) 0.58 (0.46-0.70) 0.73 (0.61-0.85)
3 (2012-2013) 1238 0 0.17 (0.15-0.18) 0.051 (0.037-0.065) 0.16 (0.15-0.17) 0.58 (0.46-0.71) 0.73 (0.62-0.85)
4 (2014-2015) 1247 0 0.16 (0.13-0.19) 0.052 (0.040-0.064) 0.15 (0.12-0.18) 0.53 (0.46-0.60) 0.78 (0.52-1.0)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1254 0 0.15 (0.13-0.16) 0.048 (0.040-0.055) 0.14 (0.13-0.16) 0.39 (0.33-0.46) 0.49 (0.32-0.66)
3 (2012-2013) 1261 0 0.13 (0.11-0.16) 0.041 (0.031-0.050) 0.13 (0.10-0.16) 0.49 (0.36-0.63) 0.65 (0.43-0.86)
4 (2014-2015) 1254 0 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 0.049 (0.041-0.056) 0.14 (0.11-0.16) 0.45 (0.33-0.57) 0.66 (0.42-0.89)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 505 0 0.098 (0.088-0.11) 0.040 (0.032-0.048) 0.098 (0.086-0.11) 0.24 (0.19-0.29) 0.30 (0.25-0.34)
3 (2012-2013) 490 0 0.084 (0.070-0.099) 0.029 (0.022-0.036) 0.085 (0.065-0.10) 0.22 (0.15-0.28) 0.29 (0.21-0.37)
4 (2014-2015) 473 0 0.083 (0.071-0.097) 0.035 (0.029-0.041) 0.082 (0.066-0.098) 0.19 (0.14-0.24) 0.27 (0.19-0.36)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 509 0 0.11 (0.091-0.13) 0.042 (0.032-0.051) 0.11 (0.086-0.13) 0.29 (0.21-0.37) 0.38 (0.28-0.47)
3 (2012-2013) 498 0 0.091 (0.082-0.10) 0.038 (0.030-0.045) 0.081 (0.072-0.090) 0.24 (0.19-0.30) 0.34 (0.26-0.42)
4 (2014-2015) 510 0 0.094 (0.077-0.11) 0.034 (0.026-0.042) 0.086 (0.059-0.11) 0.26 (0.19-0.33) 0.40Footnote E (0.25-0.55)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 501 0 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 0.060 (0.047-0.073) 0.14 (0.12-0.17) 0.38 (0.32-0.45) 0.49 (0.35-0.62)
3 (2012-2013) 505 0 0.13 (0.12-0.15) 0.047 (0.039-0.055) 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 0.38Footnote E (0.23-0.54) 0.58 (0.40-0.77)
4 (2014-2015) 496 0 0.13 (0.11-0.14) 0.041 (0.033-0.050) 0.12 (0.099-0.14) 0.37 (0.30-0.44) 0.45 (0.38-0.52)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 355 0 0.17 (0.15-0.20) 0.058 (0.041-0.076) 0.18 (0.15-0.21) 0.52 (0.34-0.70) 0.66 (0.53-0.79)
3 (2012-2013) 351 0 0.20 (0.17-0.22) 0.065Footnote E (0.041-0.089) 0.19 (0.13-0.25) 0.54Footnote E (0.34-0.74) 0.77 (0.60-0.93)
4 (2014-2015) 359 0 0.19 (0.15-0.23) 0.062 (0.044-0.080) 0.17 (0.11-0.22) 0.54Footnote E (0.32-0.76) 0.80Footnote E (0.43-1.2)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 358 0 0.17 (0.15-0.20) 0.048Footnote E (0.029-0.066) 0.17 (0.13-0.20) 0.51 (0.34-0.68) 0.80 (0.55-1.1)
3 (2012-2013) 310 0 0.17 (0.13-0.20) 0.045 (0.035-0.056) 0.15 (0.11-0.19) 0.58 (0.49-0.68) 0.76 (0.56-0.95)
4 (2014-2015) 312 0 0.16 (0.13-0.19) 0.053 (0.036-0.069) 0.14 (0.10-0.19) 0.45Footnote E (0.19-0.71) 0.80 (0.55-1.0)
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 286 0 0.16 (0.14-0.18) 0.052 (0.046-0.058) 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 0.48 (0.31-0.66) 0.73Footnote E (0.46-1.0)
3 (2012-2013) 345 0 0.13 (0.11-0.16) 0.037Footnote E (0.018-0.056) 0.12 (0.10-0.15) 0.49Footnote E (0.28-0.71) 0.71 (0.48-0.94)
4 (2014-2015) 351 0 0.16 (0.14-0.18) 0.051 (0.047-0.054) 0.14 (0.12-0.16) 0.50 (0.40-0.60) 0.81 (0.53-1.1)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

Table 14.5.6 - 9-Hydroxyfluorene (creatinine adjusted) - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2504 0 0.16 (0.15-0.17) 0.059 (0.053-0.066) 0.14 (0.13-0.16) 0.43 (0.35-0.52) 0.62 (0.51-0.72)
3 (2012-2013) 2498 0 0.16 (0.14-0.17) 0.055 (0.048-0.062) 0.14 (0.13-0.16) 0.48 (0.43-0.52) 0.72 (0.64-0.81)
4 (2014-2015) 2501 0 0.14 (0.12-0.15) 0.049 (0.041-0.057) 0.12 (0.10-0.14) 0.48 (0.37-0.59) 0.67 (0.56-0.79)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1256 0 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 0.055 (0.047-0.064) 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 0.50 (0.35-0.64) 0.62 (0.50-0.73)
3 (2012-2013) 1238 0 0.14 (0.12-0.16) 0.049 (0.041-0.058) 0.13 (0.10-0.15) 0.46 (0.35-0.56) 0.62 (0.48-0.76)
4 (2014-2015) 1247 0 0.12 (0.10-0.15) 0.043 (0.034-0.053) 0.10 (0.077-0.12) 0.51 (0.38-0.65) 0.68 (0.54-0.82)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1248 0 0.17 (0.15-0.19) 0.065 (0.058-0.071) 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 0.42 (0.34-0.50) 0.62 (0.44-0.80)
3 (2012-2013) 1260 0 0.17 (0.15-0.20) 0.061 (0.050-0.071) 0.15 (0.14-0.17) 0.57Footnote E (0.35-0.80) 0.83 (0.63-1.0)
4 (2014-2015) 1254 0 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 0.058 (0.049-0.068) 0.14 (0.11-0.16) 0.48 (0.34-0.62) 0.65 (0.46-0.85)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 504 0 0.17 (0.15-0.19) 0.068 (0.053-0.083) 0.17 (0.15-0.20) 0.41 (0.31-0.50) 0.62 (0.42-0.81)
3 (2012-2013) 489 0 0.16 (0.14-0.18) 0.065 (0.058-0.072) 0.15 (0.12-0.18) 0.44 (0.36-0.52) 0.54 (0.45-0.64)
4 (2014-2015) 473 0 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 0.056 (0.042-0.071) 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 0.38 (0.28-0.49) 0.51 (0.40-0.61)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 507 0 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 0.056 (0.049-0.064) 0.11 (0.090-0.13) 0.31 (0.22-0.40) 0.42Footnote E (0.20-0.64)
3 (2012-2013) 498 0 0.12 (0.10-0.13) 0.046Footnote E (0.029-0.063) 0.11 (0.096-0.13) 0.27 (0.22-0.31) 0.43 (0.30-0.56)
4 (2014-2015) 510 0 0.10 (0.086-0.12) 0.040 (0.026-0.055) 0.095 (0.079-0.11) 0.27 (0.21-0.33) 0.40 (0.29-0.51)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 499 0 0.11 (0.097-0.13) 0.048 (0.039-0.056) 0.10 (0.083-0.12) 0.27 (0.19-0.35) 0.37Footnote E (0.16-0.57)
3 (2012-2013) 505 0 0.10 (0.087-0.12) 0.042 (0.035-0.048) 0.088 (0.077-0.098) 0.25 (0.17-0.34) 0.37Footnote E (0.22-0.51)
4 (2014-2015) 496 0 0.092 (0.078-0.11) 0.037 (0.032-0.042) 0.087 (0.075-0.099) 0.25 (0.17-0.32) 0.41Footnote E (0.26-0.57)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 353 0 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 0.060 (0.049-0.070) 0.14 (0.11-0.16) 0.35Footnote E (0.15-0.54) 0.56 (0.39-0.73)
3 (2012-2013) 351 0 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 0.055 (0.038-0.072) 0.13 (0.092-0.16) 0.51 (0.33-0.69) 0.68 (0.52-0.84)
4 (2014-2015) 359 0 0.15 (0.12-0.18) 0.049 (0.034-0.063) 0.15 (0.11-0.18) 0.48Footnote E (0.25-0.71) 0.67Footnote E (0.42-0.92)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 356 0 0.17 (0.16-0.19) 0.064 (0.055-0.073) 0.16 (0.14-0.18) 0.52 (0.40-0.63) 0.64Footnote E (0.40-0.88)
3 (2012-2013) 310 0 0.19 (0.16-0.23) 0.063 (0.043-0.084) 0.20 (0.15-0.24) 0.62Footnote E (0.38-0.86) 0.81 (0.52-1.1)
4 (2014-2015) 312 0 0.14 (0.12-0.17) 0.053 (0.039-0.066) 0.11Footnote E (0.066-0.15) 0.56 (0.36-0.77) 0.76 (0.53-0.99)
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 285 0 0.19 (0.16-0.22) 0.065 (0.044-0.086) 0.16 (0.13-0.19) 0.52 (0.34-0.70) 0.77 (0.56-0.98)
3 (2012-2013) 345 0 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 0.056 (0.038-0.073) 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 0.45 (0.31-0.60) 0.64 (0.52-0.76)
4 (2014-2015) 351 0 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 0.065 (0.046-0.085) 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 0.52 (0.36-0.69) 0.72 (0.49-0.96)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

14.6 Naphthalene

Naphthalene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with two fused benzene rings. Naphthalene is manufactured and imported into Canada for a wide variety of industrial uses (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2008c). The major consumer products made from naphthalene are moth repellents, in the form of mothballs or moth crystals. Other commercial uses of naphthalene include components of polyvinyl chloride phthalate plasticizers, dyes, resins, and leather-tanning agents (EPA, 2008b; IARC, 2002).

Naphthalene evaporates easily and is often found in the gaseous phase in ambient air (WHO, 2010). Although diet and smoking are the most important sources of intake for most PAHs, inhalation of ambient and indoor air is the main source of naphthalene exposure for the general population. In Canada, indoor air exposure accounts for more than 95% of the total daily exposure across age groups (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2008c). A recent study identified mothballs and some building materials and furnishings (vinyl and wooden furniture, and painted walls and ceilings) as significant contributors to indoor naphthalene concentrations in Canadian homes (Kang et al., 2012). Other sources of naphthalene in indoor and ambient air include migration of volatile organic compounds from attached garages, during cooking, and from kerosene space heaters and wood stoves (Batterman et al., 2007; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2008c). Food and drinking water are considered minor sources of exposure to naphthalene (NTP, 2002).

Naphthalene is rapidly absorbed and metabolized following oral and inhalation exposures in laboratory animals (Bagchi et al., 2002; NTP, 2002). Naphthalene is also absorbed following dermal application in humans and laboratory animals (Storer et al., 1984; Turkall et al., 1994). Like other PAHs, naphthalene undergoes multi-step metabolism, the result of which includes the production of the hydroxynaphthalene metabolites, 1- and 2-hydroxynaphthalene (WHO, 2010). Urinary levels of hydroxynaphthalene metabolites are reflective of recent exposure and have been measured in several human studies (Bouchard et al., 2009; CDC, 2009; Nethery et al., 2012). Urinary 2-hydroxynaphthalene is a unique biomarker of naphthalene metabolism (CDC, 2009). 1-Hydroxynaphthalene is a metabolite of both naphthalene and the insecticide carbaryl, making it difficult to distinguish between these exposures in the general population (Meeker et al., 2007).

In humans, the most serious effects of acute exposure to naphthalene are reported in individuals with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, where hemolytic anemia is the primary adverse effect (Health Canada, 2013g; WHO, 2010). Reports from occupational exposure and animal studies suggest chronic exposure to naphthalene may lead to the development of lens opacities such as cataracts (Health Canada, 2013g; WHO, 2010). Respiratory tract lesions also have been observed in laboratory animals following acute and chronic exposures (WHO, 2010). Naphthalene has been observed to induce airway tumours in laboratory animals (NTP, 2002). Increased cell proliferation due to cytotoxicity (cell damage) is considered a key element in the development of airway tumours (WHO, 2010). The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified naphthalene as Group 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans (IARC, 2002). The carcinogenicity of naphthalene has been proposed to involve non-genotoxic mechanisms (IARC, 2002). Based upon an assessment of acute and chronic effects, Health Canada has established a long-term residential maximum exposure limit for naphthalene (Health Canada, 2013g). The guideline is considered to protect against the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects to the respiratory tract resulting from naphthalene exposure.

On the basis of its potential cancer risk, and the margin between levels to which Canadians might be exposed and the critical effect level for non-cancer effects, Health Canada and Environment Canada have concluded that naphthalene is a concern for human health (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2008c). As a result, naphthalene is listed as a toxic substance on Schedule 1 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999) (Canada, 1999; Canada, 2010d). In an effort to reduce exposure to naphthalene, several risk management approaches have been taken (Canada, 2010e). In 2010, the Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) re-evaluated the insecticidal uses of naphthalene. PMRA concluded that pest control products containing naphthalene do not present unacceptable risks to human health when used according to label directions, and has granted continued registration (Health Canada, 2010i). As a condition of the continued registration of naphthalene uses, Health Canada has introduced new packaging and labelling requirements for naphthalene-containing consumer products (mothballs and moth flakes) in order to minimize exposure (Health Canada, 2012f). Naphthalene and 2-hydroxynaphthalene are included as prohibited ingredients and 1-hydroxynaphthalene and its salts as restricted ingredients on the List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients (more commonly referred to as the Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist or simply the Hotlist) (Health Canada, 2015b). The Hotlist is an administrative tool that Health Canada uses to communicate to manufacturers and others that certain substances, when present in a cosmetic, may contravene the general prohibition found in section 16 of the Food and Drugs Act or a provision of the Cosmetic Regulations (Canada, 1985a; Health Canada, 2015b).

1-Hydroxynaphthalene and 2-hydroxynaphthalene have been measured in urine as biomarkers of exposure to naphthalene in several studies. For various adult populations in Quebec living near industrial facilities, the reported geometric means ranged from 0.80 µg/g to 3.17 µg/g creatinine for 1-hydroxynaphthalene and from 1.38 µg/g to 3.26 µg/g creatinine for 2-hydroxynaphthalene (Bouchard et al., 2001; Bouchard et al., 2009). These naphthalene metabolites were also measured in a pilot biomonitoring study carried out in Hamilton, Ontario, with 19 pregnant women aged 19-42 years. The geometric mean urinary concentrations were 1.411 µg/g creatinine for 1-hydroxynaphthalene and 2.605 µg/g creatinine for 2-hydroxynaphthalene (Nethery et al., 2012). A study aiming to assess naphthalene exposure in 63 pregnant Canadian women aged 20-47 years residing in Ottawa, Ontario, reported geometric mean concentrations in urine ranging from 1.04 µg/L to 1.32 µg/L and from 2.72 µg/g to 2.92 µg/L for 1-hydroxynaphthalene and 2-hydroxynaphthalene, respectively (Wheeler et al., 2014).

Naphthalene metabolites, 1-hydroxynaphthalene and 2-hydroxynaphthalene, were analyzed in the urine of Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013), and cycle 4 (2014-2015) participants aged 3-79 years, and are presented as both µg/L and µg/g creatinine. Finding a measurable amount of naphthalene metabolites in urine can be an indicator of exposure to naphthalene or carbaryl (for 1-hydroxynaphthalene) and does not necessarily mean that an adverse health effect will occur.

Naphthalene was also analyzed in indoor air from households of CHMS participants in cycle 2 (2009-2011) (Zhu et al., 2013), cycle 3 (2012-2013), and cycle 4 (2014-2015). Further details on the indoor air studies are available in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Data User Guide: Cycle 4 (Statistics Canada, 2017). Indoor air data are available through Statistics Canada's Research Data Centres or upon request by contacting Statistics Canada at infostats@statcan.gc.ca.

Table 14.6.1 - 1-Hydroxynaphthalene - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2522 0.79 1.5 (1.3-1.7) 0.27 (0.18-0.37) 1.3 (1.1-1.5) 9.9 (7.7-12) 15 (12-19)
3 (2012-2013) 2511 2.27 1.0 (0.89-1.2) 0.19 (0.16-0.23) 0.85 (0.68-1.0) 7.8 (6.6-9.0) 11 (8.2-14)
4 (2014-2015) 2500 1.84 0.97 (0.86-1.1) 0.19 (0.16-0.22) 0.81 (0.70-0.92) 7.1 (5.0-9.2) 13 (8.8-18)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1267 0.39 1.6 (1.3-2.0) 0.29Footnote E (0.16-0.42) 1.3 (1.0-1.7) 11 (9.5-14) 17 (13-21)
3 (2012-2013) 1241 1.69 1.3 (1.1-1.6) 0.24 (0.18-0.30) 1.1 (0.75-1.4) 8.3 (6.4-10) 12Footnote E (7.2-16)
4 (2014-2015) 1245 2.17 1.0 (0.83-1.2) 0.21 (0.14-0.27) 0.94 (0.79-1.1) 7.0Footnote E (4.3-9.8) 11Footnote E (5.1-17)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1255 1.20 1.4 (1.2-1.6) 0.26Footnote E (0.14-0.37) 1.2 (1.1-1.4) 6.2Footnote E (2.4-10) Footnote F
3 (2012-2013) 1270 2.83 0.80 (0.57-1.1) 0.18 (0.12-0.23) 0.72 (0.48-0.97) 6.6Footnote E (3.7-9.4) 9.9 (6.8-13)
4 (2014-2015) 1255 1.51 0.94 (0.73-1.2) 0.18 (0.15-0.20) 0.73 (0.60-0.87) Footnote F 14Footnote E (6.5-22)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 506 0.40 1.4 (1.2-1.6) 0.43 (0.35-0.50) 1.2 (1.0-1.4) 5.4Footnote E (3.3-7.5) Footnote F
3 (2012-2013) 495 1.82 0.69 (0.54-0.88) 0.19Footnote E (0.12-0.26) 0.68 (0.53-0.82) 2.9 (2.1-3.8) 4.2 (2.7-5.7)
4 (2014-2015) 474 2.53 0.64 (0.57-0.71) 0.18 (0.12-0.25) 0.62 (0.53-0.71) 2.0 (1.6-2.4) Footnote F
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 511 0.39 0.95 (0.79-1.1) 0.25Footnote E (<LOD-0.40) 0.92 (0.73-1.1) 2.8 (2.1-3.5) 4.0 (2.9-5.2)
3 (2012-2013) 502 2.19 0.75 (0.63-0.90) 0.23 (0.16-0.30) 0.68 (0.55-0.82) 3.0Footnote E (1.8-4.2) Footnote F
4 (2014-2015) 508 2.56 0.62 (0.53-0.74) 0.18Footnote E (0.11-0.25) 0.57 (0.45-0.69) 2.2 (1.4-3.0) 3.7Footnote E (1.6-5.8)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 505 1.39 1.2 (0.98-1.4) 0.28Footnote E (0.14-0.41) 1.0 (0.83-1.2) 4.1Footnote E (2.1-6.1) Footnote F
3 (2012-2013) 505 2.57 0.95 (0.70-1.3) 0.19Footnote E (0.12-0.26) 0.74 (0.50-0.98) 7.2 (4.8-9.6) Footnote F
4 (2014-2015) 497 1.41 0.69 (0.57-0.84) 0.17Footnote E (0.10-0.23) 0.65 (0.54-0.76) 2.8 (1.9-3.6) 4.7Footnote E (1.6-7.8)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 354 1.13 1.4 (1.1-1.7) 0.29Footnote E (0.14-0.43) 1.4 (1.0-1.7) 7.1Footnote E (4.5-9.7) 13 (9.9-15)
3 (2012-2013) 350 2.29 1.2 (0.84-1.6) 0.20Footnote E (0.12-0.28) 0.91Footnote E (0.56-1.3) 8.4Footnote E (5.2-12) 12Footnote E (5.4-18)
4 (2014-2015) 358 1.40 1.1 (0.85-1.3) 0.18 (0.13-0.23) 0.97 (0.82-1.1) 7.1Footnote E (4.0-10) 11 (7.3-15)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 359 1.11 1.7 (1.3-2.2) 0.28Footnote E (0.11-0.44) 1.3 (0.97-1.7) 13 (10-15) 19Footnote E (11-27)
3 (2012-2013) 311 3.22 1.1Footnote E (0.74-1.6) 0.18Footnote E (0.10-0.25) 0.97Footnote E (0.27-1.7) 8.1 (5.2-11) 11 (7.1-15)
4 (2014-2015) 311 1.61 1.1 (0.87-1.4) 0.18Footnote E (0.11-0.25) 0.89Footnote E (0.43-1.3) Footnote F 20Footnote E (7.4-32)
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 287 0.35 1.7 (1.3-2.2) 0.25Footnote E (0.12-0.39) 1.6 (1.2-1.9) Footnote F Footnote F
3 (2012-2013) 348 1.72 0.99 (0.77-1.3) 0.21Footnote E (0.13-0.28) 0.86 (0.68-1.0) 7.0 (4.6-9.4) 13Footnote E (7.5-19)
4 (2014-2015) 352 1.14 1.1 (0.79-1.4) 0.21 (0.16-0.25) 0.79 (0.57-1.0) 7.6Footnote E (4.5-11) Footnote F

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

F Data is too unreliable to be published.

Table 14.6.2 - 1-Hydroxynaphthalene (creatinine adjusted) - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2512 0.79 1.5 (1.3-1.7) 0.31Footnote E (0.20-0.42) 1.2 (1.0-1.4) 9.5 (7.0-12) 15 (12-18)
3 (2012-2013) 2510 2.27 1.1 (0.91-1.2) 0.20 (0.16-0.25) 0.99 (0.81-1.2) 6.9 (5.4-8.4) 10 (7.7-12)
4 (2014-2015) 2500 1.84 0.88 (0.78-0.99) 0.18 (0.15-0.21) 0.68 (0.56-0.81) 6.9 (5.4-8.4) 11 (7.1-14)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1263 0.39 1.4 (1.1-1.7) 0.28 (0.19-0.37) 1.1 (0.84-1.3) 9.8Footnote E (6.0-14) 16 (12-20)
3 (2012-2013) 1241 1.69 1.1 (0.85-1.4) 0.20 (0.15-0.25) 1.0 (0.66-1.3) 7.6 (5.0-10) 9.2 (6.8-12)
4 (2014-2015) 1245 2.17 0.79 (0.65-0.97) 0.15 (0.12-0.18) 0.64 (0.49-0.79) 6.9Footnote E (3.9-10) 9.7 (6.7-13)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1249 1.20 1.6 (1.4-1.8) 0.40 (0.30-0.51) 1.3 (1.2-1.5) 8.7 (5.6-12) Footnote F
3 (2012-2013) 1269 2.83 1.0 (0.77-1.4) 0.23Footnote E (0.14-0.31) 0.97 (0.66-1.3) 6.5Footnote E (3.1-9.9) 12 (8.3-15)
4 (2014-2015) 1255 1.51 0.97 (0.74-1.3) 0.21 (0.15-0.28) 0.73 (0.57-0.90) Footnote F 13Footnote E (7.0-20)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 505 0.40 2.5 (2.2-2.9) 0.74 (0.53-0.94) 2.2 (1.9-2.6) 8.4Footnote E (3.5-13) 16Footnote E (5.7-25)
3 (2012-2013) 494 1.82 1.3 (1.1-1.6) 0.46 (0.34-0.57) 1.2 (1.1-1.4) 4.9 (3.6-6.2) 6.7 (4.8-8.6)
4 (2014-2015) 474 2.53 1.1 (1.0-1.3) 0.37 (0.30-0.44) 1.0 (0.91-1.1) 3.8Footnote E (1.0-6.6) 7.5Footnote E (<LOD-11)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 509 0.39 1.1 (0.91-1.3) 0.34Footnote E (<LOD-0.49) 0.99 (0.86-1.1) 3.4 (2.5-4.2) 4.9 (3.4-6.5)
3 (2012-2013) 502 2.19 0.96 (0.76-1.2) 0.30 (0.26-0.34) 0.79 (0.61-0.98) 4.1Footnote E (2.5-5.8) 5.8Footnote E (3.2-8.5)
4 (2014-2015) 508 2.56 0.68 (0.60-0.78) 0.22 (0.18-0.27) 0.63 (0.51-0.75) 2.3 (1.6-3.0) 3.6Footnote E (1.8-5.4)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 503 1.39 0.89 (0.75-1.1) 0.27 (0.19-0.35) 0.83 (0.72-0.94) 3.5Footnote E (1.9-5.0) Footnote F
3 (2012-2013) 505 2.57 0.72 (0.56-0.92) 0.15Footnote E (0.089-0.22) 0.67 (0.46-0.88) 4.7Footnote E (1.3-8.2) Footnote F
4 (2014-2015) 497 1.41 0.51 (0.44-0.59) 0.16 (0.13-0.19) 0.46 (0.37-0.55) 1.8Footnote E (0.75-2.8) 5.2Footnote E (2.2-8.3)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 352 1.13 1.3 (0.97-1.6) 0.23Footnote E (0.13-0.32) 1.2 (0.79-1.7) 8.2Footnote E (3.8-13) 13Footnote E (7.2-18)
3 (2012-2013) 350 2.29 0.89 (0.62-1.3) 0.17Footnote E (0.074-0.26) 0.78Footnote E (0.40-1.2) 5.9Footnote E (2.1-9.6) 9.1Footnote E (5.7-13)
4 (2014-2015) 358 1.40 0.84 (0.66-1.1) 0.15 (0.11-0.19) 0.65Footnote E (0.34-0.95) 5.4Footnote E (3.2-7.6) 7.7 (6.0-9.5)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 357 1.11 1.7 (1.3-2.1) 0.39Footnote E (0.21-0.57) 1.3Footnote E (0.72-1.9) 13Footnote E (8.3-18) 18Footnote E (10-27)
3 (2012-2013) 311 3.22 1.3 (0.88-1.8) 0.23Footnote E (0.11-0.36) 1.3Footnote E (0.80-1.8) 9.8 (6.3-13) 13 (8.6-17)
4 (2014-2015) 311 1.61 1.0 (0.78-1.3) 0.20 (0.13-0.27) 0.76 (0.59-0.93) 9.9Footnote E (4.8-15) 14 (10-18)
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 286 0.35 2.0 (1.6-2.5) 0.49 (0.33-0.65) 1.5 (1.1-1.8) Footnote F Footnote F
3 (2012-2013) 348 1.72 1.1 (0.93-1.4) 0.24Footnote E (0.13-0.36) 1.0 (0.70-1.3) 6.5Footnote E (4.1-8.9) 11 (8.0-14)
4 (2014-2015) 352 1.14 1.0 (0.76-1.4) 0.22 (0.15-0.30) 0.77 (0.57-0.96) 8.5Footnote E (4.4-13) 11Footnote E (6.9-15)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

F Data is too unreliable to be published.

Table 14.6.3 - 2-Hydroxynaphthalene - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2503 0 3.8 (3.4-4.4) 0.84 (0.68-1.0) 3.8 (3.2-4.4) 17 (14-20) 24 (18-30)
3 (2012-2013) 2506 0 4.1 (3.6-4.6) 0.93 (0.79-1.1) 4.0 (3.4-4.6) 18 (14-22) 26 (22-30)
4 (2014-2015) 2481 0 4.6 (4.2-5.0) 1.0 (0.91-1.1) 4.6 (4.0-5.1) 19 (16-21) 27 (17-37)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1251 0 4.0 (3.3-4.9) 0.99 (0.81-1.2) 3.9 (3.1-4.8) 19 (13-26) 26 (19-32)
3 (2012-2013) 1239 0 4.6 (4.0-5.3) 0.96 (0.80-1.1) 4.4 (3.7-5.2) 20 (13-27) 30 (22-38)
4 (2014-2015) 1232 0 4.5 (4.0-5.0) 1.2 (1.1-1.4) 4.5 (3.8-5.2) 17 (12-21) 24Footnote E (13-36)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1252 0 3.7 (3.2-4.2) 0.63Footnote E (0.40-0.87) 3.5 (3.0-4.1) 17 (13-20) 23Footnote E (13-32)
3 (2012-2013) 1267 0 3.7 (2.9-4.7) 0.88 (0.65-1.1) 3.7 (2.8-4.6) 16 (12-20) 23 (18-28)
4 (2014-2015) 1249 0 4.7 (3.9-5.6) 0.94 (0.73-1.2) 4.8 (3.7-5.9) 20 (17-23) 37Footnote E (21-53)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 499 0 3.3 (2.8-3.8) 1.1 (0.91-1.2) 3.0 (2.4-3.6) 11Footnote E (5.8-15) 17Footnote E (8.9-24)
3 (2012-2013) 494 0 3.2 (2.6-4.0) 0.72 (0.50-0.93) 3.4 (2.7-4.1) 12Footnote E (6.7-16) 19Footnote E (12-26)
4 (2014-2015) 467 0 3.0 (2.8-3.3) 0.99 (0.73-1.2) 3.0 (2.5-3.5) 9.9 (8.6-11) 13 (8.7-16)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 509 0 3.2 (2.6-4.0) 1.1 (0.82-1.3) 3.0 (2.3-3.8) 8.8Footnote E (4.7-13) Footnote F
3 (2012-2013) 498 0 3.2 (2.8-3.7) 0.84 (0.60-1.1) 3.2 (2.6-3.8) 10Footnote E (6.3-14) 14 (9.6-18)
4 (2014-2015) 503 0 3.8 (3.3-4.4) 1.0 (0.86-1.2) 3.6 (2.9-4.4) 14 (10-17) 19Footnote E (11-27)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 503 0 4.4 (3.8-5.0) 1.1 (0.93-1.3) 4.4 (3.5-5.3) 15 (9.6-20) 24 (19-29)
3 (2012-2013) 505 0 5.3 (4.6-6.2) 1.2 (0.77-1.7) 5.0 (3.8-6.2) 23 (15-32) 36 (30-43)
4 (2014-2015) 495 0 4.7 (4.3-5.2) 1.0 (0.80-1.2) 4.8 (4.3-5.4) 21 (14-29) 32 (26-38)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 352 0 4.4 (3.5-5.5) 0.88Footnote E (0.53-1.2) 4.8 (3.8-5.9) 17 (13-21) 22 (18-27)
3 (2012-2013) 350 0 5.2 (4.3-6.3) 1.2 (0.91-1.6) 5.6 (3.6-7.6) 18Footnote E (9.7-26) 26Footnote E (15-37)
4 (2014-2015) 354 0 5.6 (4.5-6.9) 1.3Footnote E (0.75-1.8) 5.4Footnote E (3.4-7.3) 20 (14-25) 29Footnote E (9.2-50)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 354 0 4.1 (3.1-5.4) 0.75Footnote E (0.27-1.2) 3.7Footnote E (2.1-5.2) 21Footnote E (13-30) 31 (20-42)
3 (2012-2013) 311 0 4.2 (3.5-5.2) 0.97 (0.77-1.2) 4.1 (2.7-5.5) 18Footnote E (9.6-26) 28 (21-35)
4 (2014-2015) 311 0 4.9 (4.5-5.4) 1.2 (0.83-1.6) 4.6 (3.6-5.6) 20 (15-24) 29Footnote E (11-47)
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 286 0 2.8 (2.4-3.3) 0.58Footnote E (0.31-0.86) 2.5 (1.9-3.2) 12Footnote E (7.5-16) 22 (19-26)
3 (2012-2013) 348 0 3.0 (2.5-3.5) 0.73 (0.48-0.97) 2.9 (2.4-3.4) 14Footnote E (6.4-22) 24 (15-33)
4 (2014-2015) 351 0 3.3 (2.7-4.1) 0.92 (0.67-1.2) 3.1 (2.4-3.8) 14 (9.0-18) 24Footnote E (15-33)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

F Data is too unreliable to be published.

Table 14.6.4 - 2-Hydroxynaphthalene (creatinine adjusted) - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2493 0 3.8 (3.4-4.3) 1.2 (1.0-1.3) 3.4 (2.9-4.0) 15 (13-17) 20 (17-22)
3 (2012-2013) 2505 0 4.3 (3.9-4.7) 1.3 (1.1-1.5) 4.1 (3.4-4.7) 14 (12-17) 19 (16-21)
4 (2014-2015) 2481 0 4.1 (3.8-4.4) 1.3 (1.1-1.5) 3.8 (3.3-4.3) 13 (12-14) 17 (14-19)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1247 0 3.5 (2.9-4.1) 1.0 (0.94-1.2) 2.9 (2.3-3.5) 14 (10-19) 20 (14-25)
3 (2012-2013) 1239 0 3.9 (3.3-4.5) 1.1 (0.91-1.4) 3.5 (2.6-4.4) 13 (9.7-17) 18 (15-21)
4 (2014-2015) 1232 0 3.5 (3.0-4.0) 1.1 (0.88-1.4) 3.1 (2.5-3.8) 12 (8.3-15) 15 (12-18)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1246 0 4.3 (3.9-4.6) 1.4 (1.1-1.7) 3.8 (3.3-4.2) 15 (12-18) 20 (16-23)
3 (2012-2013) 1266 0 4.7 (4.0-5.5) 1.6 (1.3-1.8) 4.4 (3.4-5.3) 15 (13-17) 19 (16-23)
4 (2014-2015) 1249 0 4.8 (4.2-5.5) 1.5 (1.4-1.6) 4.5 (3.8-5.3) 14 (9.1-18) 19 (14-23)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 498 0 5.9 (5.1-6.8) 2.1 (1.9-2.2) 5.0 (4.2-5.9) 16 (11-21) 23Footnote E (13-33)
3 (2012-2013) 493 0 6.3 (5.4-7.3) 2.2 (1.7-2.7) 5.8 (4.8-6.8) 19 (13-25) 27Footnote E (17-37)
4 (2014-2015) 467 0 5.4 (4.9-6.0) 1.9 (1.7-2.0) 5.6 (4.9-6.2) 14Footnote E (7.9-21) 20 (14-26)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 507 0 3.8 (3.2-4.5) 1.5 (1.3-1.8) 3.6 (2.6-4.6) 9.4 (6.8-12) 12Footnote E (5.1-19)
3 (2012-2013) 498 0 4.1 (3.4-5.0) 1.5 (1.1-1.9) 3.9 (3.3-4.5) 11 (8.3-14) 13Footnote E (4.5-22)
4 (2014-2015) 503 0 4.2 (3.8-4.7) 1.5 (1.0-1.9) 4.0 (3.4-4.6) 12 (8.0-15) 16 (11-21)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 501 0 3.4 (3.0-3.9) 1.1 (1.0-1.3) 3.1 (2.6-3.6) 9.9 (7.6-12) 13 (10-16)
3 (2012-2013) 505 0 4.1 (3.7-4.4) 1.4 (1.1-1.7) 3.6 (3.2-4.0) 12 (9.6-15) 15 (11-20)
4 (2014-2015) 495 0 3.4 (3.1-3.8) 1.2 (0.91-1.5) 3.2 (2.8-3.6) 12 (8.8-15) 15 (12-18)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 350 0 3.9 (3.3-4.7) 1.2 (0.93-1.4) 3.4 (2.5-4.4) 15 (10-19) 19 (15-23)
3 (2012-2013) 350 0 4.0 (3.4-4.8) 1.3Footnote E (0.80-1.8) 4.0 (3.1-4.9) 11 (8.7-13) 14 (11-18)
4 (2014-2015) 354 0 4.5 (3.9-5.2) 1.3 (0.85-1.7) 4.9 (3.4-6.5) 12 (9.8-14) 14 (11-18)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 352 0 4.1 (3.3-5.2) 1.0Footnote E (0.64-1.4) 3.7 (2.8-4.7) 19 (14-25) 25 (20-30)
3 (2012-2013) 311 0 5.0 (4.1-6.0) 1.4 (1.1-1.8) 5.1 (3.4-6.7) 18 (14-21) 21 (17-25)
4 (2014-2015) 311 0 4.5 (4.1-4.9) 1.4 (1.2-1.7) 3.8 (3.2-4.5) 16 (13-20) 19 (13-25)
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 285 0 3.3 (2.9-3.7) 1.1 (1.0-1.3) 2.6 (2.1-3.1) 14 (9.7-18) 18 (15-20)
3 (2012-2013) 348 0 3.4 (3.0-3.9) 1.0 (0.77-1.2) 3.2 (2.7-3.6) 12 (8.1-16) 17 (13-21)
4 (2014-2015) 351 0 3.2 (2.8-3.8) 1.1 (0.80-1.4) 2.6 (1.8-3.4) 12 (9.7-15) 14 (13-16)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

14.7 Phenanthrene

Phenanthrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with three fused benzene rings. It is used in the manufacture of dyes, polymer materials, and biomedical research (Mondal et al., 2009).

After oral administration in rats, phenanthrene was found to be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (Faust, 1993b). It is also absorbed through the skin in humans following dermal exposure (Storer et al., 1984). Metabolism of phenanthrene proceeds through the formation of epoxides that rearrange to form hydroxy and dihydrodiol metabolites (Jacob and Seidel, 2002). Phenanthrene metabolites are primarily excreted in the urine (Faust, 1993b).

Urinary hydroxylated phenanthrene metabolites (1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 9-hydroxyphenanthrene) have been assessed in several biomonitoring studies and are indicators of recent PAH exposure (Becker et al., 2003; CDC, 2009; Jacob and Seidel, 2002; Nethery et al., 2012). Their relatively high abundance in the urine and the availability of validated analytical methods for their detection and quantification make them good biomarkers for assessing exposure. Additionally, urinary concentrations of monohydroxyphenanthrene metabolites are less sensitive to smoking status than other PAH metabolites; they are therefore better suited for assessing exposures where the study population comprises both smokers and non-smokers (Jacob et al., 1999; Rihs et al., 2005). Urinary 3-hydroxyphenanthrene may be a predictive biomarker for specifically assessing inhalation exposure to phenanthrene (Nethery et al., 2012).

In animal studies, phenanthrene did not elicit systemic or carcinogenic effects (ATSDR, 1995). The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified phenanthrene as Group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity in humans (IARC, 2010).

In a pilot biomonitoring study carried out in Hamilton, Ontario, with 19 pregnant women aged 19-42 years, the geometric means for 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene in urine were 0.2439, 0.08240, 0.06989, and 0.0403 µg/g creatinine, respectively (Nethery et al., 2012).

Phenanthrene metabolites, 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, were analyzed in the urine of Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013), and cycle 4 (2014-2015) participants aged 3-79 years, and are presented as both µg/L and µg/g creatinine. Finding a measurable amount of phenanthrene metabolites in urine is an indicator of exposure to phenanthrene and does not necessarily mean that an adverse health effect will occur.

Table 14.7.1 - 1-Hydroxyphenanthrene - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2522 0.04 0.15 (0.14-0.17) 0.049 (0.042-0.056) 0.15 (0.14-0.17) 0.47 (0.38-0.57) 0.69 (0.53-0.84)
3 (2012-2013) 2505 0.04 0.15 (0.13-0.16) 0.040 (0.028-0.051) 0.13 (0.12-0.15) 0.50 (0.38-0.62) 0.73 (0.58-0.88)
4 (2014-2015) 2506 0 0.16 (0.14-0.17) 0.051 (0.042-0.059) 0.15 (0.14-0.17) 0.52 (0.41-0.62) 0.70 (0.57-0.84)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1268 0 0.16 (0.14-0.19) 0.054 (0.046-0.062) 0.16 (0.14-0.19) 0.50 (0.38-0.62) 0.73 (0.57-0.90)
3 (2012-2013) 1241 0.08 0.16 (0.14-0.18) 0.051 (0.038-0.064) 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 0.48 (0.37-0.59) 0.78 (0.54-1.0)
4 (2014-2015) 1249 0 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 0.060 (0.051-0.068) 0.14 (0.11-0.17) 0.46Footnote E (0.29-0.63) 0.66 (0.47-0.85)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1254 0.08 0.14 (0.13-0.16) 0.041 (0.032-0.049) 0.14 (0.12-0.16) 0.42 (0.30-0.54) 0.66Footnote E (0.40-0.92)
3 (2012-2013) 1264 0 0.13 (0.11-0.16) 0.035 (0.026-0.044) 0.13 (0.096-0.15) 0.51 (0.35-0.66) 0.67 (0.56-0.79)
4 (2014-2015) 1257 0 0.16 (0.15-0.18) 0.045 (0.035-0.055) 0.16 (0.14-0.17) 0.54 (0.42-0.66) 0.76 (0.55-0.98)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 505 0 0.11 (0.097-0.13) 0.044 (0.037-0.051) 0.10 (0.094-0.12) 0.29 (0.23-0.36) 0.34 (0.26-0.42)
3 (2012-2013) 490 0 0.092 (0.079-0.11) 0.031 (0.021-0.042) 0.097 (0.086-0.11) 0.27 (0.22-0.31) 0.36 (0.30-0.42)
4 (2014-2015) 476 0 0.10 (0.086-0.12) 0.039 (0.027-0.051) 0.10 (0.079-0.12) 0.27 (0.21-0.34) 0.40 (0.29-0.52)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 510 0 0.12 (0.11-0.14) 0.046 (0.039-0.054) 0.12 (0.097-0.14) 0.30 (0.21-0.39) 0.42 (0.32-0.51)
3 (2012-2013) 501 0.20 0.11 (0.094-0.12) 0.031Footnote E (0.015-0.047) 0.11 (0.092-0.12) 0.26 (0.21-0.30) 0.36 (0.30-0.42)
4 (2014-2015) 510 0 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 0.046 (0.039-0.053) 0.12 (0.10-0.14) 0.36 (0.28-0.44) 0.47Footnote E (0.21-0.72)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 506 0 0.15 (0.14-0.17) 0.058 (0.044-0.073) 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 0.44 (0.29-0.59) 0.55 (0.43-0.67)
3 (2012-2013) 505 0 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 0.050 (0.035-0.066) 0.14 (0.11-0.17) 0.53 (0.40-0.65) 0.76Footnote E (0.41-1.1)
4 (2014-2015) 497 0 0.15 (0.13-0.18) 0.049 (0.036-0.063) 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 0.48 (0.34-0.61) 0.75 (0.53-0.97)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 355 0 0.16 (0.14-0.18) 0.049 (0.033-0.066) 0.17 (0.15-0.19) 0.49 (0.35-0.63) 0.64Footnote E (0.41-0.87)
3 (2012-2013) 350 0 0.18 (0.16-0.21) 0.052 (0.036-0.068) 0.20 (0.14-0.26) 0.46Footnote E (0.27-0.65) 0.70Footnote E (0.28-1.1)
4 (2014-2015) 358 0 0.17 (0.15-0.20) 0.050 (0.034-0.067) 0.17 (0.14-0.21) 0.57 (0.39-0.75) 0.76 (0.54-0.99)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 359 0 0.16 (0.14-0.19) 0.052Footnote E (0.031-0.073) 0.16 (0.12-0.19) 0.51Footnote E (0.32-0.71) 0.77 (0.58-0.97)
3 (2012-2013) 311 0 0.14 (0.12-0.17) 0.036Footnote E (0.018-0.055) 0.13 (0.095-0.16) 0.51Footnote E (0.30-0.73) 0.69Footnote E (0.43-0.94)
4 (2014-2015) 312 0 0.16 (0.13-0.18) 0.059 (0.048-0.069) 0.14 (0.12-0.17) 0.51Footnote E (0.33-0.70) 0.68Footnote E (0.26-1.1)
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 287 0.35 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 0.038 (0.026-0.050) 0.16 (0.13-0.18) 0.50 (0.37-0.64) 0.81 (0.53-1.1)
3 (2012-2013) 348 0 0.14 (0.11-0.17) 0.032Footnote E (0.0094-0.054) 0.12 (0.085-0.15) 0.68 (0.53-0.82) 0.85Footnote E (0.37-1.3)
4 (2014-2015) 353 0 0.16 (0.14-0.19) 0.049 (0.036-0.062) 0.16 (0.13-0.18) 0.55 (0.46-0.65) 0.67Footnote E (0.41-0.94)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

Table 14.7.2 - 1-Hydroxyphenanthrene (creatinine adjusted) - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2512 0.04 0.15 (0.14-0.16) 0.069 (0.064-0.075) 0.14 (0.12-0.15) 0.37 (0.31-0.44) 0.52 (0.41-0.63)
3 (2012-2013) 2504 0.04 0.15 (0.14-0.16) 0.059 (0.050-0.068) 0.14 (0.13-0.15) 0.39 (0.31-0.46) 0.59 (0.47-0.72)
4 (2014-2015) 2506 0 0.14 (0.13-0.16) 0.060 (0.052-0.068) 0.13 (0.11-0.14) 0.37 (0.31-0.43) 0.49 (0.42-0.57)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1264 0 0.14 (0.13-0.16) 0.060 (0.051-0.069) 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 0.35 (0.27-0.43) 0.51 (0.39-0.64)
3 (2012-2013) 1241 0.08 0.13 (0.12-0.15) 0.052 (0.042-0.061) 0.13 (0.11-0.14) 0.34 (0.29-0.39) 0.53Footnote E (0.32-0.75)
4 (2014-2015) 1249 0 0.12 (0.10-0.14) 0.052 (0.043-0.060) 0.11 (0.090-0.13) 0.31 (0.24-0.37) 0.40 (0.33-0.47)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1248 0.08 0.17 (0.15-0.18) 0.078 (0.066-0.090) 0.15 (0.13-0.16) 0.39 (0.31-0.46) 0.55 (0.40-0.71)
3 (2012-2013) 1263 0 0.17 (0.15-0.19) 0.070 (0.058-0.081) 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 0.47 (0.36-0.57) 0.63 (0.52-0.74)
4 (2014-2015) 1257 0 0.17 (0.15-0.19) 0.074 (0.062-0.087) 0.15 (0.13-0.16) 0.41 (0.32-0.51) 0.61 (0.44-0.78)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 504 0 0.20 (0.17-0.22) 0.094 (0.077-0.11) 0.18 (0.16-0.21) 0.40 (0.32-0.47) 0.57 (0.39-0.75)
3 (2012-2013) 489 0 0.18 (0.17-0.19) 0.088 (0.073-0.10) 0.16 (0.14-0.18) 0.38 (0.33-0.43) 0.53 (0.42-0.64)
4 (2014-2015) 476 0 0.18 (0.16-0.21) 0.095 (0.082-0.11) 0.18 (0.15-0.21) 0.37 (0.29-0.45) 0.52 (0.42-0.63)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 508 0 0.14 (0.13-0.16) 0.079 (0.071-0.087) 0.12 (0.11-0.14) 0.31 (0.26-0.37) 0.44Footnote E (0.26-0.63)
3 (2012-2013) 501 0.20 0.13 (0.12-0.15) 0.068 (0.060-0.077) 0.12 (0.10-0.14) 0.29 (0.20-0.38) 0.37 (0.28-0.45)
4 (2014-2015) 510 0 0.14 (0.13-0.16) 0.068 (0.059-0.077) 0.12 (0.098-0.14) 0.31 (0.22-0.40) 0.50 (0.35-0.64)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 504 0 0.12 (0.11-0.13) 0.059 (0.055-0.063) 0.11 (0.095-0.12) 0.25 (0.18-0.32) 0.32 (0.25-0.40)
3 (2012-2013) 505 0 0.11 (0.097-0.13) 0.052 (0.040-0.064) 0.099 (0.090-0.11) 0.29 (0.22-0.35) 0.37Footnote E (0.10-0.64)
4 (2014-2015) 497 0 0.11 (0.094-0.13) 0.049 (0.043-0.055) 0.10 (0.091-0.11) 0.31Footnote E (0.19-0.43) 0.38 (0.25-0.51)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 353 0 0.14 (0.12-0.16) 0.057 (0.043-0.071) 0.12 (0.090-0.16) 0.35 (0.23-0.47) 0.49 (0.36-0.62)
3 (2012-2013) 350 0 0.14 (0.12-0.16) 0.060 (0.041-0.079) 0.13 (0.12-0.14) 0.34 (0.27-0.41) 0.50 (0.39-0.61)
4 (2014-2015) 358 0 0.14 (0.12-0.17) 0.064 (0.047-0.082) 0.13 (0.10-0.16) 0.31 (0.22-0.40) 0.43Footnote E (0.27-0.59)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 357 0 0.17 (0.15-0.18) 0.078 (0.067-0.088) 0.15 (0.12-0.17) 0.42 (0.36-0.47) 0.58 (0.45-0.70)
3 (2012-2013) 311 0 0.17 (0.15-0.19) 0.062Footnote E (0.038-0.085) 0.16 (0.13-0.19) 0.48Footnote E (0.30-0.67) 0.63 (0.44-0.82)
4 (2014-2015) 312 0 0.14 (0.12-0.16) 0.060 (0.046-0.073) 0.13 (0.11-0.14) 0.38 (0.31-0.46) 0.49 (0.32-0.66)
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 286 0.35 0.18 (0.16-0.19) 0.075 (0.060-0.089) 0.16 (0.14-0.18) 0.38Footnote E (0.24-0.53) 0.62 (0.47-0.78)
3 (2012-2013) 348 0 0.16 (0.13-0.19) 0.059 (0.048-0.069) 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 0.46 (0.36-0.57) 0.81Footnote E (0.24-1.4)
4 (2014-2015) 353 0 0.16 (0.14-0.18) 0.061 (0.050-0.071) 0.14 (0.12-0.16) 0.42 (0.31-0.52) 0.53 (0.38-0.68)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

Table 14.7.3 - 2-Hydroxyphenanthrene - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2520 0 0.067 (0.062-0.071) 0.027 (0.024-0.031) 0.065 (0.060-0.069) 0.17 (0.14-0.20) 0.23 (0.18-0.29)
3 (2012-2013) 2503 0 0.061 (0.054-0.068) 0.021 (0.016-0.025) 0.056 (0.048-0.064) 0.18 (0.16-0.20) 0.28 (0.24-0.33)
4 (2014-2015) 2506 0 0.062 (0.057-0.067) 0.020 (0.017-0.023) 0.061 (0.055-0.066) 0.17 (0.14-0.21) 0.26 (0.21-0.31)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1265 0 0.074 (0.066-0.083) 0.029 (0.025-0.033) 0.070 (0.062-0.078) 0.18 (0.13-0.23) 0.26 (0.19-0.33)
3 (2012-2013) 1238 0 0.071 (0.065-0.078) 0.027 (0.023-0.031) 0.065 (0.058-0.071) 0.19 (0.15-0.23) 0.31 (0.21-0.41)
4 (2014-2015) 1249 0 0.066 (0.059-0.074) 0.022 (0.018-0.027) 0.067 (0.060-0.074) 0.18Footnote E (0.11-0.25) 0.27 (0.20-0.34)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1255 0 0.060 (0.056-0.065) 0.024 (0.020-0.029) 0.058 (0.052-0.064) 0.14 (0.11-0.16) 0.19Footnote E (0.12-0.26)
3 (2012-2013) 1265 0 0.052 (0.044-0.063) 0.017 (0.013-0.021) 0.047 (0.035-0.059) 0.15 (0.11-0.18) 0.22Footnote E (0.10-0.33)
4 (2014-2015) 1257 0 0.057 (0.051-0.064) 0.018 (0.014-0.022) 0.055 (0.049-0.062) 0.17 (0.13-0.20) 0.24 (0.18-0.30)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 506 0 0.043 (0.038-0.049) 0.023 (0.019-0.027) 0.040 (0.033-0.046) 0.086 (0.060-0.11) 0.11 (0.077-0.15)
3 (2012-2013) 490 0 0.033 (0.028-0.038) 0.014 (0.010-0.018) 0.031 (0.028-0.035) 0.074 (0.067-0.081) 0.090 (0.076-0.10)
4 (2014-2015) 477 0 0.031 (0.026-0.036) 0.012 (0.0080-0.016) 0.029 (0.023-0.036) 0.073 (0.051-0.096) 0.11 (0.081-0.13)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 510 0 0.052 (0.046-0.059) 0.025 (0.021-0.030) 0.050 (0.045-0.056) 0.10 (0.076-0.13) 0.14 (0.11-0.17)
3 (2012-2013) 500 0 0.041 (0.036-0.045) 0.018 (0.014-0.022) 0.040 (0.034-0.047) 0.090 (0.073-0.11) 0.12 (0.085-0.17)
4 (2014-2015) 510 0 0.043 (0.039-0.048) 0.018 (0.015-0.021) 0.040 (0.035-0.045) 0.11 (0.094-0.13) 0.14 (0.12-0.17)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 506 0 0.067 (0.061-0.074) 0.033 (0.024-0.042) 0.064 (0.058-0.069) 0.16 (0.11-0.20) 0.19 (0.15-0.24)
3 (2012-2013) 505 0 0.064 (0.054-0.075) 0.024 (0.017-0.032) 0.061 (0.051-0.071) 0.16 (0.12-0.20) 0.26Footnote E (0.13-0.38)
4 (2014-2015) 497 0 0.059 (0.053-0.066) 0.020 (0.018-0.022) 0.059 (0.050-0.067) 0.16 (0.12-0.20) 0.22 (0.16-0.29)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 354 0 0.069 (0.060-0.078) 0.028 (0.023-0.033) 0.067 (0.059-0.074) 0.17 (0.13-0.21) 0.23Footnote E (0.13-0.32)
3 (2012-2013) 350 0 0.083 (0.072-0.095) 0.031 (0.026-0.036) 0.087 (0.068-0.11) 0.19Footnote E (0.12-0.26) 0.33Footnote E (0.17-0.49)
4 (2014-2015) 357 0 0.072 (0.061-0.084) 0.024 (0.017-0.030) 0.077 (0.056-0.098) 0.20 (0.16-0.25) 0.26 (0.22-0.30)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 359 0 0.073 (0.064-0.083) 0.027 (0.018-0.036) 0.071 (0.062-0.081) 0.20 (0.14-0.26) 0.27 (0.20-0.35)
3 (2012-2013) 311 0 0.057 (0.048-0.068) 0.019Footnote E (0.011-0.028) 0.050 (0.037-0.062) 0.16Footnote E (0.098-0.23) 0.27Footnote E (0.17-0.37)
4 (2014-2015) 312 0 0.063 (0.055-0.074) 0.020 (0.014-0.026) 0.065 (0.054-0.076) 0.17Footnote E (0.072-0.27) 0.30Footnote E (0.099-0.51)
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 285 0 0.064 (0.058-0.071) 0.026 (0.018-0.034) 0.062 (0.055-0.070) 0.15 (0.11-0.19) Footnote F
3 (2012-2013) 347 0 0.059 (0.049-0.073) 0.019Footnote E (0.012-0.027) 0.054 (0.043-0.064) 0.24Footnote E (0.12-0.36) Footnote F
4 (2014-2015) 353 0 0.060 (0.054-0.067) 0.019 (0.016-0.022) 0.057 (0.048-0.067) 0.16 (0.14-0.19) 0.26 (0.20-0.33)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

F Data is too unreliable to be published.

Table 14.7.4 - 2-Hydroxyphenanthrene (creatinine adjusted) - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2510 0 0.067 (0.062-0.072) 0.030 (0.027-0.034) 0.062 (0.057-0.067) 0.14 (0.12-0.16) 0.18 (0.16-0.20)
3 (2012-2013) 2502 0 0.063 (0.058-0.068) 0.028 (0.025-0.031) 0.056 (0.052-0.060) 0.16 (0.14-0.18) 0.21 (0.17-0.26)
4 (2014-2015) 2506 0 0.055 (0.051-0.060) 0.025 (0.023-0.027) 0.051 (0.047-0.054) 0.14 (0.11-0.17) 0.20 (0.17-0.22)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1261 0 0.063 (0.058-0.070) 0.029 (0.027-0.031) 0.059 (0.052-0.066) 0.15 (0.12-0.18) 0.19 (0.15-0.23)
3 (2012-2013) 1238 0 0.059 (0.053-0.066) 0.028 (0.024-0.031) 0.054 (0.049-0.059) 0.17 (0.14-0.19) 0.20 (0.16-0.24)
4 (2014-2015) 1249 0 0.052 (0.045-0.059) 0.024 (0.022-0.026) 0.048 (0.043-0.053) 0.15 (0.11-0.19) 0.20 (0.14-0.26)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1249 0 0.070 (0.062-0.078) 0.033 (0.028-0.039) 0.066 (0.060-0.072) 0.14 (0.11-0.17) 0.18 (0.12-0.23)
3 (2012-2013) 1264 0 0.067 (0.060-0.075) 0.031 (0.025-0.036) 0.061 (0.050-0.073) 0.16 (0.12-0.19) 0.22 (0.17-0.28)
4 (2014-2015) 1257 0 0.059 (0.054-0.064) 0.027 (0.023-0.032) 0.054 (0.050-0.057) 0.14 (0.091-0.18) 0.20 (0.15-0.24)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 505 0 0.077 (0.066-0.089) 0.040 (0.032-0.047) 0.076 (0.064-0.088) 0.15 (0.12-0.19) 0.18Footnote E (0.089-0.27)
3 (2012-2013) 489 0 0.063 (0.056-0.071) 0.034 (0.027-0.040) 0.058 (0.051-0.064) 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 0.17 (0.14-0.19)
4 (2014-2015) 477 0 0.055 (0.050-0.061) 0.030 (0.025-0.035) 0.052 (0.045-0.060) 0.10 (0.082-0.12) 0.13Footnote E (0.081-0.18)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 508 0 0.061 (0.055-0.067) 0.034 (0.029-0.039) 0.057 (0.052-0.061) 0.11 (0.080-0.15) 0.17 (0.12-0.22)
3 (2012-2013) 500 0 0.052 (0.045-0.060) 0.027 (0.020-0.034) 0.048 (0.039-0.058) 0.10 (0.085-0.12) 0.13 (0.10-0.16)
4 (2014-2015) 510 0 0.047 (0.044-0.051) 0.026 (0.024-0.029) 0.043 (0.040-0.047) 0.098 (0.082-0.11) 0.13 (0.090-0.17)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 504 0 0.051 (0.046-0.057) 0.027 (0.025-0.029) 0.047 (0.042-0.052) 0.10 (0.073-0.13) 0.13Footnote E (0.078-0.18)
3 (2012-2013) 505 0 0.048 (0.040-0.058) 0.024 (0.020-0.028) 0.045 (0.036-0.053) 0.099 (0.072-0.13) 0.13Footnote E (0.060-0.21)
4 (2014-2015) 497 0 0.043 (0.038-0.050) 0.020 (0.019-0.022) 0.041 (0.033-0.049) 0.096 (0.061-0.13) 0.15 (0.11-0.19)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 352 0 0.061 (0.053-0.071) 0.029 (0.026-0.032) 0.057 (0.048-0.066) 0.15 (0.10-0.19) 0.18 (0.14-0.22)
3 (2012-2013) 350 0 0.064 (0.055-0.073) 0.029 (0.024-0.033) 0.055 (0.049-0.062) 0.17 (0.14-0.20) 0.20 (0.14-0.26)
4 (2014-2015) 357 0 0.057 (0.050-0.066) 0.026 (0.022-0.029) 0.053 (0.043-0.063) 0.15 (0.11-0.18) 0.16 (0.13-0.19)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 357 0 0.074 (0.067-0.081) 0.033 (0.028-0.038) 0.071 (0.063-0.078) 0.17 (0.13-0.20) 0.18 (0.14-0.22)
3 (2012-2013) 311 0 0.067 (0.059-0.077) 0.029 (0.024-0.035) 0.066 (0.057-0.075) 0.17 (0.12-0.21) 0.22 (0.16-0.29)
4 (2014-2015) 312 0 0.058 (0.050-0.067) 0.026 (0.023-0.029) 0.052 (0.046-0.057) 0.17 (0.11-0.23) 0.22 (0.18-0.26)
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 284 0 0.075 (0.067-0.084) 0.036 (0.029-0.043) 0.066 (0.061-0.072) 0.14Footnote E (0.085-0.19) Footnote F
3 (2012-2013) 347 0 0.068 (0.057-0.082) 0.029 (0.022-0.037) 0.057 (0.048-0.066) 0.19 (0.13-0.24) Footnote F
4 (2014-2015) 353 0 0.058 (0.051-0.067) 0.027 (0.021-0.032) 0.051 (0.046-0.056) 0.13Footnote E (0.066-0.19) 0.24Footnote E (0.12-0.35)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

F Data is too unreliable to be published.

Table 14.7.5 - 3-Hydroxyphenanthrene - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2515 0 0.087 (0.080-0.095) 0.026 (0.023-0.029) 0.089 (0.080-0.098) 0.28 (0.22-0.35) 0.39 (0.31-0.46)
3 (2012-2013) 2505 0 0.083 (0.077-0.090) 0.021 (0.016-0.026) 0.081 (0.075-0.087) 0.29 (0.24-0.34) 0.48 (0.40-0.57)
4 (2014-2015) 2506 0 0.089 (0.081-0.097) 0.025 (0.021-0.029) 0.090 (0.079-0.10) 0.27 (0.20-0.35) 0.43 (0.36-0.50)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1265 0 0.10 (0.087-0.12) 0.030 (0.026-0.035) 0.099 (0.085-0.11) 0.33 (0.25-0.42) 0.45 (0.30-0.60)
3 (2012-2013) 1241 0 0.099 (0.092-0.11) 0.029 (0.020-0.039) 0.098 (0.084-0.11) 0.33 (0.25-0.40) 0.54 (0.44-0.64)
4 (2014-2015) 1250 0 0.097 (0.085-0.11) 0.031 (0.025-0.037) 0.097 (0.090-0.10) 0.32Footnote E (0.20-0.44) 0.45 (0.36-0.54)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1250 0 0.075 (0.069-0.082) 0.022 (0.018-0.026) 0.078 (0.066-0.090) 0.22 (0.14-0.29) 0.35 (0.26-0.44)
3 (2012-2013) 1264 0 0.070 (0.060-0.082) 0.017 (0.013-0.021) 0.065 (0.051-0.079) 0.28 (0.22-0.34) 0.40 (0.27-0.52)
4 (2014-2015) 1256 0 0.081 (0.071-0.093) 0.022 (0.016-0.028) 0.081 (0.069-0.093) 0.27 (0.24-0.29) 0.39Footnote E (0.24-0.54)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 501 0 0.077 (0.068-0.086) 0.030 (0.026-0.034) 0.076 (0.064-0.088) 0.18Footnote E (0.10-0.25) 0.28 (0.20-0.35)
3 (2012-2013) 490 0 0.065 (0.058-0.074) 0.020 (0.015-0.024) 0.067 (0.059-0.075) 0.19 (0.16-0.22) 0.28 (0.22-0.34)
4 (2014-2015) 476 0 0.071 (0.060-0.084) 0.025Footnote E (0.015-0.034) 0.069 (0.051-0.088) 0.19 (0.12-0.25) 0.29 (0.21-0.36)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 509 0 0.084 (0.071-0.099) 0.029 (0.023-0.035) 0.092 (0.072-0.11) 0.21 (0.16-0.27) 0.28 (0.21-0.34)
3 (2012-2013) 501 0 0.069 (0.059-0.081) 0.021 (0.014-0.029) 0.073 (0.059-0.087) 0.17 (0.13-0.21) 0.22 (0.16-0.28)
4 (2014-2015) 510 0 0.085 (0.074-0.097) 0.030 (0.022-0.037) 0.083 (0.067-0.099) 0.21 (0.18-0.25) 0.33 (0.22-0.45)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 506 0 0.094 (0.084-0.11) 0.033 (0.025-0.042) 0.091 (0.077-0.10) 0.26 (0.18-0.33) 0.35Footnote E (0.20-0.50)
3 (2012-2013) 505 0 0.091 (0.081-0.10) 0.028Footnote E (0.015-0.040) 0.089 (0.075-0.10) 0.28 (0.19-0.38) 0.42 (0.30-0.55)
4 (2014-2015) 497 0 0.093 (0.083-0.11) 0.026 (0.022-0.030) 0.099 (0.090-0.11) 0.24 (0.20-0.29) 0.37 (0.24-0.51)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 355 0 0.091 (0.078-0.11) 0.027 (0.020-0.034) 0.099 (0.070-0.13) 0.30 (0.21-0.39) 0.38 (0.27-0.49)
3 (2012-2013) 350 0 0.11 (0.093-0.13) 0.035 (0.026-0.044) 0.10 (0.077-0.13) 0.30Footnote E (0.19-0.40) 0.58Footnote E (0.25-0.91)
4 (2014-2015) 358 0 0.095 (0.081-0.11) 0.029 (0.021-0.038) 0.099 (0.081-0.12) 0.30 (0.22-0.38) 0.44 (0.36-0.52)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 358 0 0.091 (0.078-0.11) 0.023Footnote E (0.014-0.032) 0.093 (0.082-0.10) 0.34 (0.27-0.41) 0.44Footnote E (0.27-0.60)
3 (2012-2013) 311 0 0.078 (0.066-0.092) 0.021 (0.015-0.027) 0.074 (0.060-0.088) 0.29 (0.22-0.35) 0.38 (0.26-0.50)
4 (2014-2015) 312 0 0.088 (0.074-0.10) 0.024 (0.018-0.029) 0.089 (0.070-0.11) 0.27Footnote E (0.085-0.46) Footnote F
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 286 0 0.073 (0.063-0.085) 0.020 (0.016-0.025) 0.073 (0.059-0.086) 0.24 (0.18-0.29) 0.33Footnote E (0.12-0.54)
3 (2012-2013) 348 0 0.072 (0.058-0.089) 0.015Footnote E (0.0058-0.024) 0.066 (0.050-0.083) 0.48 (0.32-0.65) 0.58 (0.39-0.76)
4 (2014-2015) 353 0 0.084 (0.075-0.093) 0.023 (0.017-0.029) 0.076 (0.063-0.089) 0.27 (0.19-0.34) 0.42 (0.34-0.50)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

F Data is too unreliable to be published.

Table 14.7.6 - 3-Hydroxyphenanthrene (creatinine adjusted) - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2505 0 0.087 (0.080-0.094) 0.038 (0.035-0.041) 0.079 (0.073-0.085) 0.23 (0.18-0.27) 0.37 (0.29-0.46)
3 (2012-2013) 2504 0 0.086 (0.080-0.092) 0.032 (0.029-0.035) 0.082 (0.072-0.091) 0.26 (0.23-0.28) 0.35 (0.28-0.42)
4 (2014-2015) 2506 0 0.080 (0.072-0.088) 0.033 (0.030-0.036) 0.071 (0.059-0.082) 0.22 (0.19-0.26) 0.32 (0.27-0.37)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1261 0 0.086 (0.076-0.098) 0.035 (0.031-0.039) 0.079 (0.069-0.090) 0.26 (0.18-0.35) 0.42 (0.29-0.55)
3 (2012-2013) 1241 0 0.083 (0.074-0.093) 0.031 (0.027-0.036) 0.078 (0.063-0.093) 0.26 (0.24-0.27) 0.35 (0.25-0.44)
4 (2014-2015) 1250 0 0.076 (0.065-0.088) 0.031 (0.027-0.036) 0.068 (0.056-0.081) 0.22 (0.14-0.31) 0.30 (0.23-0.36)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1244 0 0.087 (0.079-0.095) 0.042 (0.037-0.046) 0.079 (0.072-0.086) 0.19 (0.15-0.23) 0.31Footnote E (0.15-0.47)
3 (2012-2013) 1263 0 0.090 (0.081-0.099) 0.036 (0.033-0.039) 0.084 (0.073-0.095) 0.26 (0.20-0.32) 0.35 (0.26-0.45)
4 (2014-2015) 1256 0 0.084 (0.074-0.095) 0.035 (0.030-0.041) 0.074 (0.061-0.088) 0.22Footnote E (0.13-0.32) 0.34 (0.26-0.42)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 500 0 0.14 (0.12-0.15) 0.067 (0.059-0.076) 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 0.29 (0.25-0.33) 0.36 (0.27-0.44)
3 (2012-2013) 489 0 0.13 (0.12-0.14) 0.065 (0.056-0.074) 0.11 (0.097-0.12) 0.28 (0.24-0.31) 0.41 (0.31-0.51)
4 (2014-2015) 476 0 0.13 (0.11-0.14) 0.068 (0.059-0.078) 0.11 (0.092-0.14) 0.24 (0.18-0.30) 0.34 (0.24-0.45)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 507 0 0.098 (0.087-0.11) 0.049 (0.039-0.058) 0.087 (0.075-0.10) 0.20 (0.14-0.25) 0.27Footnote E (0.098-0.44)
3 (2012-2013) 501 0 0.088 (0.076-0.10) 0.043 (0.038-0.048) 0.082 (0.064-0.10) 0.18 (0.13-0.24) 0.24 (0.17-0.30)
4 (2014-2015) 510 0 0.093 (0.084-0.10) 0.045 (0.037-0.052) 0.086 (0.076-0.096) 0.20 (0.15-0.25) 0.30 (0.20-0.40)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 504 0 0.072 (0.064-0.081) 0.037 (0.034-0.039) 0.068 (0.061-0.074) 0.14Footnote E (0.060-0.22) 0.23Footnote E (0.13-0.32)
3 (2012-2013) 505 0 0.069 (0.062-0.077) 0.034 (0.029-0.038) 0.060 (0.051-0.068) 0.15 (0.11-0.19) 0.24Footnote E (0.13-0.36)
4 (2014-2015) 497 0 0.068 (0.060-0.077) 0.034 (0.032-0.036) 0.062 (0.055-0.069) 0.15 (0.097-0.20) 0.22 (0.14-0.29)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 353 0 0.081 (0.071-0.093) 0.038 (0.033-0.042) 0.069 (0.055-0.082) 0.23Footnote E (0.12-0.33) 0.38Footnote E (0.23-0.52)
3 (2012-2013) 350 0 0.084 (0.070-0.10) 0.031 (0.025-0.038) 0.081 (0.065-0.098) 0.25 (0.20-0.31) 0.34 (0.22-0.47)
4 (2014-2015) 358 0 0.076 (0.064-0.091) 0.031 (0.026-0.037) 0.074 (0.053-0.095) 0.20 (0.15-0.24) 0.23Footnote E (0.13-0.32)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 356 0 0.092 (0.083-0.10) 0.037 (0.032-0.043) 0.086 (0.073-0.099) 0.27 (0.18-0.35) 0.45 (0.32-0.58)
3 (2012-2013) 311 0 0.092 (0.081-0.10) 0.033 (0.026-0.040) 0.097 (0.087-0.11) 0.28 (0.20-0.35) 0.34 (0.22-0.45)
4 (2014-2015) 312 0 0.080 (0.068-0.094) 0.032 (0.025-0.039) 0.065 (0.052-0.077) 0.30 (0.24-0.35) 0.34Footnote E (<LOD-0.48)
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 285 0 0.085 (0.075-0.096) 0.039 (0.032-0.045) 0.077 (0.071-0.083) 0.18Footnote E (0.11-0.24) 0.30Footnote E (0.13-0.47)
3 (2012-2013) 348 0 0.083 (0.069-0.10) 0.030 (0.022-0.038) 0.069 (0.059-0.079) 0.33 (0.24-0.41) 0.43Footnote E (0.18-0.68)
4 (2014-2015) 353 0 0.081 (0.072-0.091) 0.035 (0.029-0.041) 0.071 (0.062-0.080) 0.25 (0.16-0.34) 0.40Footnote E (0.23-0.57)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

Table 14.7.7 - 4-Hydroxyphenanthrene - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2519 0.08 0.025 (0.022-0.027) 0.0070 (0.0059-0.0081) 0.023 (0.020-0.026) 0.091 (0.074-0.11) 0.13 (0.11-0.15)
3 (2012-2013) 2495 4.33 0.021 (0.019-0.023) 0.0055 (0.0044-0.0065) 0.020 (0.016-0.023) 0.086 (0.068-0.10) 0.14 (0.11-0.18)
4 (2014-2015) 2504 2.52 0.023 (0.021-0.025) 0.0062 (0.0048-0.0076) 0.023 (0.019-0.027) 0.089 (0.078-0.10) 0.12 (0.084-0.15)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1266 0 0.027 (0.023-0.031) 0.0075 (0.0057-0.0094) 0.026 (0.020-0.031) 0.10 (0.074-0.13) 0.15 (0.10-0.20)
3 (2012-2013) 1236 3.32 0.024 (0.021-0.027) 0.0067 (0.0047-0.0087) 0.023 (0.020-0.026) 0.097 (0.074-0.12) 0.15 (0.11-0.19)
4 (2014-2015) 1248 2.32 0.024 (0.020-0.028) 0.0068 (0.0052-0.0085) 0.024 (0.018-0.029) 0.084 (0.065-0.10) 0.13Footnote E (0.079-0.19)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1253 0.16 0.023 (0.021-0.025) 0.0061 (0.0049-0.0073) 0.022 (0.019-0.024) 0.085 (0.065-0.10) 0.13 (0.095-0.16)
3 (2012-2013) 1259 5.32 0.018 (0.015-0.023) 0.0044 (0.0031-0.0058) 0.017 (0.011-0.022) 0.076 (0.052-0.10) 0.13Footnote E (0.079-0.18)
4 (2014-2015) 1256 2.71 0.022 (0.019-0.026) 0.0054 (0.0035-0.0073) 0.022 (0.017-0.026) 0.099 (0.078-0.12) 0.11Footnote E (0.066-0.16)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 505 0 0.017 (0.015-0.020) 0.0060 (0.0047-0.0072) 0.017 (0.014-0.020) 0.051 (0.042-0.061) 0.063Footnote E (0.032-0.093)
3 (2012-2013) 488 4.30 0.014 (0.012-0.016) 0.0045 (0.0031-0.0059) 0.013 (0.011-0.016) 0.047 (0.038-0.056) 0.062 (0.051-0.073)
4 (2014-2015) 475 3.16 0.013 (0.010-0.016) 0.0045 (<LOD-0.0061) 0.013 (0.0096-0.016) 0.040 (0.031-0.048) 0.056 (0.041-0.070)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 510 0 0.019 (0.016-0.023) 0.0067 (0.0057-0.0077) 0.019 (0.014-0.023) 0.057 (0.040-0.075) 0.074 (0.049-0.099)
3 (2012-2013) 500 4.40 0.014 (0.013-0.017) 0.0046 (0.0033-0.0059) 0.015 (0.012-0.018) 0.041 (0.032-0.050) 0.062 (0.050-0.073)
4 (2014-2015) 510 2.35 0.017 (0.015-0.020) 0.0052 (0.0039-0.0066) 0.017 (0.014-0.020) 0.052 (0.036-0.067) 0.074 (0.051-0.097)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 505 0.20 0.023 (0.020-0.025) 0.0079 (0.0057-0.010) 0.022 (0.020-0.025) 0.067 (0.053-0.081) 0.094 (0.062-0.12)
3 (2012-2013) 504 4.56 0.021 (0.018-0.024) 0.0068 (0.0053-0.0083) 0.018 (0.015-0.021) 0.077 (0.052-0.10) 0.11Footnote E (0.070-0.16)
4 (2014-2015) 497 2.62 0.021 (0.018-0.023) 0.0054Footnote E (0.0033-0.0075) 0.021 (0.019-0.024) 0.070 (0.052-0.089) 0.11 (0.077-0.13)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 355 0 0.026 (0.022-0.031) 0.0070 (0.0050-0.0090) 0.027 (0.019-0.035) 0.088 (0.057-0.12) 0.13 (0.086-0.18)
3 (2012-2013) 349 2.87 0.027 (0.022-0.034) 0.0072 (0.0054-0.0090) 0.028 (0.020-0.036) 0.095Footnote E (0.057-0.13) 0.16Footnote E (0.088-0.24)
4 (2014-2015) 358 3.07 0.027 (0.022-0.033) 0.0065 (0.0043-0.0088) 0.030 (0.023-0.037) 0.099 (0.081-0.12) 0.13 (0.090-0.17)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 357 0 0.027 (0.023-0.032) 0.0082 (0.0056-0.011) 0.024 (0.018-0.029) 0.11 (0.085-0.14) 0.15Footnote E (0.097-0.21)
3 (2012-2013) 308 4.55 0.021 (0.017-0.025) 0.0045Footnote E (<LOD-0.0067) 0.019 (0.014-0.025) 0.090Footnote E (0.050-0.13) 0.12Footnote E (0.075-0.17)
4 (2014-2015) 311 1.93 0.023 (0.020-0.027) 0.0064 (0.0045-0.0084) 0.022Footnote E (0.013-0.031) 0.079Footnote E (0.035-0.12) Footnote F
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 287 0.35 0.023 (0.020-0.026) 0.0060 (0.0047-0.0074) 0.021 (0.017-0.026) 0.086Footnote E (0.054-0.12) 0.14Footnote E (0.075-0.21)
3 (2012-2013) 346 5.20 0.020 (0.016-0.024) 0.0047Footnote E (<LOD-0.0071) 0.018 (0.013-0.022) Footnote F 0.25Footnote E (0.12-0.39)
4 (2014-2015) 353 1.70 0.023 (0.020-0.028) 0.0060Footnote E (0.0038-0.0083) 0.021 (0.017-0.026) 0.099 (0.080-0.12) 0.14Footnote E (0.086-0.20)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

F Data is too unreliable to be published.

Table 14.7.8 - 4-Hydroxyphenanthrene (creatinine adjusted) - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2509 0.08 0.024 (0.022-0.027) 0.0094 (0.0085-0.010) 0.022 (0.019-0.025) 0.077 (0.060-0.093) 0.11 (0.085-0.14)
3 (2012-2013) 2494 4.33 0.022 (0.020-0.024) 0.0077 (0.0066-0.0088) 0.019 (0.016-0.021) 0.076 (0.067-0.085) 0.10 (0.083-0.12)
4 (2014-2015) 2504 2.52 0.021 (0.019-0.023) 0.0071 (0.0060-0.0082) 0.018 (0.015-0.020) 0.076 (0.066-0.085) 0.099 (0.084-0.11)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1262 0 0.023 (0.020-0.026) 0.0082 (0.0073-0.0091) 0.019 (0.015-0.023) 0.084 (0.061-0.11) 0.13 (0.087-0.17)
3 (2012-2013) 1236 3.32 0.020 (0.017-0.023) 0.0071 (0.0056-0.0087) 0.017 (0.014-0.019) 0.077 (0.063-0.091) 0.099 (0.081-0.12)
4 (2014-2015) 1248 2.32 0.019 (0.016-0.022) 0.0067 (0.0056-0.0077) 0.016 (0.013-0.018) 0.077Footnote E (0.047-0.11) 0.093 (0.075-0.11)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1247 0.16 0.026 (0.023-0.029) 0.0099 (0.0091-0.011) 0.025 (0.020-0.029) 0.066 (0.048-0.083) 0.10 (0.072-0.13)
3 (2012-2013) 1258 5.32 0.023 (0.021-0.026) 0.0081 (0.0069-0.0094) 0.022 (0.019-0.025) 0.076 (0.061-0.090) 0.11 (0.079-0.14)
4 (2014-2015) 1256 2.71 0.023 (0.020-0.026) 0.0081 (0.0068-0.0093) 0.021 (0.018-0.025) 0.075 (0.054-0.097) 0.11 (0.074-0.15)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 504 0 0.031 (0.027-0.035) 0.011 (0.0083-0.015) 0.027 (0.024-0.031) 0.084 (0.068-0.10) 0.099 (0.073-0.13)
3 (2012-2013) 487 4.30 0.026 (0.024-0.029) 0.011 (0.010-0.012) 0.023 (0.019-0.027) 0.068 (0.062-0.074) 0.095 (0.075-0.12)
4 (2014-2015) 475 3.16 0.023 (0.020-0.027) 0.0096 (<LOD-0.012) 0.023 (0.017-0.029) 0.056 (0.040-0.072) 0.077 (0.063-0.091)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 508 0 0.023 (0.019-0.026) 0.010 (0.0085-0.011) 0.019 (0.016-0.023) 0.060 (0.041-0.079) 0.080 (0.061-0.099)
3 (2012-2013) 500 4.40 0.018 (0.016-0.021) 0.0078 (0.0066-0.0089) 0.017 (0.014-0.020) 0.045 (0.040-0.050) 0.052 (0.043-0.061)
4 (2014-2015) 510 2.35 0.019 (0.017-0.021) 0.0080 (0.0061-0.0099) 0.016 (0.013-0.018) 0.054 (0.035-0.072) 0.075 (0.058-0.092)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 503 0.20 0.017 (0.016-0.020) 0.0080 (0.0071-0.0088) 0.015 (0.014-0.017) 0.044 (0.032-0.055) 0.059 (0.040-0.079)
3 (2012-2013) 504 4.56 0.016 (0.014-0.018) 0.0070 (0.0060-0.0080) 0.013 (0.011-0.016) 0.036 (0.025-0.047) Footnote F
4 (2014-2015) 497 2.62 0.015 (0.013-0.017) 0.0052 (0.0039-0.0065) 0.014 (0.011-0.016) 0.046 (0.033-0.059) 0.070 (0.047-0.094)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 353 0 0.023 (0.019-0.027) 0.0083 (0.0069-0.0096) 0.020 (0.015-0.024) 0.069Footnote E (0.041-0.097) 0.11Footnote E (0.066-0.16)
3 (2012-2013) 349 2.87 0.021 (0.017-0.026) 0.0080 (0.0064-0.0096) 0.017 (0.012-0.022) 0.077 (0.059-0.095) 0.093 (0.071-0.11)
4 (2014-2015) 358 3.07 0.021 (0.018-0.026) 0.0075 (0.0061-0.0089) 0.021 (0.017-0.026) 0.079 (0.055-0.10) 0.088 (0.071-0.10)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 355 0 0.027 (0.024-0.031) 0.0098 (0.0089-0.011) 0.025 (0.019-0.031) 0.091 (0.073-0.11) 0.14 (0.091-0.19)
3 (2012-2013) 308 4.55 0.024 (0.020-0.029) 0.0080 (<LOD-0.011) 0.024 (0.018-0.030) 0.083 (0.060-0.11) 0.11Footnote E (0.070-0.15)
4 (2014-2015) 311 1.93 0.021 (0.018-0.024) 0.0074 (0.0060-0.0088) 0.016 (0.011-0.021) 0.083 (0.055-0.11) 0.11Footnote E (<LOD-0.16)
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 286 0.35 0.027 (0.023-0.031) 0.0095 (0.0080-0.011) 0.027 (0.021-0.032) 0.081Footnote E (0.043-0.12) 0.13Footnote E (0.073-0.19)
3 (2012-2013) 346 5.20 0.023 (0.019-0.027) 0.0074 (<LOD-0.0090) 0.020 (0.015-0.024) 0.096Footnote E (0.059-0.13) 0.14Footnote E (0.075-0.21)
4 (2014-2015) 353 1.70 0.023 (0.019-0.027) 0.0079 (0.0054-0.011) 0.018 (0.016-0.020) 0.087Footnote E (0.043-0.13) 0.16Footnote E (0.077-0.24)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

F Data is too unreliable to be published.

Table 14.7.9 - 9-Hydroxyphenanthrene - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2474 5.86 0.039 (0.034-0.044) 0.0075 (0.0066-0.0084) 0.036 (0.029-0.043) 0.24 (0.18-0.31) 0.41 (0.33-0.49)
3 (2012-2013) 2295 3.66 0.036 (0.033-0.040) 0.0080 (0.0059-0.010) 0.034 (0.029-0.038) 0.19 (0.14-0.23) 0.32 (0.21-0.43)
4 (2014-2015) 2361 0.04 0.045 (0.041-0.050) 0.013 (0.012-0.015) 0.037 (0.034-0.040) 0.20Footnote E (0.12-0.28) 0.33 (0.25-0.41)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1249 5.44 0.043 (0.035-0.052) 0.0080 (0.0065-0.0094) 0.043 (0.033-0.053) 0.25Footnote E (0.15-0.35) 0.49 (0.32-0.65)
3 (2012-2013) 1155 2.60 0.040 (0.036-0.045) 0.0099 (0.0086-0.011) 0.037 (0.032-0.041) 0.19 (0.15-0.22) 0.26Footnote E (0.12-0.40)
4 (2014-2015) 1174 0.09 0.046 (0.039-0.055) 0.014 (0.012-0.016) 0.039 (0.031-0.047) Footnote F 0.36Footnote E (0.23-0.50)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1225 6.29 0.035 (0.031-0.040) 0.0070 (0.0053-0.0086) 0.032 (0.028-0.036) 0.23Footnote E (0.11-0.34) 0.38 (0.26-0.50)
3 (2012-2013) 1140 4.74 0.032 (0.026-0.039) 0.0070 (0.0045-0.0095) 0.032 (0.026-0.037) 0.19Footnote E (0.083-0.29) 0.39 (0.25-0.53)
4 (2014-2015) 1187 0 0.045 (0.039-0.051) 0.012 (0.010-0.015) 0.036 (0.032-0.040) 0.25Footnote E (0.14-0.36) 0.32 (0.25-0.39)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 490 11.43 0.018 (0.015-0.022) <LOD 0.020 (0.017-0.023) 0.072 (0.054-0.089) 0.095Footnote E (0.041-0.15)
3 (2012-2013) 426 4.46 0.019 (0.017-0.022) 0.0069Footnote E (<LOD-0.0099) 0.019 (0.015-0.023) 0.057 (0.042-0.072) 0.072 (0.051-0.093)
4 (2014-2015) 431 0.23 0.025 (0.023-0.028) 0.011 (0.010-0.013) 0.024 (0.021-0.026) 0.056 (0.050-0.063) 0.086 (0.067-0.10)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 502 5.78 0.019 (0.015-0.023) 0.0044Footnote E (<LOD-0.0075) 0.022 (0.017-0.026) 0.056 (0.043-0.069) 0.076 (0.055-0.097)
3 (2012-2013) 447 4.92 0.019 (0.017-0.022) 0.0058Footnote E (<LOD-0.0091) 0.021 (0.019-0.023) 0.048 (0.041-0.054) Footnote F
4 (2014-2015) 464 0 0.028 (0.025-0.031) 0.012 (0.011-0.014) 0.026 (0.024-0.029) 0.062 (0.046-0.079) 0.084Footnote E (0.051-0.12)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 499 5.41 0.027 (0.023-0.032) 0.0073 (0.0058-0.0089) 0.029 (0.023-0.035) 0.099 (0.076-0.12) 0.15Footnote E (0.092-0.20)
3 (2012-2013) 480 3.75 0.026 (0.021-0.031) 0.0070Footnote E (0.0040-0.0099) 0.022 (0.018-0.026) 0.10 (0.066-0.13) Footnote F
4 (2014-2015) 477 0 0.030 (0.027-0.034) 0.012 (0.0096-0.014) 0.028 (0.022-0.033) 0.078 (0.065-0.092) 0.092Footnote E (0.040-0.14)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 348 3.45 0.041 (0.034-0.050) 0.0088Footnote E (0.0055-0.012) 0.040 (0.030-0.050) 0.23Footnote E (0.088-0.38) 0.39Footnote E (0.20-0.58)
3 (2012-2013) 331 2.11 0.040 (0.031-0.051) 0.0094 (0.0072-0.012) 0.036 (0.030-0.043) 0.19 (0.13-0.25) 0.23Footnote E (0.088-0.36)
4 (2014-2015) 344 0 0.048 (0.039-0.059) 0.014 (0.010-0.017) 0.045 (0.036-0.054) 0.24Footnote E (0.10-0.37) 0.32 (0.23-0.42)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 350 3.14 0.049 (0.040-0.059) 0.0089 (0.0071-0.011) 0.045 (0.034-0.056) 0.31 (0.23-0.38) 0.48 (0.40-0.56)
3 (2012-2013) 287 4.18 0.041 (0.031-0.054) 0.0080 (0.0052-0.011) 0.043 (0.031-0.055) 0.22Footnote E (0.086-0.35) 0.38Footnote E (0.22-0.53)
4 (2014-2015) 302 0 0.050 (0.041-0.061) 0.014 (0.012-0.016) 0.040 (0.032-0.048) 0.27Footnote E (0.11-0.44) Footnote F
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 285 3.51 0.043 (0.033-0.056) 0.0065Footnote E (<LOD-0.0092) 0.035 (0.024-0.045) 0.31Footnote E (0.19-0.42) 0.60Footnote E (0.34-0.85)
3 (2012-2013) 324 1.85 0.041 (0.034-0.050) Footnote F 0.040 (0.031-0.049) 0.28Footnote E (0.076-0.49) Footnote F
4 (2014-2015) 343 0 0.054 (0.046-0.065) 0.014 (0.011-0.017) 0.040 (0.026-0.054) 0.30 (0.21-0.38) 0.41Footnote E (0.24-0.59)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

F Data is too unreliable to be published.

Table 14.7.10 - 9-Hydroxyphenanthrene (creatinine adjusted) - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2464 5.86 0.039 (0.034-0.044) 0.010 (0.0091-0.011) 0.032 (0.026-0.038) 0.22 (0.16-0.28) 0.34 (0.26-0.42)
3 (2012-2013) 2294 3.66 0.037 (0.034-0.041) 0.011 (0.0095-0.012) 0.032 (0.028-0.037) 0.17 (0.13-0.21) 0.29 (0.20-0.38)
4 (2014-2015) 2361 0.04 0.041 (0.038-0.044) 0.014 (0.013-0.015) 0.032 (0.028-0.035) 0.19 (0.16-0.23) 0.29 (0.22-0.36)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1245 5.44 0.037 (0.030-0.045) 0.0099 (0.0077-0.012) 0.029 (0.022-0.035) 0.23Footnote E (0.14-0.33) 0.38 (0.27-0.48)
3 (2012-2013) 1155 2.60 0.033 (0.028-0.040) 0.0097 (0.0079-0.012) 0.030 (0.023-0.037) 0.16 (0.11-0.21) 0.23 (0.16-0.30)
4 (2014-2015) 1174 0.09 0.036 (0.031-0.042) 0.012 (0.011-0.014) 0.029 (0.026-0.031) 0.19Footnote E (0.11-0.27) 0.25 (0.16-0.33)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1219 6.29 0.041 (0.035-0.048) 0.010Footnote E (0.0060-0.014) 0.035 (0.027-0.043) 0.21Footnote E (0.13-0.29) 0.29Footnote E (0.18-0.39)
3 (2012-2013) 1139 4.74 0.041 (0.037-0.046) 0.012 (0.010-0.013) 0.035 (0.030-0.039) 0.21Footnote E (0.12-0.30) 0.39 (0.25-0.53)
4 (2014-2015) 1187 0 0.046 (0.040-0.054) 0.016 (0.014-0.017) 0.036 (0.030-0.041) 0.20Footnote E (0.11-0.29) 0.34Footnote E (0.18-0.51)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 489 11.43 0.032 (0.027-0.037) <LOD 0.037 (0.030-0.043) 0.11 (0.086-0.13) 0.14Footnote E (0.086-0.20)
3 (2012-2013) 425 4.46 0.037 (0.035-0.040) 0.017 (<LOD-0.020) 0.036 (0.032-0.040) 0.081 (0.066-0.095) 0.10 (0.086-0.12)
4 (2014-2015) 431 0.23 0.046 (0.043-0.050) 0.024 (0.023-0.026) 0.043 (0.037-0.048) 0.094 (0.083-0.10) 0.11 (0.096-0.13)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 500 5.78 0.022 (0.018-0.027) 0.0068Footnote E (<LOD-0.010) 0.025 (0.021-0.029) 0.053 (0.044-0.063) 0.071 (0.050-0.093)
3 (2012-2013) 447 4.92 0.025 (0.022-0.028) 0.012 (<LOD-0.015) 0.023 (0.020-0.025) 0.057 (0.046-0.069) 0.082Footnote E (0.037-0.13)
4 (2014-2015) 464 0 0.031 (0.028-0.034) 0.016 (0.015-0.018) 0.028 (0.025-0.031) 0.060 (0.047-0.073) Footnote F
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 497 5.41 0.021 (0.018-0.024) 0.0076 (0.0060-0.0092) 0.020 (0.017-0.022) 0.059Footnote E (0.037-0.082) 0.087Footnote E (0.043-0.13)
3 (2012-2013) 480 3.75 0.019 (0.017-0.022) 0.0087 (0.0071-0.010) 0.016 (0.014-0.018) 0.056Footnote E (0.030-0.082) 0.097Footnote E (0.042-0.15)
4 (2014-2015) 477 0 0.022 (0.020-0.025) 0.010 (0.0091-0.011) 0.020 (0.017-0.022) 0.047Footnote E (0.027-0.067) 0.086Footnote E (0.029-0.14)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 346 3.45 0.037 (0.029-0.047) 0.010Footnote E (0.0047-0.015) 0.028 (0.020-0.035) 0.26Footnote E (0.11-0.41) 0.36Footnote E (0.22-0.51)
3 (2012-2013) 331 2.11 0.030 (0.023-0.040) 0.010 (0.0066-0.013) 0.025Footnote E (0.012-0.038) 0.12Footnote E (0.048-0.20) 0.17Footnote E (0.093-0.25)
4 (2014-2015) 344 0 0.039 (0.031-0.049) 0.013 (0.011-0.015) 0.032 (0.021-0.042) 0.17Footnote E (0.089-0.25) 0.25Footnote E (0.14-0.36)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 348 3.14 0.049 (0.040-0.060) 0.012Footnote E (0.0067-0.018) 0.043 (0.030-0.056) 0.25 (0.19-0.31) 0.40Footnote E (0.25-0.55)
3 (2012-2013) 287 4.18 0.048 (0.038-0.060) 0.011 (0.0076-0.015) 0.042Footnote E (0.024-0.061) 0.24Footnote E (0.10-0.37) 0.39Footnote E (0.23-0.56)
4 (2014-2015) 302 0 0.046 (0.039-0.055) 0.014 (0.012-0.016) 0.033 (0.022-0.043) 0.25 (0.17-0.34) 0.33Footnote E (<LOD-0.56)
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 284 3.51 0.051 (0.040-0.064) 0.013Footnote E (<LOD-0.019) 0.039Footnote E (0.023-0.056) 0.29Footnote E (0.18-0.40) Footnote F
3 (2012-2013) 324 1.85 0.048 (0.040-0.058) 0.013 (<LOD-0.017) 0.041 (0.031-0.051) 0.25Footnote E (0.14-0.36) 0.37Footnote E (0.21-0.54)
4 (2014-2015) 343 0 0.053 (0.045-0.061) 0.017 (0.015-0.019) 0.039 (0.030-0.049) 0.23Footnote E (0.089-0.38) 0.47Footnote E (0.20-0.73)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

F Data is too unreliable to be published.

14.8 Pyrene

Pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with four fused benzene rings. Pyrene is used as an intermediate in the synthesis of dyes and fluorescent molecular probes for biomedical research (WHO, 1998).

Pyrene absorption occurs rapidly in the respiratory tract, but more slowly through the gastrointestinal tract and skin (Faust, 1993c). After oral administration in rats, pyrene has been found predominantly in the gastrointestinal tract (Mitchell and Tu, 1979). 1-Hydroxypyrene has been identified as the primary metabolite of pyrene (IARC, 2010). In humans, urinary elimination of 1-hydroxypyrene is triphasic with half-lives of 5, 22, and 408 hours (ACGIH, 2005). Monitoring studies of pyrene exposure can measure urinary levels of 1-hydroxypyrene to assess recent and chronic exposures (Becker et al., 2003; CDC, 2009; Hopf et al., 2009; Jongeneelen et al., 1985). Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene may also serve as a useful biomarker for total PAH exposure, given that pyrene is found in most PAH mixtures (Hopf et al., 2009; WHO, 1998).

Subchronic oral exposure to pyrene results in kidney and liver effects in laboratory animals, and the liver has been suggested as the main target organ for toxicity (Faust, 1993c; TRL, 1989). Because the carcinogenic evidence is limited, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified pyrene as Group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (IARC, 2010).

1-Hydroxypyrene was measured in the urine of 73 non-smoking, non-occupationally exposed residents (aged 16-64 years) living approximately 1 km from an aluminum plant in Baie-Comeau, Quebec. The geometric mean levels ranged from 0.090 to 0.111 µg/g creatinine, compared with from 0.048 to 0.077 µg/g creatinine for 71 control individuals living at least 11 km from the plant (Bouchard et al., 2009). In a pilot biomonitoring study carried out in Hamilton, Ontario, with 19 pregnant women aged 19-42 years, the geometric means for 1-hydroxypyrene in urine was 0.1359 µg/g creatinine (Nethery et al., 2012).

1-Hydroxypyrene was analyzed in the urine of Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013), and cycle 4 (2014-2015) participants aged 3-79 years, and is presented as both µg/L and µg/g creatinine. Finding a measurable amount of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine is an indicator of exposure to pyrene and does not necessarily mean that an adverse health effect will occur.

Table 14.8.1 - 1-Hydroxypyrene - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2422 0.04 0.11 (0.099-0.12) 0.031 (0.027-0.034) 0.10 (0.092-0.11) 0.35 (0.31-0.39) 0.57 (0.47-0.68)
3 (2012-2013) 2410 0.04 0.088 (0.078-0.10) 0.027 (0.020-0.035) 0.087 (0.078-0.096) 0.31 (0.26-0.35) 0.46 (0.38-0.55)
4 (2014-2015) 2409 0.04 0.096 (0.087-0.11) 0.028 (0.025-0.031) 0.093 (0.083-0.10) 0.29 (0.23-0.35) 0.51 (0.40-0.63)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1206 0 0.12 (0.11-0.14) 0.040 (0.034-0.045) 0.12 (0.10-0.13) 0.38 (0.25-0.50) 0.59 (0.46-0.73)
3 (2012-2013) 1178 0.08 0.10 (0.090-0.12) 0.033 (0.023-0.042) 0.094 (0.088-0.10) 0.36 (0.30-0.43) 0.52 (0.45-0.60)
4 (2014-2015) 1186 0 0.10 (0.086-0.12) 0.034 (0.025-0.042) 0.093 (0.080-0.11) 0.32Footnote E (0.16-0.48) 0.52 (0.38-0.66)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1216 0.08 0.095 (0.088-0.10) 0.026 (0.021-0.031) 0.095 (0.085-0.10) 0.33 (0.28-0.37) 0.48 (0.34-0.62)
3 (2012-2013) 1232 0 0.077 (0.064-0.092) 0.022Footnote E (0.014-0.031) 0.077 (0.061-0.093) 0.26 (0.21-0.30) 0.36 (0.25-0.48)
4 (2014-2015) 1223 0.08 0.090 (0.082-0.099) 0.024 (0.019-0.029) 0.093 (0.081-0.10) 0.29 (0.25-0.32) 0.49Footnote E (0.30-0.69)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 504 0 0.12 (0.11-0.13) 0.050 (0.041-0.059) 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.27 (0.20-0.34) 0.40 (0.30-0.51)
3 (2012-2013) 493 0 0.093 (0.077-0.11) 0.029 (0.023-0.036) 0.098 (0.081-0.12) 0.26 (0.21-0.31) 0.31 (0.25-0.37)
4 (2014-2015) 476 0 0.093 (0.078-0.11) 0.030 (0.020-0.041) 0.096 (0.078-0.11) 0.23 (0.19-0.27) 0.33Footnote E (0.21-0.46)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 507 0 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 0.049 (0.039-0.058) 0.12 (0.096-0.14) 0.34 (0.25-0.42) 0.47 (0.34-0.60)
3 (2012-2013) 501 0 0.092 (0.084-0.10) 0.032 (0.024-0.039) 0.097 (0.088-0.11) 0.21 (0.16-0.26) 0.28 (0.22-0.33)
4 (2014-2015) 510 0 0.099 (0.088-0.11) 0.035 (0.026-0.044) 0.097 (0.084-0.11) 0.25 (0.22-0.28) 0.33 (0.26-0.41)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 480 0 0.15 (0.14-0.17) 0.050Footnote E (0.031-0.069) 0.15 (0.13-0.17) 0.44 (0.36-0.52) 0.62 (0.45-0.79)
3 (2012-2013) 473 0 0.12 (0.097-0.14) 0.040Footnote E (0.024-0.057) 0.11 (0.092-0.13) 0.34 (0.24-0.43) 0.47 (0.34-0.60)
4 (2014-2015) 462 0.22 0.11 (0.087-0.13) 0.032 (0.021-0.042) 0.10 (0.083-0.12) 0.33 (0.21-0.44) 0.47 (0.31-0.63)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 327 0 0.13 (0.11-0.15) 0.041 (0.027-0.054) 0.12 (0.10-0.14) 0.35 (0.29-0.42) 0.48Footnote E (0.27-0.69)
3 (2012-2013) 308 0 0.12 (0.10-0.15) 0.037 (0.025-0.048) 0.11 (0.077-0.15) 0.36 (0.25-0.47) Footnote F
4 (2014-2015) 329 0 0.12 (0.10-0.13) 0.030Footnote E (0.019-0.042) 0.12 (0.092-0.15) 0.31Footnote E (0.13-0.49) 0.55 (0.40-0.69)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 329 0.30 0.10 (0.084-0.12) 0.026Footnote E (0.012-0.039) 0.094 (0.076-0.11) 0.44Footnote E (0.22-0.65) 0.58 (0.47-0.69)
3 (2012-2013) 296 0 0.080 (0.067-0.095) 0.027Footnote E (0.016-0.039) 0.079 (0.063-0.095) 0.26Footnote E (0.14-0.38) 0.43Footnote E (0.26-0.60)
4 (2014-2015) 293 0 0.095 (0.082-0.11) 0.029 (0.026-0.033) 0.092 (0.072-0.11) 0.37Footnote E (0.22-0.52) 0.87Footnote E (0.28-1.5)
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 275 0 0.067 (0.057-0.079) 0.024 (0.018-0.030) 0.062 (0.048-0.076) 0.20 (0.16-0.24) Footnote F
3 (2012-2013) 339 0.29 0.064 (0.051-0.081) 0.015Footnote E (0.0086-0.022) 0.060 (0.041-0.079) 0.31 (0.20-0.41) 0.50Footnote E (0.29-0.71)
4 (2014-2015) 339 0 0.072 (0.064-0.081) 0.022 (0.019-0.025) 0.067 (0.060-0.075) 0.26 (0.20-0.31) 0.35Footnote E (0.22-0.48)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

F Data is too unreliable to be published.

Table 14.8.2 - 1-Hydroxypyrene (creatinine adjusted) - Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3-79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009-2011), cycle 3 (2012-2013) and cycle 4 (2014-2015).
Cycle n %<LODFootnote a GM (95% CI) 10th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 90th (95% CI) 95th (95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 2412 0.04 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.045 (0.042-0.048) 0.099 (0.096-0.10) 0.28 (0.24-0.33) 0.40 (0.31-0.50)
3 (2012-2013) 2409 0.04 0.094 (0.084-0.10) 0.034 (0.028-0.040) 0.088 (0.079-0.096) 0.25 (0.20-0.29) 0.36 (0.24-0.47)
4 (2014-2015) 2409 0.04 0.088 (0.078-0.098) 0.036 (0.030-0.042) 0.078 (0.065-0.091) 0.24 (0.21-0.27) 0.34 (0.30-0.38)
Males, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1202 0 0.11 (0.093-0.12) 0.042 (0.036-0.047) 0.098 (0.091-0.10) 0.31 (0.24-0.39) 0.43Footnote E (0.28-0.59)
3 (2012-2013) 1178 0.08 0.089 (0.076-0.10) 0.030 (0.020-0.039) 0.087 (0.075-0.099) 0.25 (0.18-0.31) 0.35 (0.26-0.44)
4 (2014-2015) 1186 0 0.082 (0.067-0.099) 0.034 (0.027-0.040) 0.071 (0.052-0.089) 0.23 (0.15-0.30) 0.33 (0.25-0.42)
Females, 3-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 1210 0.08 0.11 (0.10-0.12) 0.048 (0.044-0.052) 0.099 (0.094-0.11) 0.26 (0.21-0.31) 0.38 (0.28-0.49)
3 (2012-2013) 1231 0 0.099 (0.087-0.11) 0.038 (0.027-0.049) 0.088 (0.071-0.11) 0.25 (0.19-0.30) 0.42Footnote E (0.23-0.60)
4 (2014-2015) 1223 0.08 0.094 (0.083-0.11) 0.041 (0.034-0.048) 0.085 (0.074-0.096) 0.24 (0.21-0.28) 0.36 (0.29-0.43)
3-5 years
2 (2009-2011) 503 0 0.21 (0.20-0.23) 0.11 (0.089-0.12) 0.20 (0.18-0.23) 0.41 (0.35-0.46) 0.51 (0.42-0.60)
3 (2012-2013) 492 0 0.18 (0.16-0.20) 0.094 (0.078-0.11) 0.17 (0.15-0.20) 0.34 (0.28-0.41) 0.43 (0.38-0.49)
4 (2014-2015) 476 0 0.17 (0.15-0.19) 0.082 (0.074-0.091) 0.16 (0.14-0.19) 0.33 (0.27-0.40) 0.38Footnote E (0.24-0.52)
6-11 years
2 (2009-2011) 505 0 0.15 (0.13-0.16) 0.074 (0.063-0.085) 0.14 (0.12-0.15) 0.28 (0.22-0.34) 0.37 (0.26-0.49)
3 (2012-2013) 501 0 0.12 (0.11-0.13) 0.066 (0.057-0.074) 0.11 (0.091-0.12) 0.21 (0.17-0.25) 0.27 (0.23-0.31)
4 (2014-2015) 510 0 0.11 (0.097-0.12) 0.055 (0.047-0.063) 0.097 (0.091-0.10) 0.22 (0.18-0.26) 0.33Footnote E (0.19-0.48)
12-19 years
2 (2009-2011) 478 0 0.12 (0.10-0.13) 0.056 (0.051-0.062) 0.10 (0.091-0.12) 0.28 (0.20-0.37) 0.39Footnote E (0.21-0.57)
3 (2012-2013) 473 0 0.089 (0.073-0.11) 0.044 (0.031-0.057) 0.087 (0.074-0.10) 0.19Footnote E (0.12-0.26) 0.26Footnote E (0.15-0.37)
4 (2014-2015) 462 0.22 0.076 (0.063-0.092) 0.035 (0.028-0.041) 0.073 (0.059-0.087) 0.18Footnote E (0.10-0.26) 0.27Footnote E (0.17-0.37)
20-39 years
2 (2009-2011) 325 0 0.12 (0.096-0.14) 0.050 (0.035-0.065) 0.10 (0.083-0.12) 0.28 (0.18-0.38) 0.41 (0.27-0.54)
3 (2012-2013) 308 0 0.10 (0.087-0.12) 0.036 (0.026-0.047) 0.099 (0.087-0.11) 0.26Footnote E (0.083-0.44) 0.54Footnote E (0.20-0.88)
4 (2014-2015) 329 0 0.096 (0.083-0.11) 0.048 (0.039-0.057) 0.090 (0.071-0.11) 0.20 (0.17-0.23) 0.23Footnote E (0.13-0.34)
40-59 years
2 (2009-2011) 327 0.30 0.10 (0.090-0.12) 0.043 (0.039-0.047) 0.094 (0.085-0.10) 0.33 (0.25-0.41) 0.59Footnote E (0.24-0.94)
3 (2012-2013) 296 0 0.093 (0.080-0.11) 0.033Footnote E (0.020-0.046) 0.088 (0.074-0.10) 0.26Footnote E (0.15-0.37) 0.38Footnote E (0.20-0.56)
4 (2014-2015) 293 0 0.086 (0.075-0.099) 0.034 (0.025-0.043) 0.070 (0.057-0.084) 0.30 (0.22-0.38) 0.36Footnote E (0.12-0.60)
60-79 years
2 (2009-2011) 274 0 0.079 (0.069-0.091) 0.035 (0.028-0.042) 0.078 (0.072-0.084) 0.16 (0.13-0.20) 0.23Footnote E (<LOD-0.36)
3 (2012-2013) 339 0.29 0.073 (0.060-0.090) 0.028 (0.023-0.034) 0.062 (0.050-0.075) 0.23 (0.16-0.30) 0.35 (0.23-0.48)
4 (2014-2015) 339 0 0.070 (0.058-0.084) 0.028 (0.023-0.034) 0.062 (0.052-0.072) 0.24Footnote E (0.15-0.33) 0.37Footnote E (0.19-0.54)

a If >40% of samples were below the LOD, the percentile distribution is reported but means were not calculated.

E Use data with caution.

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